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  • The culture of alcohol promotion and consumption at major sports

    events in New Zealand

    Research report commissioned by the Health Promotion Agency

    Authors:

    Dr Sarah Gee

    Professor Steve J. Jackson

    Dr Michael Sam

    August 2013

  • ISBN: 978-1-927224-58-8 (online)

    Citation: Gee, S., Jackson, S. J. & Sam, M. (2013). The culture of alcohol promotion and consumption at major sports events in New Zealand: Research report commissioned by the Health Promotion Agency. Wellington: Health Promotion Agency.

    This document is available at: www.hpa.org.nz

    Any queries regarding this report should be directed to HPA at the following address:

    Health Promotion Agency Level 4, ASB House 101 The Terrace Wellington 6011 PO Box 2142 Wellington 6140 New Zealand

    August 2013

  • COMMISSIONING CONTACTS COMMENTS:

    The Health Promotion Agency (HPA) commission was managed by Mark Lyne, Principal Advisor Drinking Environments.

    In order to support effective event planning and management, HPA sought to commission research to explore the relationship between sport, alcohol and the sponsorship of alcohol at large events. Dr Sarah Gee of Massey University, a specialist in the associations between alcohol and sport, was commissioned in 2011 to undertake the research.

    The report presents findings from four case studies, each of a large alcohol-sponsored sporting event in New Zealand. Data was collected via ethnographic observation, in situ surveys and broadcast content analysis. The analysis provides a critical reflection of the role of alcohol-sponsorship in the culture of large sporting events in New Zealand.

    Those with interest in an increasingly complex nexus between sport, alcohol and culture, as well as those interested in the use of mixed method approaches for social inquiry, will find the report highly valuable.

    REVIEWED INTERNALLY AT HPA BY:

    Mark Lyne, Principal Advisor, Drinking Environments; Margaret Chartres, Senior Researcher; Dr Sarah Wright, Researcher.

    EXTERNALLY PEER REVIEWED BY:

    This report has been externally reviewed by an internationally recognised expert in the field.

    COPYRIGHT:

    The copyright owner of this publication is the HPA. The HPA permits the reproduction of material from this publication without prior notification, provided that fair representation is made of the material and the HPA is acknowledged as the source.

    DISCLAIMER:

    This research has been carried out by an independent party under contract or by instruction of the HPA. The views, observations and analysis expressed in this report are those of the authors and are not to be attributed to the HPA.

  • TheCultureofAlcoholPromotionandConsumption

    atMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand

    August2013

  • AlcoholPromotion&ConsumptionatMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand

    ii

    ISBN:9781927224267(print)9781927224274(online)

    ReportpreparedfortheHealthPromotionAgencyby:

    SarahGee

    SchoolofSportandExerciseMasseyUniversityPrivateBag11222(PN621)ManawatuMailCentrePalmerstonNorth4442NewZealandSteveJ.JacksonMichaelSamSchoolofPhysicalEducationUniversityofOtagoBox56Dunedin9054NewZealand

    Publishedby

    HealthPromotionAgencyPOBox5023LambtonQuayWellington6145NewZealand

    August2013

  • AlcoholPromotion&ConsumptionatMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand

    iii

    DisclaimerTheobservations,analysisandviewpointsofthisreportremainthoseoftheauthorsandshouldnotbe attributed to the Health Promotion Agency (formerly the Alcohol Advisory Council of NewZealand:ALAC).

    AcknowledgementsWewouldliketothankandacknowledgethecontributionsofMeganGilchrist,KieranCodyandJulieMinktothedatacollectionandanalysisforthisresearchproject.WewouldalsoliketoacknowledgeALACforfundingtheprojectandAndrewGalloway(AucklandCouncil)aswellasDrAndrewHearn,Margaret Chartres, Dr Sarah Wright, Helen Fielding, Dr Craig Gordon and Mark Lyne (HealthPromotionAgency)fortheirsupportinthisproject.

  • AlcoholPromotion&ConsumptionatMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand

    iv

    AbstractThisreportpresentsresearchthatinvestigatedthecultureofalcoholpromotionandconsumptionatmajor sports events in New Zealand. The project was divided into four case studies, each onerelating toaparticularalcoholsponsored sportsevent inNewZealandbetween September2011andFebruary2012:(1)theRugbyWorldCup2011;(2)theHeinekenOpenMensTennisTournament2012; (3) theHertzWellington InternationalRugbyBoardsRugby Sevens2012; and (4) theNewZealandCricketInternationalTwenty20andOneDayInternational2012matches.Foreachofthesefourcasestudies,thealcoholrelatedpromotionandconsumptionofboththe liveexperienceandthe SKY Sport televisionbroadcastof the eventwere analysed.Using amatrixofqualitative andquantitativemethodologicaltools,theresearchteamcapturedthepublicspaceswherealcoholwaspromotedandwherepeopleconsumedbothalcoholandsportsevents,aswellashowthetelevisionviewerencounteredalcoholpromotionsrelatedtothosemajorsportsevents.Thisreporthighlightsthe findingsof the research, including: (1) thenatureandprofileofalcoholpromotionsatmajorsports events; (2) peoples sporteventrelated drinking behaviour; and (3) the frequency anddurationofalcoholrelatedimagesandcrowdalcoholconsumptionatmajorsportseventsbroadcastontheSKYSportnetwork.Furthermore,throughthisprojectwebroadenourunderstandingoftheroleandeffectsofalcoholaspartof theoverallentertainmentpackageandexperienceof sportsmegaevents,includingtheincreasinglycomplexandsophisticatedlinksbetweenalcoholpromotion,sportssponsorshipandtheformationofparticulardrinkingcultures.

  • AlcoholPromotion&ConsumptionatMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand

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    TableofContentsExecutiveSummary............................................................................................................................1

    1.0Background...................................................................................................................................5

    1.1LiveSportsEvents.............................................................................................................................6

    1.1.1CaseStudy1RugbyWorldCup2011......................................................................................6

    1.1.2CaseStudy2HeinekenOpenMensTennisTournament2012...............................................7

    1.1.3CaseStudy3HertzWellingtonIRBRugbySevensTournament2012.....................................7

    1.1.4CaseStudy4NewZealandCricketInternationalT20andODI2012......................................7

    1.2SKYSportTelevisionBroadcasts.......................................................................................................7

    2.0Methodology.................................................................................................................................9

    2.1LiveSportsEvents.............................................................................................................................9

    2.1.1TheCultureofAlcoholatSportsEventsSurvey(CASES)............................................................9

    2.2SKYSportTelevisionBroadcasts.....................................................................................................10

    2.2.1TelevisionBroadcastCodingCategories..................................................................................11

    3.0Results..........................................................................................................................................12

    3.1LiveSportsEvents...........................................................................................................................12

    3.1.1TheCultureofAlcoholatSportsEventsSurvey(CASES)Results..............................................12

    3.2SKYSportTelevisionBroadcasts.....................................................................................................14

    3.2.1TwelveGamesoftheRugbyWorldCup2011..........................................................................15

    3.2.2HeinekenOpenMensTennisTournament2012.....................................................................15

    3.2.3HertzWellingtonIRBRugbySevensTournament2012...........................................................16

