celebrating humanity the english renaissance 1485-1625 mrs. cumberland

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  • Celebrating Humanity The English Renaissance 1485-1625 Mrs. Cumberland
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  • The Age of Exploration Thirst for knowledge prompted a great burst of exploration by sea. Navigators ventured far and wide, aided by the compass
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  • 1407: Italian-born explorer John Cabot reached Newfoundland (an island off the east coast of what is now Canada) 1492: Columbuss arrival in the Western Hemisphere
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  • John Cabot Columbus
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  • Religion A growing sense of nationalism led many Europeans to question the authority of the Roman Catholic Church. Many people had grievances against the Church. Some felt the Church officials were corrupt; others questioned Church teachings and hierarchy
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  • Religion The edition of the New Testament by scholar Desiderius Erasmus raised serious questions about standard interpretations of the Bible. Because of his friendship with English writers as Thomas More, Erasmus focused attention on issues of morality and religion that continued to be central concerns
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  • Religion Although Erasmus remained a Catholic, he helped pave the way for a split in the Church that began in 1517, when a German monk named Martin Luther nailed a list of dissenting beliefs to the door of a church.
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  • Deep Roots 16th century desire to reform Christian institutions had deep roots. 1300s, power struggle and corruption in the church and the anxieties of the plague encourages people to look for new inspiration John Wycliffe argued that the Bible, not the Pope, was the true authority in religious matters Later, Martin Luther attacked the Churchs practice of promising salvation for donations. Only faith, he argued, not works, could save souls
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  • In Henry VIIIs England, such radical ideas had won favor even among the respectable. When the Pope, afraid to offend Henry VIIIs wifes powerful relatives (Catherine of Aragon was the daughter of Spanish monarchs), denied Henrys request for an annulment, the stage had been set. Henry took control of the Church of England
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  • Modern Modern people believe that the sun, not the Earth, is at the center of the solar system The whole notion of a Center of the universe has become problematic. Ptolemys universe is limited. Modern scientist hypothesize that the universe is infinite
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  • Ptolemy: Earth centered model of the universe
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  • The Tudors 1485 Tudor dynasty Monarchs assured stability by increasing their own power and undercutting the strength of nobles. At the same time, they dramatically changed Englands religious practices and helped transform the country from a small island nation into one of the worlds great powers.
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  • The first Tudor monarch Henry VII, inherited England that had been depleted and exhausted by years of civil war. By the time he died in 1509, he had rebuilt the nations treasury and established law and order. He restored the prestige of the monarchy and set the stage for his successors.
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  • Henry VIII Practicing Catholic Wrote a book against Martin Luther Pope granted him the title Defender of the Faith This good rapport with the Pope did not last long
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  • The losing relationship with the Pope and Henry VIII Henry VIII married Catherine of Aragon, but she did not produce a son. Henry tried to obtain an annulment so that he could marry Anne Boleyn. Pope refused He remarried anyway The defiance of the papal authority led to an open break with the Roman Catholic Church
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  • The seizing Henry VIII seized the Catholic Churchs English property and dissolved the powerful monasteries. He even had his former friend and leading advisor, Thomas More, executed because More had refused to renounce his Catholic faith Henry married 6 times His first 2 marriages: two daughters: Mary and Elizabeth His third wife, Jane Seymour: son: Edward Edward was still a child when Henry died in 1547
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  • Religious Turmoil Henry VIIIs son became King Edward VI at the age of 9 and died at 15 During this time, a series of parliamentary acts dramatically changed the nations religious practices
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  • Change English replaced Latin in church ritual The Anglican prayer Book, the Book of Common Prayers, became required in public worship By the time of Edwards death in 1553, England was well on its way to becoming a Protestant nation
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  • The Comeback When Edwards half sister Mary took the throne: She restored Roman practices to the Church of England. She restored the authority of the Pope over the English Church Ordering the execution of about 300 Protestants, Queen Mary earned the nickname Bloody Mary
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  • The Book of Common Prayer Published in 1549, was a radical departure from the past and would influence English literature in times to come. The new church of England needed standard texts for prayer and services Thomas Cranmer prepared these texts in English The solemn Latin of Catholic Church services had been replaced by the plain, everyday speech of England.
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  • The Spanish Armada During this period, England supported Protestant Dutch rebels against Catholic Spain, the superpower of the day Spanish ships returning from the New World loaded with treasure were attacked by English raiders like Sir Francis Drake. Spain finally sent a fleet of 130 battle ships, called the Armada, to invade England in 1588 Many ships surviving were wrecked by storms when they fled
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  • Elizabeth I Half sister to Mary I She received a Renaissance education and had read widely in the Greek and Latin classics. A great patron of the arts She gathered around the best writers of her day.
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  • Elizabeth I Put an end to religious turmoil Reestablished the monarchs supremacy over the Church of England Restored the Book of Common Prayer Instituted a policy of religious compromise, enforcing reforms that she felt both moderate Catholics and Protestants could accept
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  • Outstanding Problem Mary Stuart ( cousin to Elizabeth I) queen of Scotland by birth and next in line for the throne of England. Catholics did not recognize Henry VIIIs marriage to Elizabeths mother, Anne Boleyn, they considered Mary Staurt the queen of England.
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  • Imprisonment Mary was imprisoned by Elizabeth I for 18 years. Mary instigated numerous Catholic plots against her. Following the recommendations of her advisors, Elizabeth stepped up up punishment of the Catholics but let her royal cousin live. Finally, Parliament insisted on Marys execution She was beheaded in 1587, a Catholic martyr
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  • Fashion Noblemen were arrayed like peacocks in close-fitting jackets and wide collars that seemed to serve up their heads on plates of lace. Noblewomen looked like dolls on display Tightly laced into dresses that resembled giant bells
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  • Clothing
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  • Masques The life of the court was marked by elaborate courtesy, wit, and finery. The culture of display reached its height in the masques, courtly entertainment in which masked, costumed actors used verse, dance, and music to present characters such as Greek gods or shepherds
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  • Elizabeth I helped settle questions about the fitness of women to rule by cultivating an image as the Virgin Queen. The masques presented at her court confirmed and celebrated this image Give examples of semi- theatrical events in modern American politics The President lights the White House Christmas tree
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  • The Protestant Reformation Fueled by political discontent, the Reformation swept through much of Europe. Led to frequent wars between European nations whose rulers had opposing religious beliefs. Protestants were divided, and in Germany the followers of Luther ( called Lutherans) persecuted the followers of John Calvin (Calvanists)
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  • Stuarts and Puritans A new dynasty- Stuarts- came to the throne after Elizabeth died in 1603 Determined to avoid a dispute over the throne and a return of civil strife, Elizabeth named King James VI of Scotland as her successor, making him James I of England. His claim to the throne rested on his descent from King Henry VII of England through his mother, Mary Stuart, Elizabeth sold antagonist James was a Protestant
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  • Jacobean Era The Jacobean Era is described through James I reign. He took measures to expand Englands position as a world power, sponsoring the establishment of its first successful American colony- Jamestown, Virginia
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  • James I James and Parliament struggled for power, a conflict that would later erupt into war. Guided by divine right of kings James I treated Parliament with contempt, and they fought over taxes and foreign wars. James I also persecuted the Puritans, who were strongly represented in the House of Commons. Prompted by the kings religious intolerance, a group of Puritans migrated to America


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