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  • See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/5972123

    Utilization of steel slag for Portland cement clinker production

    Article in Journal of Hazardous Materials · May 2008

    DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.07.093 · Source: PubMed

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    4 authors, including:

    Petros E Tsakiridis

    National Technical University of Athens

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    George D Papadimitriou

    National Technical University of Athens

    60 PUBLICATIONS 1,166 CITATIONS

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    Christopher J. Koroneos

    National Technical University of Athens

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    All content following this page was uploaded by Christopher J. Koroneos on 27 November 2016.

    The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file. All in-text references underlined in blue are linked to publications on ResearchGate, letting you access and read them immediately.

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    Journal of Hazardous Materials 152 (2008) 805–811

    Utilization of steel slag for Portland cement clinker production

    P.E. Tsakiridis a,∗, G.D. Papadimitriou a, S. Tsivilis b, C. Koroneos c a Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens,

    9 Heroon Polytechniou Street, 157 73 Zografou, Athens, Greece b Laboratory of Analytical and Inorganic Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens,

    9 Heroon Polytechniou Street, 157 73 Zografou, Athens, Greece c Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering,

    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, P.O. Box 483, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece

    Received 14 May 2007; received in revised form 16 July 2007; accepted 17 July 2007 Available online 2 August 2007

    bstract

    The aim of the present research work is to investigate the possibility of adding steel slag, a by-product of the conversion of iron to steel process, n the raw meal for the production of Portland cement clinker. Two samples of raw meals were prepared, one with ordinary raw materials, as a eference sample ((PC)Ref), and another with 10.5% steel slag ((PC)S/S). Both raw meals were sintered at 1450 ◦C. The results of chemical and

    ineralogical analyses as well as the microscopic examination showed that the use of the steel slag did not affect the mineralogical characteristics

    f the so produced Portland cement clinker. Furthermore, both clinkers were tested by determining the grindability, setting times, compressive trengths and soundness. The hydration products were examined by XRD analysis at 2, 7, 28 and 90 days. The results of the physico-mechanical ests showed that the addition of the steel slag did not negatively affect the quality of the produced cement.

    2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    o [

    p r p n i 6 o d

    h v

    eywords: Steel slag; Sintering; Cement; Hydration

    . Introduction

    Waste utilization is an attractive alternative to disposal in hat disposal cost and potential pollution problems are reduced r even eliminated along with the achievement of resource con- ervation. Nevertheless, the utilization strategy must be coupled ith environmental and energy considerations to use available aterials most efficiently. The traditional way to utilize met-

    llurgical slags in cementing materials is to partially replace ortland cement, which usually results in a lower early strength nd longer setting times. Presence of activator(s) can accelerate he break-up of structure and hydration of slags [1].

    Today, most metallurgical slags are used as aggregates for dif- erent applications, and only the ground granulated blast furnace

    lag is used for a partial Portland cement replacement. The par- ial replacement may decrease the early strength, but increase he later strength and improve microstructure and durability

    ∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +30 210 7722179; fax: +30 210 7722218. E-mail addresses: ptsakiri@central.ntua.gr, tsakiri@central.ntua.gr

    P.E. Tsakiridis).

    ( m C 7 a t c c

    304-3894/$ – see front matter © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. oi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.07.093

    f hardened Portland cement and concrete very significantly 2].

    Steel slag is a by-product of the conversion of iron to steel rocess and it presents differences depending on the raw mate- ials and process. Fifty million tons per year of steel slag are roduced as a residue in the world [3]. In Europe every year early 12 million tons of steel slags are produced. Owing to the ntensive research work during the last 30 years, today about 5% of the produced steel slags are used on qualified fields f application. But the remaining 35% of these slags are still umped [4].

    Because the chemical composition of steel slags is ighly variable, the mineral composition of steel slag also aries. Olivine, merwinite, C3S, C2S, C4AF, C2F, RO phase CaO–FeO–MnO–MgO solid solution) and free-CaO are com- on minerals in steel slag. Its chemical composition consists of aO 45–60%, SiO2 10–15%, Al2O3 1–5%, Fe2O3 3–9%, FeO –20% and MgO 3–13% [5]. The presence of C3S, C2S, C4AF

    nd C2F endorses steel slag cementitious properties. However, he C3S content in steel slag is much lower than in Portland ement. Thus, the steel slag can be regarded as a weak Portland ement clinker.

    mailto:ptsakiri@central.ntua.gr mailto:tsakiri@central.ntua.gr dx.d

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