    3.2.4NewZealandCricketInternationalT202012...........................................................................16

    3.2.5NewZealandCricketODI2012................................................................................................17

    4.0Discussion....................................................................................................................................18

    4.1LiveSportsEvents...........................................................................................................................18

    4.1.1RugbyWorldCup2011............................................................................................................18

    4.1.2HeinekenOpenMensTennisTournament2012.....................................................................19

    4.1.3HertzWellingtonIRBRugbySevensTournament2012...........................................................19

    4.1.4NewZealandCricketInternationalT20andODI2012.............................................................20

    4.1.5TheCultureofAlcoholatSportsEventsSurvey(CASES)Responses.........................................21

  • AlcoholPromotion&ConsumptionatMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand

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    4.2SKYSportTelevisionBroadcasts.....................................................................................................22

    5.0ObservationsforFurtherReview............................................................................................25

    6.0References...................................................................................................................................26

    7.0Appendices..................................................................................................................................29

    Table1.LiveSportsEventsObservations.............................................................................................30

    Table2.TheCultureofAlcoholatSportsEventsSurveyDemographicProfile....................................32

    Table3.TheCultureofAlcoholatSportsEventsSurveyResponses(Items1to11)...........................33

    Table4.TheCultureofAlcoholatSportsEventsSurveyResponses(Items12and13).......................35

    Table5.TelevisionBroadcastsAnalyses..............................................................................................36

    InformationSheetforParticipants.......................................................................................................37

    CultureofAlcoholatSportsEventsSurvey(CASES).............................................................................38

  • AlcoholPromotion&ConsumptionatMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand

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    ExecutiveSummaryThe overarching purposes of this research project were to investigate the culture of alcoholpromotion and consumption atmajor sports events in New Zealand, and to answer a call foradditional research that uses nontraditionalmethods in the sportalcohol nexus (Palmer, 2011).Several questions related to alcohol promotion and the practices of alcohol consumption duringsports events were developed to help guide this research project. More specifically, we wereinterestedin:

    Whatformsofpromotionlinkalcoholsponsorshipwitheventpromotion? Howisalcoholconsumptionpromotedduringmajorsportsevents? Howdoalcoholpromotionscontributetotheexpectationsoffansregardingtheirdrinking

    behaviouratmajorsportsevents? Whatarethenatureandextentofalcoholconsumptionatmajorsportsevents? Whatarethenatureanddurationofalcoholrelatedimagesandcrowdalcoholconsumption

    atmajorsportseventsthatarebroadcastontheSKYSportnetwork?

    This researchprojectwasdivided into fourcasestudies,eachone relating toaparticularalcoholsponsored sports event inNew Zealand. For each of these four case studies, the alcoholrelatedpromotionandconsumptionofboththe liveexperienceandtheSKYSport televisionbroadcastoftheeventwereanalysed.Theprojectexaminedthefollowingsportseventsassitesforanalysis:theRugby World Cup 2011 (the RWC), the Heineken Open Mens Tennis Tournament 2012 (theHeineken Open), the Hertz Wellington International Rugby Board Rugby Sevens 2012 (theWellington Sevens) and the New Zealand Cricket International Twenty20 (T20) and One DayInternational(ODI)2012matches.

    TobetterunderstandthecultureofalcoholpromotionandconsumptionwithinboththeliveeventsandtheSKYSporttelevisionbroadcastsoftheevents,theprojectemployedamatrixofqualitativeandquantitativemethods that includedobservations, ethnography, a selfcompletion survey andcontentanalysesofbroadcastprogramming.

    Findingsfromourethnographicandotherobservationsatthelivesportseventswerethat:

    For theRWC, thecorporateclutterof imagesbetweenHeinekenandSteinlagerprecludedthe possibility of experiencing the RWC without exposure to alcohol symbols, alcoholconsumptionandpromotions.

    TheHeinekenOpen had the highest saturation of alcohol promotions; that is, it had thegreatestnumberofvisiblealcohollogosatthevenuecomparedwithothereventvenues.

    At the Wellington Sevens, promotiondriven alcohol consumption was observed to besynonymouswith thecultureof theevent,and thesportingcontestwassecondary to thefanexperienceforthemajorityofthefans.

    The T20 and ODI cricket fixtures featured a less prominent alcoholsport sponsorshiprelationship,with ticket sales and organisational directives aimed at promoting a familyexperiencethroughdesignatedlowalcoholandalcoholfreeseatingareasforfamilies.

  • AlcoholPromotion&ConsumptionatMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand

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    Takentogether,theseobservations illuminateourcommonsenseunderstandingofan increasinglynaturalised alcoholsport link in the entertainment experience of major sports events in NewZealand.1

    The research teamdevelopedaCultureofAlcoholatSportsEventsSurvey (CASES)and randomlyselectedattendeesatthreeofthefourevents(i.e.,theHeinekenOpen,theWellingtonSevensandthe T20 and ODI cricket) to complete the questionnaire.2 The CASES was designed to gatherresponses from attendees to gain insights into their perceptions of alcohol promotions, theirinvolvementinsportsrelateddrinking,andthedrinkingculturessurroundingtheevents.

    A totalof 154participants (HeinekenOpenn=14;Wellington Sevensn=106; T20 andODI cricketn=34)completedtheCASESandtheresultsindicatethefollowing:

    Acrossallselectedsportsevents,68%ofparticipantsagreedthattheywereawareofalcoholpromotionsattheevents.

    82% of participants agreed that alcohol consumptionwas part of the atmosphere of theevents,andinparticular91%ofparticipantsattheWellingtonSevensagreed.

    74%ofparticipantsagreed thatalcoholconsumptionadded to theentertainmentvalueoftheevents,andinparticular82%ofparticipantsattheWellingtonSevensagreed.

    90%ofparticipantsat theWellingtonSevensand65%ofparticipantsat theT20andODIcricketagreed that these sportseventscreated theexpectation thatone shouldconsumealcohol.

    61%ofparticipantsattheWellingtonSevensagreedthattheywouldconsumemorealcoholattheeventthantheywouldonanaveragedrinkingoccasion,while79%ofparticipantsattheHeinekenOpendisagreed.

    77%ofparticipantsat theWellingtonSevensagreed that consumingalcoholat theeventwasjustwhatyoudo,while64%ofparticipantsattheHeinekenOpendisagreed.

    60% of participants agreed that they had receivedmessages about regulating their ownalcohol consumption; however, 47% of participants were not concerned with youthvulnerabilitytoalcoholmessagesattheevents.

    36%ofparticipantsat theWellingtonSevens reportedhavinghad three, fouror fivepreeventalcoholdrinks,whichwashigherthanatanyoftheotherevents.

    31%ofparticipantsattheWellingtonSevensreportedthattheywouldconsumesix,sevenoreightdrinkscontainingalcoholat theevent,whichwashigher thanatanyof theotherevents.

    1 The researchersuse the term naturalised todescribe theprocessofbecoming an incontestable,widelyacceptedpartofNewZealandculture.2SeetheMethodologysectionforhowthesurveywasadministeredtoeventattendees.

