the english renaissance 1485-1625. the renaissance period end of the war of the roses (medieval pd)...
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The English Renaissance1485-1625
The Renaissance PeriodEnd of the War of the Roses (Medieval Pd)
time of monarchs and religious transformation
England was a refuge from war and the envy of other nations (prior to this time, the land was in near constant war and chaos)
Shakespeares poem page 200a Garden of Edena paradisea refuge from warblessedthe envy of other countries
What is a renaissance?Renaissance rebirth
time of artistic, literary, and intellectual developments
began in Florence, Italy in the 14th century
continued throughout Europe until 1660
Characteristics of the RenaissanceWhy are human beings on earth? What happens when we die?Humanities CurriculumPrinting Pressthe vernacular (local language)
The result of all this restructured England and people grew curious about mans potential.
Exploration the thirst for knowledgeCrusadesopened routes to Asia trade and further explorationSpain and Portugalsought all sea routeColumbus discovered new world in 1492 (America)EnglandJohn Cabot reached Newfoundland in 1497basis for future claims in America
Protestant ReformationPeople began to question the authority of the Roman Catholic ChurchMartin Lutherdivided the Roman Catholic Church into Protestants and CatholicsLutheransPresbyteriansCalvansReligious prosecution
The Tudor Dynasty(1485-1603)Henry VII
inherited England after the War of the Roses, when the country was depleted and exhausted
rebuilt the nations treasury and established law and order
The Tudor Dynasty(cont.)Henry VIIICatholicDefender of the Faithshunned by Catholic ChurchAct of Supremacymarried 6 times totalCatherine of AragonMary IAnne BoleynElizabeth IJane SeymourEdward VI
The Tudor Dynasty(cont.)Edward VIProtestant9 year old king; died @ 15
The Tudor Dynasty(cont.)Mary I
King Phillip II
The Tudor Dynasty(cont.)Elizabeth IProtestantlast of the TudorsRenaissance educationreligious moderationensured peace in Englandnot recognized by CatholicsSpanish Armada
The Stuart DynastyJames VIProtestantJamestown, VAreligious intolerance
Renaissance AchievementsEducational InstitutionsUniversities of Oxford and CambridgeArchitectureAnglican hymnsEnglish MadrigalOxford University
Elizabethan PoetsWilliam ShakespeareChristopher MarloweEdmund SpenserPhillip SydneySir Walter Raleigh
Elizabethan DramaChange of subjects from religion to:TragediesComediesIncluded:ImageryRich languagePoets:William ShakespeareChristopher Marlowe
Elizabethan ProseKing James Biblethe printing was ordered by King James
*The Tudor Dynasty ended the War of the Roses and the Medieval Period
Monarchs fought for sole power and changed religious practices / whatever religion the monarch was the became the governing religion of the people
Shakespeare describes England as a Garden of Eden, a paradise and the envy of other nations
The crusades of Greece and Rome inspired new learning and growth in the areas of literature, art, and intellect. New generations of scholars and artists explored and extended achievements.
*Religion of the middle ages gave way to an interest in human beings place and purpose
The new learning and achievements gave way to a well-rounded education at universities (included history, geography, poetry, and modern languages)
The printing press made books more available people were motivated to learn to read and write people became educated education equals more questions
Writers began working in local dialects more understandable (schools still taught in Latin and Greek)
The exploration and developments of the Renaissance restructured Englands political system and economic standing. As more education was gained, curiosity about human potential (mind and culture) grew.*Why explore? To fulfill the thirst for knowledge (first time people began to question and wonder)
*What brought about the Prot.Ref? people began to question the authority of the Roman Catholic Church (sale of indulgences paying for the remission of sins) and its teachings
Martin Luther (a German Monk) nailed a list of dissenting beliefs to the door of a German Church. He only meant to question the RC Church, but he divided it into Prot and Cath.
Other religious sects further subdivided
Political officials prosecuted citizens who believed differently than they did therefore religion divided the people. *The Tudor Dynasty was a time of stability and economic growth.People feared civil war because they saw economic change as a threat of the return the way things were during The War of the Roses.
*Son of Henry VII
Pope coined him Defender of the Faith because he wrote a book against Martin Luther
Because his first marriage did not grant him a son, he asked for an annulment and was denied by the Pope, but he remarried anyway, which led to an open break with the Roman Catholic Church.
Act of Supremacy (1534) king assumed full control of the Church of England, severing all ties from Rome. Therefore, Henry became the Supreme Head of the Church of England and seized the property of the Catholic Church and dissolved the power of the monasteries.
Catherine of Aragon had Mary IMary I had Mary StuartMary Stuart had James VI
*Son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour - he takes throne over eldest child because hes a boy
Instituted parliamentary acts that changed Englands religious practices from Catholic to Protestant Book of Common Prayer (Anglican Prayer book) and English replaced Latin*Daugther of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon
Restored Roman Catholic practices and the Popes authority over the English church
Married her Spanish cousin (Phillip II), making England an appendage of Spain (unpatriotic)
Nicknamed Bloody Mary because she repressed Protestants by ordering over 200 executions*Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn
Died unmarried and childless
Received Renaissance Education (well rounded) so had great appreciation for the arts and humanities. Her reign secured the height of the Renaissance.
Instituted a policy of religious moderation reestablished the monarchs supremacy in the Church of England and restored the Book of Common Prayer
Played Spain and France (by dangling offers of marriage) against each other so they didnt conquer England
Catholics didnt recognize Henry VIIIs marriage to Anne Boleyn (Elizabeths mother) since he was never granted an annulment and, instead, saw Mary Stuart (daughter of Mary, daughter of Catherine of Aragon) as the riteful queen. Mary was held prisoner in England for 19 years because of her plots against Elizabeth and was finally executed in 1587.
Spain rejected Englands claim to territories in the Americas and resented English adventures attacks on Spanish ships. When England executed Mary Stuart, King Phillip saw it as the last straw and attacked England with 150 ships. After an 8 day battle in the English Channel, England won, finally marking itself as a great power.
*King of Scotland and son of Mary Stuart; Elizabeth named him her successor.
Protestant, unlike his mother
Sponsored first American Colony.
Believed in the Divine Right of Kings therefore argued with Parliament and overpowered them. He also prosecuted Puritans, who were strongly represented in the House of Commons, due to his religious intolerance. The Puritans fled migration to Plymouth Rock (1621)
*English public schools (what we would call private school today)
Universities were improved and expanded
Architects designed and constructed beautiful mansions
Hymns for the Anglican church service
English Madrigal love song w/o musical accompaniament