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Slide 2 Welcome to Presentation Plus! Presentation Plus! Civics Today Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio 45202 Send all inquiries to: GLENCOE DIVISION Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio 43240 Slide 3 Splash Screen Slide 4 Contents Chapter Introduction Section 1The Sources of Our Laws Section 2Types of Laws Section 3The American Legal System Review to Learn Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Slide 5 Chapter Intro 1 Chapter Overview In Chapter 15 you learn about the importance of laws in the United States. Section 1 describes the history of laws in the United States. Section 2 explains the kinds of laws in the United States. Section 3 analyzes the American legal system. Slide 6 Chapter Intro 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives After studying this chapter, you will be able to: Explain laws. Describe the origin of different laws in the United States. Describe the American legal system of the United States. Slide 7 Chapter Intro 3 Click the Speaker button to replay the audio. Slide 8 End of Intro Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide. Slide 9 Section 1-1 Guide to Reading Modern laws that help people in the United States live together peacefully can be traced back to early laws like the Code of Hammurabi, the Code of Justinian, and English common law. jurisprudence Main Idea Key Terms common law precedent statute Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Slide 10 Section 1-2 Guide to Reading (cont.) Organizing Information As you read, take notes on a web diagram like the one on page 344 of your textbook of early laws upon which modern legal systems are based. What are the functions of law? Reading Strategy Read to Learn What early laws influenced modern legal systems? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Slide 11 Section 1-3 Click the Speaker button to replay the audio. Ancient tablet depicting King Hammurabi Slide 12 Section 1-4 Functions of Law American society developed around the principle of a government of laws, and not of men. Laws are rules that allow people to live peacefully in society. Laws guarantee individual liberties because they are binding on everyone. People, organizations, and governments can deal with one another because all know which acts are permitted and which are not. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 344345) Slide 13 Section 1-5 Functions of Law (cont.) To discourage criminal acts, laws set punishments and establish a justice system to enforce the laws. Laws also set rules to resolve civil disputes. To be effective, laws must be fair and treat all people equally. They must set punishments that fit the crime. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 344345) Slide 14 Section 1-6 Ordinary people must be able to understand them, and government must be able to enforce them. Most people will obey reasonable laws. The Founders based the nations system of laws on traditions and laws passed down from generation to generation. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Functions of Law (cont.) (pages 344345) Slide 15 Section 1-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Why is law enforcement easier if the laws are understandable, reasonable, and fair? If most people understand the laws and believe they are reasonable and fair, most will obey the laws, and law enforcement becomes easier. Functions of Law (cont.) (pages 344345) Slide 16 Section 1-8 Early Law Laws of early human societies were probably passed to the next generation orally. The first known system of written law was the Code of Hammurabi, a collection of 282 laws compiled by King Hammurabi of Babylonia in about 1760 B.C. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 345347) Slide 17 Section 1-9 Early Law (cont.) The Hebrews of ancient Palestine followed the Ten Commandments found in the Bible. Commandments like thou shalt not kill are reflected in our laws today. The Romans called their law jurisprudence, a word we use today to mean the study of law. As in the Code of Hammurabi, Roman penalties for offenses were drastic. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 345347) Slide 18 Section 1-10 Over centuries, the Roman senate adopted many laws, and Roman judges wrote commentaries on them, which became part of the law. Later Roman emperors created laws by issuing edicts, or commands. The laws spread as the Roman Empire grew. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Early Law (cont.) (pages 345347) Slide 19 Section 1-11 Emperor Justinian I boiled down Roman law into an orderly body of rules called the Code of Justinian. This code became the basis of law for the Byzantine Empire. Roman law also became part of the canon law of the Roman Catholic Church. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Early Law (cont.) (pages 345347) Slide 20 Section 1-12 More than a thousand years later, French emperor Napoleon updated the Justinian Code and called it the Napoleonic Code. Napoleon conquered much of Europe, and the code went with him. Later, Europeans carried it to Asia and Africa. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Early Law (cont.) (pages 345347) Slide 21 Section 1-13 American laws are based mainly on the English system of common law, or law based on court decisions rather than on legal code. When early English judges heard a case, they looked in the books for a similar case and followed the earlier ruling, or precedent. Precedents are legal opinions that became part of the common law. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Early Law (cont.) (pages 345347) Slide 22 Section 1-14 English judges blended Roman law and canon law into the body of common law. The law came to include basic rights such as trial by jury and innocent until proven guilty. As the English Parliament gained power, acts of Parliamentwritten statutes came to dominate the English legal system. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Early Law (cont.) (pages 345347) Slide 23 Section 1-15 English settlers in North America brought their traditions of common law and citizens rights with them. Today, common law forms the basis of our legal system, including the tradition of following precedents. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Early Law (cont.) (pages 345347) Slide 24 Section 1-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Why does most of the world today live under some form of Roman law? The Napoleonic Code was an update of the Justinian Code, which was based on Roman law. When Napoleon conquered much of Europe, his code went with him. Later, Europeans carried it to Asia and Africa. Early Law (cont.) (pages 345347) Slide 25 Section 1-17 Checking for Understanding __ 1.a ruling that is used as the basis for a judicial decision in a later, similar case __ 2.the study of law __ 3.a law written by a legislative branch __ 4.a system of law based on precedent and customs A.jurisprudence B.common law C.precedent D.statute Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. A D C B Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Slide 26 Section 1-18 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Explain What did John Adams mean when he said that Massachusetts should have a government of laws, not of men? Government should operate according to established rules rather than the prejudiced feelings of officials. Slide 27 Section 1-19 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Identify What three systems of law were based on Roman law? The Code of Justinian, canon law, and Napoleonic Code were based on Roman law. Slide 28 Section 1-20 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Drawing Conclusions Why do you think common law predated statute law in the English system of law? Possible answer: Common law was based on court decisions rather than on a legal code. Statutes came later when Parliament became stronger than the monarchy. Slide 29 Section 1-21 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Interpret Read the time line on page 345 of your textbook. The Justinian Code was written about how many years after the Code of Hammurabi was written? The Justinian Code was written about 2,200 years later. Slide 30 Section 1-22 Close Summarize the laws that serve as the base for modern laws. Slide 31 End of Section 1 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide. Slide 32 Section 2-1 Guide to Reading In addition to criminal law, there are other less well- known kinds of law, including civil law, public law, and international law. plaintiff Main Idea Key Terms defendant felony misdemeanor lawsuit torts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Slide 33 Section 2-2 Summarizing Information As you read, define the different kinds of law on a graphic organizer like the one on page 348 of your textbook. What actions do various kinds of law govern? Reading Strategy Read to Learn How do various kinds of law differ? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading (cont.) Slide 34 Section 2-3 Click the Speaker button to replay the audio. A collectible sports card Slide 35 Section 2-4 Criminal and Civil Law Criminal laws

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