  • AlcoholPromotion&ConsumptionatMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand

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    Overall, these results serve to highlight the perception that there is an entrenched, naturalisedcultureofalcoholpromotionandconsumptionatsomesportseventsinNewZealand,moststronglyexhibitedintheresultsfromtheWellingtonSevens.

    Content analyses for various visual categories of alcohol promotion and consumption wereconductedusingFOCUSX2softwareforthefollowingSKYSporttelevisionbroadcasts:12gamesoftheRWC (NewZealandpoolgames,quarterfinals,semifinalsand finals),theHeinekenOpen, theWellingtonSevensandtheT20andODIcricket.3SKYSportprogrammingwaschosenoverfreetoairbroadcasts as SKYTVnowholds the livebroadcast rights to allmajor sports (rugbyunion, rugbyleague, cricket, netball) and large events (Sevens, FIFA World Cup, Olympics, CommonwealthGames)andwillcontinuetohaveexclusiverightstotheseintheforeseeablefuture(Scherer&Sam,2012).

    Resultsfromthecontentanalysesrevealthefollowing:

    Across the events, alcoholrelated billboards were visible to viewers for 9% (WellingtonSevens)to53%(HeinekenOpen)ofthetelevisedbroadcasts.

    Thebillboardcategories4fortheWellingtonSevens,theHeinekenOpenandthe12gamesof theRWChad average screening frequencies ranging from 64 timesperhour to 180 times per hour. Virtually everyminute of the broadcasts containedalcoholsponsoredstadiumsignagevisibletotheviewers.

    Thebillboardsandbackground logosduring12oftheRWCgamesappeared4,593times (72% of the alcoholrelated events) and for 27,324 seconds. In this regard,viewerswereexposedtoHeinekenandBrancottEstatelogosfor30%ofthegamescollectivebroadcasttimeandforanaverageof180timesperhouror17.89minutesperhourofcoverage.

    FortheHeinekenOpen,theHeineken logowasidentified10,109times(58%ofthealcoholrelated events) and for a total of 108,379 seconds. On average, theHeineken logowasvisible177timesperhourorfor31.63minutesperhourofthetournamentscoverage.

    At theWellingtonSevens,SpeightsSummit logoson the tryzonesof thepitchaswellasontheelectronicrevolvingbillboardsaroundtheperimeterofthepitchwerevisibleonaverage64timesperhourorfor5.43minutesperhour.

    Super Liquor and Montana Wines billboards during the T20 cricket could bewitnessed48timesperhourandforanaverageof15.9minutesperhour.

    Onaverage,theSuperLiquorandMontanaWinesbillboardswerevisible16timesperhourorfor14.57minutesperhouroftheODIcricketbroadcast.

    3Seepage11ofthisreportforthevariouscategoriesofalcoholpromotionandconsumptionforeachevent.4Seepage11ofthisreportfordefinitionsofbillboardcategories.

  • AlcoholPromotion&ConsumptionatMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand

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    For the T20 andODI cricket broadcasts, the Castle Lager logo on South African playersuniformswasvisible for40%and35%ofthecoveragerespectively,and itwasthehighesttalliedandtimedalcoholrelatedeventfortheanalysisofthecricketbroadcasts.

    Onaverage,avieweroftheT20cricketbroadcastmayhavewitnessedtheCastleLagerlogo149timesperhourandfor24.08minutesperhour.TheODIbroadcasthadasimilarrateof148timesperhouror20.87minutesperhour.

    Thefrequencyanddurationofbroadcastcontentshowingcrowdalcoholconsumptionwasaunique inclusion inthecontentanalysis forthisstudy.5Alcoholconsumptionbythecrowdrangedfrom0.4%oftotalbroadcasttime(12gamesoftheRWC)to29%(T20cricket)ofthebroadcasts.

    The Heineken Open broadcast, on average, showed images of crowd alcoholconsumption85timesperhourorfor5.23minutesperhour.

    ImagesofthecrowdconsumingalcoholattheWellingtonSevensappearedonthetelevisionscreenatanaverageof31timesperhourorfor3.11minutesperhour.

    TheT20cricketbroadcasttelevisedthecrowddrinkingforanaverage22timesperhour or 17.36minutes per hour,while theODI cricket broadcast showed crowdalcoholconsumptionseventimesperhourorfor13.86minutesperhour.

    Ultimately, these results show that the broadcasting of alcoholsponsored sports events inNewZealandshouldnotbeoverlookedbypolicymakersandregulatoryagenciesworking inthealcoholarea.

    The report concludeswith comments and observations for further review that briefly cover: thedecisions made by producers of sports broadcasts, the implications of international policyinterventions and their effects for New Zealand stakeholders, national sports organisations andeventorganisersprioritisationofalcoholsponsorshipandpromotion,andfocusgroupsondrinkingculturesatsportsevents.

    5 To the knowledge of the researchers, no other studies performing content analyses have included thebroadcasttimeofcrowdalcoholconsumptionatsportsevents.

  • AlcoholPromotion&ConsumptionatMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand

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    1.0BackgroundSportssponsorshipbyalcoholcompaniesoccursglobally,yet itremainsacontentious issueand isregarded as a significant factor contributing to the prevalence of, and casual attitude towards,drinkingandalcoholrelatedharm.IntheNewZealandcontext,criticsargueandevidencesuggeststhatalcoholsponsorshipofsportisassociatedwithhazardousdrinkingamongsportspeople(OBrien& Kypri, 2008), and has the potential to influence underage consumers to drink at an early age(Casswell&Zhang,1998).Yetboththealcoholindustryandsportsorganisations/eventcoordinatorsassertthatalcoholsponsorship isalreadyadequatelyregulatedandthatsportswouldhave limitedcapacities without such sponsorship (Kypri, OBrien & Miller, 2009; Sport and Recreation NewZealand[SPARC],2010).

    Within the commercial economy of the sportalcohol nexus (Palmer, 2011), alcohol industrysponsorsusetheappealandexcitementofsportseventstoincreasebrandawareness,butalsousesports sponsorship as an opportunity to gain the advantages of ready targeting of a particularmarketandenablingexposurebeyondtherestrictionssometimesplacedonmoredirectadvertising(Casswell&Maxwell,2005,p.350). In lightof cleanzonepoliciesaroundmajoreventvenuesandtheir ensuing complexities (Scherer, Sam& Batty, 2005),6 sponsorship affords alcohol companiesexclusive pouragerightsatstadiumsand namingrightstaggedtoofficialparaphernaliafromthesports events. Thepredominant visiblebrands and logos at some sports events are thoseof thesponsoring alcohol companies that often, by contract, monopolise not just the brand to bepromoted and sold but also how the alcohol will be distributed (e.g., cans, polyethyleneterephthalate[PET]bottlesorwetpour)andthelevelofalcoholcontentintheproductitself.

