the english renaissance 1485-1625. the coming of the renaissance the renaissance was a flowering...
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The English Renaissance
The English Renaissance1485-1625The Coming of the RenaissanceThe Renaissance was a flowering of literary, artistic and intellectual development that began in Italy in the fourteenth century.It was inspired by the arts and scholarship of ancient Greece and Rome, which were rediscovered during the CrusadesKey Characteristics of the RenaissanceReligious devotion of the Middle Ages gave way to interest in the human beings place on this earth Universities introduced a new curriculum, the humanities, including history, geography, poetry, and languagesInvention of printing made books more availableMore writers began using the vernacularFigures of the RenaissanceMostly ItaliansDante, author of The Divine ComedyPetrarch, wrote lyric poetry in the form of sonnetsLeonardo Da Vinci, a painter, sculptor, architect, and scientistDa Vinci typifies a Renaissance mana person of broad education and interests whose curiosity knew no bounds.The Age of ExplorationRenaissance thirst for knowledge lead to a great burst of exploration.Crusades opened routes to Asia soon monopolized by Italian merchants.Explorers from other nations searched for all-sea routes aided by compass and advances in astronomy.Culminated in Columbuss discovery of the New World in 1492--colonizationEngland in the Age of Exploration1497Italian-born John Cabot reached Newfoundland (an island off the coast of Canada) and perhaps the mainland
Cabot laid the basis for future English claims in North America.
The Protestant Reformation: Questioning the Catholic ChurchA growing sense of nationalism led many to question the authority of the church.Complaints:the sale of indulgencespayment to the church (like taxes)church leaders favored Mediterranean powers over northerly countriesthe educated questioned the Church teachings and hierarchy
Results of the Protestant ReformationSwept through EuropeFrequent wars between rulers with different beliefsPersecution of Catholics and ProtestantsDivision of ProtestantsLutherans and Calvinists (Puritans and Presbyterian sects)Tudor EnglandTudor dynasty ruled from 1485-1603.Time of stability and economic expansionLondon a metropolis of 180,000 peopleMany saw the changes as a threat to the old familiar waysFeared new outbreaks of civil strife (War of the Roses) Henry VIIFirst Tudor monarchInherited an England depleted by civil warBefore his death in 1509, he rebuilt the treasury and established law and order.Henry VII restored the prestige of the monarchy and set the stage for his successors.
Signature of Henry VIIHenry VIIICatholic (even wrote a book against Luther)Relationship with the Pope did not lastMarriage to Catherine of Aragon produced no male heirHenry tried to obtain an annulment to marry Anne BoleynThe Pope refused, but Henry married anywayHenrys Break with the ChurchHenrys defiance led to an open break with the Roman Catholic Church.The Act of Supremacy (1534) gave Henry full control of the Church in England and severed all ties with Rome.Henry became the head of the Anglican Church (the new Church of England).He seized Church property and dissolved the monasteries.The AftermathHenry used ruthless measures to suppress opposition.He even had his former friend and advisor, Thomas More, executed, because More refused to renounce his faith.Henry married six times.His first two marriages (Catherine and Anne) produced two daughters, Mary and Elizabeth.His third wife, Jane Seymour, bore him a son, Edward, who was still a frail child when Henry died in 1547.
Edward VIBecame King at 9; died a 15 (1553)Parliamentary acts during his reign changed Englands religious practices and sent England on its way to becoming a Protestant nation.English replaced Latin in church.The Anglican prayer book, Book of Common Prayer, became required in public worship.Bloody MaryMary I, Edwards half sister; a CatholicMary restored Catholic practices and papal authority to the Church of England.Mary married her Spanish cousin, Phillip II, making England a part of the powerful Spanish state. (During this period of nationalism, many found her acts unpatriotic)Mary also persecuted Protestants: she ordered the execution of some 200 Protestants during her reign, strengthening anti-Catholic sentiment in England
Signature of Mary IElizabeth IAfter Marys five year reign, her half-sister, Elizabeth came to the throne.Elizabeth was the last of the Tudors, dying unmarried and childless.Elizabeth received a Renaissance education, became a patron of the arts, and Elizabethan came to describe the English Renaissance at its height.Elizabeth and the ChurchEnded religious turmoilReestablished the monarchs supremacy in the Church of EnglandRestored the Book of Common PrayerInstituted a policy of religious moderation Foreign AffairsFrance and Spain, Englands two greatest rivals, often worked with Catholic factions in England.Both nations fought to dominate England.Elizabeth and her counselors played one side against the other, using offers of marriage as bait.This cleverness allowed England a period of peace and allowed commercial and maritime interests to prosper.
Elizabeths SignatureThe Spanish ArmadaAfter Marys execution, King Phillip II prepared a Spanish armada of 130 warships to attack England.In 1588, English sailors defeated the Armada in the English Channel.This event marked the decline of Spain and the rise of England as a great sea powerKing James IStrong supporter of the artsFurthered Englands position as a world powerSponsored the establishment of the first English colony in AmericaJamestownBelieved in divine right monarchy and had contempt for Parliament (power struggle)Persecuted Puritans (House of Commons)Jamess persecution prompted a group of Puritans to establish Plymouth colony in 1621
The English RenaissanceArchitects designed beautiful mansionsComposers wrote new hymns for Anglican service and popularized the English madrigalRenaissance painters and sculptors moved to England (Hans Holbein the Younger was court painter to Henry VIII)Opened public schools (like private secondary schools today)Improvements at Oxford and Cambridge
Elizabethan PoetryPerfected the sonnet and experimented with other poetic formsPhilip Sidney wrote the first Elizabethan sonnet cycle (a series of sonnets that fit together as a story)Astrophel and StellaEdmund Spenser wrote a long epic, The Faerie Queen, in complex nine-line units now called Spenserian stanzasChristopher Marlowe popularized pastoral verse (idealizes the rural life) The Poetry of William ShakespeareShakespeare changed the pattern and rhyme scheme of the Petrarchan sonnet, creating the English, or Shakespearean, sonnet
Elizabethan DramaReintroduced tragediesplays in which disaster befalls a hero or heroineReintroduced comediesplays in which a humorous situation leads to a happy resolution.Began using blank verseChristopher Marlowe was the first major Elizabethan dramatist.Marlowe may have rivaled Shakespeare as Englands greatest playwright had he lived past thirty.
Christopher MarloweSir Walter Raleigh (ca. 1552-1618) The Nymph's Reply
He was not of an age but for all time.Shakespeare began his involvement with the theater as an actor.By 1592, he was a popular playwright whose works had been performed at Elizabeths court.After the Globe Theater was built in 1599, many of his plays were performed there.Shakespeare wrote thirty-seven plays: nine tragedies, several comedies, ten histories, and a number of play classified as tragic comedies.
Shakespeare Festival - Clemson University
Elizabethan and Jacobean ProsePhilip Sidneys Defense of Poesie is one of the earliest works of English literary criticism.Thomas Nashes Unfortunate Traveler, a fictional adventure, was a forerunner of the novel.Walter Raleigh wrote his History of the World during his confinement in the Tower of London (was beheaded for allegedly plotting against James I)The leading prose writer of the time was Francis Bacon.The King James BibleThe most monumental prose achievement of the English RenaissanceCommissioned by King James on the advice of Protestant clergymenTook fifty-four scholars three years to completeIs now among the most widely quoted an influential works in the English languageWhy are words important?https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vdCjKH5IKJ8Were going to focus today on the words in poetry and see what they say