    Ona separatebut relatedmatter, the cultureofalcohol consumptionat somealcoholsponsoredsportseventsprovidesheadlinesforNewZealandnewspapersandnewsprogramming:FortythreearrestsasSevensfanscelebrate(TheNewZealandHerald,February5,2011),DrunkwomenkeepSevenspolicebusy(ONENews,February6,2011),andMorearrestsasSevensrugbyfansparty(TheNew ZealandHerald, February 5, 2011). Such headlines also serve to highlightmuchwiderdebates on public health and social policy regarding the cultural perception and availability ofalcohol inNewZealand.However, ina2010 reportcommissionedbySPARCentitled:AlcoholandSport:Whatisthenatureoftherelationshipandisthereaproblem?,theauthorsnote:

    At a cultural and social level, alcohol is closely associated with sport in NewZealandattheentertainmentlevelaspartoftheentertainmentexperience,forexample,drinkingabeerwhilewatchingthegame,whetherathomeinfrontoftheTV,withorwithoutmates,orinastadium.(SPARC,2010,p.3)

    Giventheemphasisplacedhereontheentertainmentvalueofalcoholduringsportsevents,loominglarge are questions about alcohol promotion during sports events, the consumption of alcoholpropagatedbytheentertainmentexperience,andhowconsumingalcoholcan influencethesocialconstructionofparticularidentities(Gee&Jackson,2012;Wenner&Jackson,2009).Thus,thereisa

    6CleanzonepolicieshavebecomerequirementsinrelationtostagingmajoreventsinNewZealand,includingsport.ReadersarereferredtotheMajorEventsManagementAct2007(NewZealandGovernment,2012).

  • AlcoholPromotion&ConsumptionatMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand

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    need for researchagendas thatexplore the sportalcoholnexusby focusingonalcoholsponsoredsportseventsandtheirpotentialrole(viapromotion) increatingadrinkingculturethatnaturalisestherelationshipbetweensportandalcohol.

    The overarching purposes of this research project were to investigate the culture of alcoholpromotion and consumption atmajor sports events in New Zealand, and to answer a call foradditional research thatusesnontraditionalmethods in the sportalcoholnexus (Palmer,2011).7Theprojectwasdivided intofourcasestudies,eachonerelatingtoaparticularalcoholsponsoredsportseventinNewZealand.Foreachofthesefourcasestudies,thealcoholrelatedpromotionandconsumptionofboththe liveexperienceandtheSKYSporttelevisionbroadcastoftheeventwereanalysed. This was to capture the public spaces where alcohol is promoted and where peopleconsumebothalcoholandthesportsevents,aswellasthenatureandextenttowhichthetelevisionviewerisexposedtoalcoholrelatedimagesduringbroadcastsofmajorsportsevents.

    This researchprojectexamined the following sportseventsas sites foranalysis: theRugbyWorldCup2011(theRWC),theHeinekenOpenMensTennisTournament2012(theHeinekenOpen),theHertzWellington InternationalRugbyBoard(IRB)RugbySevens2012(theWellingtonSevens),andthe New Zealand Cricket International Twenty20 (T20) and One Day International (ODI) 2012matches.Theseeventswerepurposelyselected foranumberof reasons.First, theyareofsimilardurationand timing.That is, theeventsareat least twohours in length (some longer)andoccurduringthesametimeofyear(midsummer).8Second,alloftheeventsoccupyatleastoneweekendday,whichhas implications forhowthepublicdecidetospend their leisure timeaway fromworkusingresidualincome.Third,alloftheeventsarepopularannualsportseventswithhighattendancefigures,apart from theRWC,whichgenerated itsownexcitementandpopularityasarguably thefourthlargestglobalsportsmegaevent.Finally,allof theeventsare, insome form,sponsoredbyalcoholcompanies.Abriefdescriptionof thecurrent socioculturalcontext foreachcase study isgivenbelow.

    1.1LiveSportsEvents

    1.1.1CaseStudy1RugbyWorldCup2011ForthedurationoftheRWC,people(whethertheywereNewZealandersoroverseastourists)hadthe opportunity to experience the event from within designated Party Zones throughout thecountrys major urban centres. While these Party Zones or big booze barns (Wheres theparty?,July18,2010,www.nzherald.co.nz)werecreatedtohousecrowdsofpeopletowatch,drinkand socialisewitheachotherover rugby, theywerealsousedby the tourism industry toattractpeopletoNewZealandspecificallyfortheRWC(Top5PlacestoParty inNewZealandduringtheRugby World Cup in 2011, n.d., www.destinationnz.com). In addition to exploring alcoholpromotionandconsumptioninthesePartyZones,theresearchexaminedotherpublicspaces(e.g.,a stadium,unofficialFanZones)where spectatorsconsumedalcoholand theRWC,aswellas thewiderpromotionalcultureofalcoholaroundtheevent(SeptemberOctober,2011).

    7Palmer(2011,p.179)arguesforamoreinclusivesuiteofmethodstoteaseoutsomeofthemorenuancedunderstandings of the relationships between sport consumers and alcohol through ethnography, visualmethods,focusgroups,interviewsorsurveys.8While the cricket and tennismatches were allday events, a rugbymatch is only two hours, but fansconsumptionoftheRWCextendedbeyondtheofficialdurationofamatch,especiallywithintheFanZones.

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    1.1.2CaseStudy2HeinekenOpenMensTennisTournament2012TheannualHeinekenOpen isNewZealandspremiermens tennis tournamenton theATPWorldTour250.WithHeineken as themajor sponsor, this caseoffered theopportunity to explore thelocationsofalcoholpromotionatthevenue(January914,2012),aswellasalcoholconsumptionincomparisonwiththethreeothersportsevents.

    1.1.3CaseStudy3HertzWellingtonIRBRugbySevensTournament2012TheWellingtonSevensisanannualtwodaycompetitionthatfeatures16internationalteamsandisarguably one of New Zealands most popular sports events. Since 2000 when the first Sevenstournamentwasheld inWellington, theeventhasbeencosponsoredbyalcoholcompanies,withthemost recent being Speights Summit. TheWellington Sevens is becoming increasingly knownmore for the fans fancydress costumes and its bingedrinking party climate than for the actualsportscontest.This isevident intheexamplenewsheadlines(aspreviouslymentionedonpage5)thatassociateaharmfuldrinkingculturewith theevent.Besides thealcohol sponsorshipand thesignificant twoday party atmosphere that the event creates in Wellington, it has substantialeconomicimplications,providinga$15.6millioninjectionintotheWellingtoncityeconomyin2008(NZISevens stays inWellingtonuntil2016,December23,2010,www.irbsevens.com).This casestudyexploredthealcoholpromotionsassociatedwiththeWellingtonSevenstournament(February34,2012)andthedrinkingculturesurroundingtheevent.

    1.1.4CaseStudy4NewZealandCricketInternationalT20andODI2012Traditionally,NewZealandCrickethasalsohad linkswithamajoralcoholsponsorat thenationallevel.Asanorganisation,NewZealandCricketitselfisawareofthepotentialproblems,statingthatonedaycrickettendstoattractmenaged18to22whocanattimesloseselfcontrolanalcoholmanagementplanandspecial familyseatingareasshouldbeenough (NewZealandCricketsaysfullstrength beer will not be sold at any venue during international matches this summer,December6,2010,www.radionz.co.nz).Tothisend,theanalysis inthiscasestudyconsideredthewaysinwhichalcoholpromotionsexistedandalcoholconsumptionoccurredforT20andODIcricketmatches between the Black Caps and South Africa, held in Hamilton (February 19, 2012) andWellington(February25,2012)respectively.

    1.2SKYSportTelevisionBroadcastsResearch investigating televisedsportseventssponsoredbyalcoholcompaniesserves toheightenourunderstandingof thenatureandextent towhich televisionaudiencesareexposed toalcoholrelated images.Studiesconducted intheUnitedStateshavehighlightedthehourlyrateofalcoholpromotions inparticularsamplesoftelevisedsportsprogramming,whichhave includedarangeofsportscodesatboththeamateur(College)andprofessionallevels(Madden&Grube,1994;Zwarun,2006).Theresultsoftwokeystudiesexaminingsportsbroadcastsofgridironfootball,basketballandbaseball(arguablythebestUnitedStatessportscodesforcomparisonwithrugby inNewZealand)indicated that alcoholbranded stadium signageoccurred2.82 timesperhour (Madden&Grube,1994)and3.1timesperhour (Zwarun,2006).YettheseresultsremaincontextuallyspecifictotheUnited States given the difference in alcohol legislation and the essence of professional sport inNorthAmerica.

    Aside fromtworecentstudies investigatingalcohol imagesduringAustraliansportsbroadcasts forcricketmatches(Sherriff,Griffiths&Daube,2010)andBathurst1000(Davoren&Sinclair,2012),and

  • AlcoholPromotion&ConsumptionatMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand

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    oneother studyexamining thenatureandextentofalcohol imagery inavarietyofprogramminggenresonNewZealandtelevision(McGee,Ketchel&Reeder,2007),researchattheintersectionofbroadcasting,sportseventsandalcoholsponsorshipwithintheNewZealandcontextisscant.Whiledaytime alcohol promotions (in the form of brand visibility via sport sponsorship, etc.) do notcontravene legislation,theyarguablycounterthe intentofregulatoryguidelinesseekingtoreduceyouthconsumptionofalcoholthemed images.Additionally,asJones,PhillipsonandBarries(2010)work reports, ithassome important implications forchildaudienceswatchingdaytimesport.ThispartoftheresearchprojectanswersthecallfromJonesandJernigan(2010)forresearch intothenature,extentandeffectsofotherformsofalcoholmarketing...[including]eventsponsorship(p.4),byprovidingexploratory,quantitative,observationalanalysesofSKYSportbroadcastsforfourmajorsportseventsinNewZealand.

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    2.0MethodologyTobetterunderstandthecultureofalcoholpromotionandconsumptionwithinboththeliveeventsandtheSKYSporttelevisionbroadcastsoftheevents,theprojectemployedamatrixofqualitativeandquantitativemethods.

    2.1LiveSportsEventsTaken at itsmost basic interpretation, ethnography refers to the task of describing a particularculture(Spradley&McCurdy,1972,p.3).Observationwasakeycomponentofthisresearchprojectand involved collecting data through ethnographic methods as a process of creating andrepresentingknowledge(aboutsociety,cultureandindividuals)thatisbasedonethnographersownexperiences.Itdoesnotclaimtoproduceanobjectiveortruthfulaccountofreality,butshouldaimtoofferversionsofethnographersexperiencesofrealitythatareasloyalaspossibletothecontext,negotiationsandintersubjectivitiesthroughwhichtheknowledgewasproduced(Pink,2007p.22).Thesemethods includedreflexivecriticalobservations,visualmethodsand fieldnotes.ThismeantthatforeacheventthePrincipalInvestigatorandResearchAssistanttravelledtothehostcitywherewe recordedvisual representations (viavideoandstillcameras)of theways inwhichalcoholwaspromotedandassociatedwiththecultureofeachevent.Forexample,wecountedthenumberofalcoholoutletsatthevenue;wenotedthecostofpurchasingaunitofalcohol(i.e.,cans,PETbottles,glassbottles,plasticcups)andthemaximumnumberofdrinksonepersoncouldpurchaseatatime;weobservedwhetherornottherewasapolicepresenceandifabagcheckwasrequireduponentrytothevenue;wenotedthebrandsofalcoholbeingsoldandthetypesofalcoholpromotionusedwithin the venue; andwe recorded anymessages aboutmoderating drinking behaviour at eachvenue.9 Such information helped to create anunderstandingof the availability and regulationofalcoholateachevent.

    2.1.1TheCultureofAlcoholatSportsEventsSurvey(CASES)TheresearchersdevelopedandadministeredtheCultureofAlcoholatSportsEventsSurvey(CASES)toattendeesatthreeofthefourevents(i.e.,theHeinekenOpen,theWellingtonSevensandtheT20andODIcricket).10Werandomlyapproachedattendeesattheeventstocompletethisexploratory,quantitative instrument inordertogain insights intotheirperceptionsofalcoholpromotions,theirinvolvement in sportsrelated drinking, and the drinking culture surrounding the events.11Participantswere informedof thepurposeof thestudy,which includedadeclaration stating thattheir participation was anonymous and confidential, and that completing and submitting thequestionnaireimpliedtheirconsent.

    9 It should be noted that the Principal Investigator and Research Assistant aimed to remain as detachedobserversateachevent,yetalsoembeddedintheexperience.10Theresearchersdevelopedthesurveyasanexploratoryinstrument.Intheabsenceofanexistingtool,itemsweregroundedinscholarlyliteratureandrelevantreportdocuments.Forexample,thetermatmosphere(inItems2,3,7and8)featuresprominentlyinbothinternationalstudieslinkingsportssponsorshipwithalcoholandregulatoryguidelinesandcommissionedreports(e.g.,SPARC,2010).11Seepage35of thisreport for theparticipant informationsheetandpage36of thisreport for theCASESquestionnaire.

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    Demographic information was collected through items asking each participant to specify theirgender,theagegroupwithwhichtheyidentified,thenumberoftimestheyhadattendedtheevent,andwithwhomtheyattendedtheevent.ConsideringthatthelegalagetopurchasealcoholinNewZealandis18years,theagegroupingsbeganat18yearsandwewereonlyconcernedwithobtainingresponses from participants who were of the legal age. Eleven of the 13 survey items askedrespondentstoreport,ona5pointLikertscale(stronglyagree;agree;neitheragreenordisagree;disagree; strongly disagree), the extent to which they agreed or disagreed with a range ofstatementson:theirawarenessofalcoholpromotions;alcoholpromotionsandeventatmosphere;whatdrewpeople to theevent (e.g., theatmosphereand/or thesport); the linkbetweenalcoholconsumptionandthecultureoftheevent;andmessagesaboutalcoholattheevent.Inthefinaltwosurveyitems,respondentswereaskedtoquantifytheirpreeventalcoholconsumptionandforecasttheirateventalcoholconsumption(bothitemsgavethefollowingfiveoptions:0;12;35;68;9ormorestandardalcoholdrinks).

    2.2SKYSportTelevisionBroadcastsThispartof the researchprojectexamined thenatureanddurationofalcoholrelated imagesandcrowdalcohol consumptionatmajor sportseventsbroadcaston the SKY Sportnetwork.Contentanalyses were conducted using FOCUS X2 software from Elite Sports Analysis (seewww.elitesportsanalysis.com/products.htm) for the following SKY Sport television broadcasts: 12gamesof theRWC, theHeinekenOpen, theWellingtonSevens,and theT20andODIcricket.SKYSportprogrammingwaschosenoverfreetoairbroadcastsasSKYTVnowholdsthe livebroadcastrightstoallmajorsports(rugbyunion,rugbyleague,cricket,netball)andlargeevents(Sevens,FIFAWorldCup,Olympics,CommonwealthGames)andwillcontinuetohaveexclusiverightstotheseintheforeseeablefuture(Scherer&Sam,2012).

    The researchers chose to use the FOCUS X2 software, comparedwith othermethods such as astopwatch ormedia player time counter, because coders couldwatch the broadcasts at slowerspeeds(i.e.,framebyframe)andidentifyeventsunderdifferentcategoriesforbothfrequencyanddurationvariables,allowing increasedaccuracyandreliabilityofthecontentanalysesmeasures. Inthecaseofalcohollogosandbillboards,theeventwascodedwhengreaterthan50%ofalogowasvisiblebythecoderuntilthe logodisappearedfromtheshotentirely.Inthecaseof imageswherethecrowdwasconsumingalcohol,theeventwascodedwhenimagesofpeopleinthecrowdeitherconsumingalcoholorholdingplasticcupsorbottlesofalcoholwererecognisableuntiltheywerenolongervisible.

    One individualcoderconducted thecontentanalysis for the12gamesof theRWC,whileanothercoderconducted thecontentanalysis for theHeinekenOpen, theWellingtonSevensand theT20andODIcricket.Neuendorf(2002)statesthatthemethodologyforcontentanalysiscanincludetheuseofonlyonecoder.Intercoderreliabilitywasassessedtoestablishthatthecodingcriteriacouldbe replicatedwith similar results. A 20minute segment from each of the televised eventswasrandomly selected. Two coders,working independently of each other, analysed each events 20minutesegmentandthedatawerecompared.Acrossallmeasuresforallbroadcasts,theresultsforintercoderreliabilityrevealedsimilaritiesofbetween94%and100%.AnydiscrepanciesbetweenthecoderswerereportedtothePrincipalInvestigatorforadjudication.It is importanttonotethattheanalyseswereperformedovermultipledays,and toavoidcoder fatiguecodersweregivena fiveminutebreakafterevery30minutesofanalysis.

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    Only 12 games of the RWCwere analysed owing to limited available resources.Accordingly,weselected the 12 games that, in our opinion,were likely to attract large New Zealand televisionaudiences. That is,we coded four games from PoolA (New Zealand vs. Tonga,New Zealand vs.Japan,New Zealand vs. France andNew Zealand vs.Canada), aswell as thequarterfinal games(SouthAfricavs.Australia,Irelandvs.Wales,NewZealandvs.ArgentinaandEnglandvs.France),thesemifinals(Walesvs.FranceandNewZealandvs.Australia)andthefinals(Australiavs.WalesandNewZealandvs.France).

    2.2.1TelevisionBroadcastCodingCategoriesCodinglabelswerediscussedinrelationtothoseusedinpreviousresearch(Madden&Grube,1994;Zwarun, 2006) and agreement was reached by all investigators over coding descriptors andparametersforthisstudy.

    For the 12 games of the RWC, the categories included: (1) the Heineken and Brancott Estatebillboards locatedaround the rugbypitch,aswellas thebackdropbehindplayersduring thecointossandpostgameplayer interviews that included theHeineken logo; (2) theHeinekenendorsedEnjoyResponsiblybillboards locatedaround the rugbypitch; (3)crowdalcoholconsumption; (4)theHeinekensignaturethatappearedonthescreenasthebroadcastwenttocommercialbreaks;and(5)theHeinekenRWCtelevisioncommercial.

    FortheHeinekenOpen,thecategoriesincluded:(1)billboardstheHeinekenlogolocatedaroundtheperimeterofthecourtandontheumbrellas,thelinejudgesbox,thepractice/outercourts,thelanyardsofstaffandtheroofbaratASBStadium;(2)crowdalcoholconsumption;(3)theHeinekensignature thatappearedon the screenas thebroadcastwent to,and returned from, commercialbreaksandatthebeginningandendofeachdayscoverage;(4)theHeinekenOpenandHeinekenproductcommercials;(5)theHeinekenOpentournament logoaspartofthetelecastgraphicsthatappearedwhenthehostwasintroducingpeopleforthebroadcast,onthescoreupdates,onthebigscreenand in the finalspresentation;and, (6)Heinekenbranded clothingon the line judgesandotherstaffworkingatthetournament.

    FortheWellingtonSevens,the categories included:(1)billboardstheSpeightsSummit logoonthetryzonesofthepitchaswellasontheelectronicrevolvingbillboardaroundtheperimeterofthepitch;(2)crowdalcoholconsumption;and(3)alcoholrelatedtelevisioncommercials.

    For the T20 andODI cricket, the categories included: (1) the Super Liquor andMontanaWinesbillboards; (2) crowdalcohol consumption; (3)alcoholrelated television commercials;and (4) theCastle Lager logo located on the right chest and one arm of some of the SouthAfrican playersuniforms.

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    3.0Results

    3.1LiveSportsEventsA summary of descriptive findings on a range of observations relating to alcohol (i.e., sales,promotion,consumption,brandsavailable,etc.)foranRWCgame,anRWCFanZone,theHeinekenOpen,theWellingtonSevensandtheT20andODIcricketispresentedinTable1(onpage30ofthisreport).

    3.1.1TheCultureofAlcoholatSportsEventsSurvey(CASES)ResultsTable2 (onpage31of this report) summarises thedemographicprofileof the respondentswhocompleted the CASES at three sports events. A total of 154 participants (Heineken Open n=14;WellingtonSevensn=106;T20andODIcricketn=34)completedthesurvey.12Overonehalf(n=82,53%)weremale (femalesn=72,47%).The largestagecategorywasthosebetweentheagesof18and25years(n=65,42%),followedbythosebetweentheagesof26and35(n=36,23%).Atotalof75%attended the sportseventswith friends (n=116).Thisdemographicprofile shouldbekept inmind when viewing the results and discussion sections of the CASES and understanding eventattendeesperceptionsontherolesofalcoholpromotionandconsumptionineventatmosphereanddrinkingbehaviour.

    Fordescriptivesimplicity,weaggregatedtheoriginalfiveresponseoptions intothree.Assuch,theresponses for stronglyagreeand agree,and the responses for stronglydisagreeand disagreewerecollapsedintoagreeanddisagree.Theresultsfrom11ofthe13surveyitemscanbeviewedinTable3(onpage32ofthisreport).Thedifferencebetweentheaggregatedpercentageofagreesand aggregated percentage of disagrees represents the percentage of responses that neitheragreednordisagreed.

    The first two items focused on the alcoholpromotionsatthesportsevents.Incheckingforparticipantsawarenessofalcoholbrandsattheevents, 71% of respondents at the HeinekenOpen and 72% at the Wellington Sevensagreed,and56%oftherespondentsattheT20and ODI cricket agreed.13 Following this, weinvestigatedwhetheralcoholsponsormaterialssuch as billboards, promotions and productsaddedto,orotherwiseshaped,theatmosphereat theevents.TheHeinekenOpenparticipantsneither overly agreed nor disagreed(agreed=36%, disagreed=29%) and theparticipants from theWellington Sevens reported that half of them (50%) agreed that alcohol

    12Giventhatthiswasapilotstudy,withanexploratorysurveyinstrument,weacknowledgethesmallsamplesizeanditslimitedapplicationforstatisticalcomparisons.13Percentagesinthisreportarerounded;thefullresultscanbefoundinTable3(onpage32ofthisreport).

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    sponsor signageorpromotion contributed to the atmosphere at theevent. For the T20 andODIcricket,moreparticipantsdisagreedwiththestatement(44%)thanagreed(26%).

    Fiveitemsinthesurvey(Items3,4,7,8and9)centred on alcohol consumption and thecultureofalcoholat theevents.Regarding thelink between alcohol consumption and eventatmosphere (Item3 Drinkingalcohol ispartof the atmosphere at this event), a muchgreaterpercentageofparticipantsagreed(82%)thandisagreed(5%)acrosstheevents,withthehighest percentage of agreement at theWellingtonSevens (91%)and zeroparticipantsdisagreeing. Likewise, across the events themajority of participants (74%) agreed thatalcohol consumption added to theentertainmentvalueoftheevents,with82%participantsattheWellingtonSevensagreeing.Withreference towhether the sports events created the expectation that one should drink, 90% ofparticipantsat theWellingtonSevensand65%ofparticipantsat theT20andODI cricketagreed.ParticipantsattheHeinekenOpenweresomewhatindifferentintheirresponses(43%disagreedand36%agreed).Item8relatedtoparticipantsperceptionsoftheeventsatmosphereandwhethertheparticipants had consumedmore alcohol at the events than theywould on an average drinkingoccasion. At the Heineken Open, 79% ofparticipants disagreed, and at theWellingtonSevens 61% of participants agreed. Item 9asked participants for their responses towhether consuming alcohol at the event wasjustwhatyoudo;thatis,wewantedtodiscernif drinking alcohol was part of the culture ofbeing at the events. For the Heineken Open,64% of participants disagreed, and 77% ofparticipants from the Wellington Sevensagreed.ParticipantresponsesfromtheT20andODI cricket for this item indicated thatparticipants neither overly agreed nordisagreed(38%agreedand29%disagreed).

    Items 5 and 6 examined whether participants attended the events principally for the socialatmosphere and/or for the sports.14 Across the events, 84% of participants agreed that theyattended theevents for theatmosphere.Ninetytwopercentofparticipants from theWellingtonSevensagreed that theywereat theevent for theatmosphere,whilezeroparticipantsdisagreed.The T20 and ODI cricket had 74% of participants who agreed and 3% who disagreed, and theHeineken Open responses were similar, with 50% of participants who agreed and 43% of

    14Given that Items5and6were independentdimensions, it ispossible thatparticipants could respond toattendingtheeventforboththeatmosphereandthesportingcontest.

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    participantswhodisagreedthattheirattendanceattheeventwasrelatedtotheatmosphere.TheHeinekenOpenresponsesshowedthat100%oftheparticipantsagreedthattheywereattheeventfor the sporting contest. While a greaterpercentage of participants at the WellingtonSevensandtheT20andODIcricketagreedthattheywere attending the events for the sport(71% and88% respectively), these events alsohad a higher percentage of participants whodisagreed with attending the events for thesport (17% for theWellington Sevens and 6%for the T20 and ODI cricket) than those whodisagreed with attending the events for theatmosphere.

    ThelasttwoitemsinTable3refertomessagesaboutalcoholat theevent.Regardingwhetherparticipantswereconcernedwith theexposureofalcoholmessagestoyouthattheevent,acrossalltheevents,agreaterpercentageofrespondentsdisagreedwith the statement (47%) than agreed (27%). TheWellington Sevens had the greatestpercentageofparticipantswhodisagreed (51%).Regardingwhether theparticipantshad seenorheard messages at the event about moderating their alcohol consumption, over half of theparticipantsatboththeWellingtonSevensandtheT20andODIcricketreportedthattheyagreed(62%and56%respectively).

    Additionally,we asked participants to indicate their preevent alcohol consumption and forecasttheir atevent alcohol consumption. These results are presented in Table 4 (on page 33 of thisreport).ThegreatestpercentageofparticipantsfortheHeinekenOpenandtheT20andODIcricketreportedthattheyhadhadzerodrinkscontainingalcoholpriortoarrivingattheevents.Thehighestpercentage of participants from theWellington Sevens (36%) reported having had three to fivedrinkscontainingalcoholpreevent.Regardingthenumberofdrinkscontainingalcoholconsumedatthe events, the highest percentage of responses ranged from one or two drinks (43%) at theHeinekenOpentothreetofivedrinks(38%)attheT20andODIcricket,andsixtoeightdrinks(31%)attheWellingtonSevens.

    3.2SKYSportTelevisionBroadcastsTable5 (onpage34of this report) contains the resultsof the contentanalysesof the SKY Sportbroadcastsof:12gamesof theRWC, theHeinekenOpen, theWellingtonSevensand theT20andODI cricket. It is important to note that for four of the five content analyses (RWC games, theHeinekenOpenand theT20andODIcricket), therewere instanceswheresome categorieswereidentified simultaneously with others (e.g., Heineken billboards appeared at the same time asHeinekenbrandedclothingattheHeinekenOpen).15TheWellingtonSevensdifferedbecauseofthespatialparticularitiesof camera shots (e.g.,wideangled shotsduringplayversus closeupsof thecrowd), and produced no instanceswhere categorieswere simultaneously recorded, thereforeeliminatingthepossibilityofanyresultsbeinganalysedtwice.

    15Anadditiveeffectfortheseresultsshouldbeemployedwithcaution.

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    3.2.1TwelveGamesoftheRugbyWorldCup2011Thecombinedrecordedcoveragefrom12gamesoftheRWCtotalled25hours,27minutesand13seconds. From these 12 games, 6,411 alcoholrelated events were identified, of which thebillboardcategory(whichincludedtheHeinekenand Brancott Estate billboards located around the rugby pitch, aswell as the backdrop behindplayersduring the coin toss andpostgameplayer interviews)was themost frequently recordedalcoholrelatedevent.Thesebillboardsandlogosappeared4,593times(72%ofthealcoholrelatedevents)andfor27,324seconds.InthisregardaviewerofthesegameswasexposedtotheHeinekenandBrancottEstatelogosfor30%ofthegamescollectivebroadcasttimeandforanaverageof180timesperhouror17.89minutesperhourofcoverage.

    Part of Heinekens sponsorship of the RWC included the brands signature Enjoy Responsiblycampaign to encourage sensible beer consumption. These billboards also appeared around theperimeter of the rugby pitch and were recorded 1,661 times and for 8,661 seconds, whichaccountedfor9%ofthetotalcoverageandanaveragerateof65timesperhouror5.67minutesperhour.Comparatively,theEnjoyResponsiblybillboardsoccurredapproximatelyonethirdlessoftenthan the Heineken and Brancott Estate billboards.Moreover, the average length of time that aHeinekenorBrancottEstatebillboardappearedontelevisionwas5.95seconds,whiletheaveragelengthoftimeforanEnjoyResponsiblybillboardwas5.21seconds.Furthermore,imagesofcrowdalcoholconsumptionwereminimal,occurring78timesandfor330seconds(0.4%ofthebroadcast).

    3.2.2HeinekenOpenMensTennisTournament2012Atotalof57hours, fiveminutesand38secondsof the Heineken Open broadcast was analysedand 17,310 alcoholrelated events wereidentified. The content analysis results revealedthatthemostfrequentalcoholrelatedeventwastheappearanceoftheHeineken logo,whichwaslocatedaroundtheperimeterofthecourtandonthe umbrellas, the line judges box, thepractice/outer courts, the lanyards of staff andtheroofbaratASBStadium.Itsoccurrence10,109times(58%ofthealcoholrelatedevents)andfora total of 108,379 secondsmeans that a television viewer of the tournamentwould have beenexposedtotheHeineken logofor53%ofthetotalbroadcasttime.Thus,onaverage,theHeinekenlogowasvisible177 timesperhouror for31.63minutesperhourof the tournamentscoverage.Additionally,thecrowdalcoholconsumptionwasrecorded4,872times(28%ofthealcoholrelatedevents) fora totalof17,922seconds (9%of the totalbroadcast). Imagesof thecrowdconsumingalcoholoccurredatanaverageof85timesperhourorfor5.23minutesperhourofbroadcast.

    Furthermore, the Heineken Open tournament logo as part of the telecast graphics introducingpeople for thebroadcasts,on thescoreupdates,on thebigscreenand in the finalspresentationwasrecorded1,627timesforatotalof15,326seconds.Onaverage,theHeinekenOpentournamentlogo was visible 28 times per hour or for 4.5 minutes per hour of coverage (7% of the total

    TheHeinekenlogowasvisible177timesperhourorfor31.63minutesperhourofthetournamentscoverage[and]imagesofthecrowdconsumingalcoholoccurredatanaverageof85timesperhourorfor5.23minutesperhourofbroadcast.

    Aviewerof[theRWC]gameswasexposedtotheHeinekenandBrancottEstatelogosfor30%ofthegamescollectivebroadcasttimeandforanaverageof180timesperhouror17.89minutesperhourofcoverage.

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    broadcast). The average length of time that a Heineken logo appeared on television was 10.7seconds,whiletheaveragelengthoftimeinwhichthecrowdwasshownconsumingalcoholwas3.8seconds,andthetournamentlogowasshownforanaverageof9.4seconds.16

    3.2.3HertzWellingtonIRBRugbySevensTournament2012From the20hour,14minuteandsixsecond recordedbroadcastof theWellingtonSevens,nearly2,000alcoholrelatedeventswere identified(n=1,949).Theeventsaccounted foratotalof10,470secondsor14%oftheoverallbroadcast.TheSpeightsSummitlogoonthetryzonesofthepitchaswell as on the electronic revolving billboard around the perimeter of the pitch were themostfrequentlyrecordedat1,310times(67%ofthealcoholrelatedevents)andairedforatotalof6,604secondsor9%ofthecoverage.Thebroadcastalsoyielded635occurrencesinwhichcrowdalcoholconsumption was shown (32% of the alcoholrelated events), which aired for a total of 3,776seconds,comprising5%ofthebroadcast.Theaverage lengthoftimethataSpeightsSummit logoappearedonthetelevisionwas5.04seconds,whiletheaverage lengthoftimeforan imageofthecrowdconsumingalcoholwas5.95seconds.

    ThemostcommonalcoholrelatedeventwastheSpeightsSummitlogoonthetryzonesofthepitchaswellason theelectronic revolvingbillboardaround theperimeterof thepitch; itappearedonaverage64timesperhourorfor5.43minutesperhour.Although imagesofthecrowdconsumingalcoholwere lessprevalent,theyoccurredatanaverageof31timesperhourorfor3.11minutesperhour.

    3.2.4NewZealandCricketInternationalT202012TherecordedbroadcastfortheT20cricketheldonFebruary19,2012wasthreehours,40minutesand18seconds.Atotalof807alcoholrelatedeventswasidentified,withthemostfrequentlyvisiblebeingtheCastleLagerlogoontheSouthAfricanplayersuniformsatafrequencyof547times(68%of the alcoholrelated events) and for 5,302 seconds (40% of the total coverage).On average, aviewerwouldhavebeenexposedtotheCastleLagerlogo149timesperhourandfor24.08minutesper hour of the T20 broadcast. Moreover, theSuper Liquor and Montana Wines billboardslocated around the perimeter of the pitch andbehind the batsmen were recorded 176 times(22%ofthealcoholrelatedevents)andforatotalof 3,509 seconds (26% of the total broadcast).Looking at the broadcast as a whole, a viewermayhavewitnessedthebillboards48timesperhourorforanaverageof15.9minutesperhour.

    Interestingly,whileimagesofcrowdalcoholconsumptionwerethefewestrecordedatonly82times(or10%of thealcoholrelatedevents), the imagesaired fora totalof3,823 seconds (29%of thecoverage).Therefore,althoughtheaverage lengthoftime inwhichtheCastleLager logoappearedontelevisionwas9.69secondsandtheaveragelengthoftimeforSuperLiquorandMontanaWines

    16ItisimportanttonotethatthetotalcoveragerecordedwasthetotaltimethetournamentairedontheSKYSport network, including rain delays and previous yearsmatches. However, the rain delay coverage andpreviousyearsmatcheswerenotcodedforanalysisbecausetheywerenotconsideredpartofthecoverageoftheliveHeinekenOpenevent.Accordingly,ifthesepartsofthecoveragearedisregarded,theexposuretimesmaybegreater.

    The[T20cricket]broadcasttelevisedthecrowddrinkingforanaverageof22timesperhouror17.36minutesperhouralowerratethanthebillboards,butahigheraveragetimeperhour.

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    billboardswas19.94 seconds, theaveragedurationofa shotof the crowd consumingalcohol,at46.62seconds,wasfarinexcessoftheothercategoriesforthisevent.Additionally,thebroadcasttelevisedthecrowddrinkingforanaverageof22timesperhourorfor17.36minutesperhouralowerratethanthebillboards,butahigheraveragetimeperhour.

    3.2.5NewZealandCricketODI2012Atotaloffourhoursand25minutesofbroadcastwasrecordedfortheODIcricketheldonFebruary25,2012.17During the first innings759alcoholrelatedeventswere identified.Over86%of theseevents(658intotal)wereinstancesoftheCastleLagerlogoontheSouthAfricanplayersuniforms,accountingfor5,503seconds(35%ofthebroadcasttime).Onaverage,thisoccurredatarateof148timesperhourorfor20.87minutesperhour.

    The Super Liquor andMontanaWines billboards located around the perimeter of the pitch andbehindthebatsmenwereidentified69timesandfor3,963seconds(24%ofthecoverage).Also,thecrowdwasrecordedconsumingalcohol32timesandfor3,677seconds(23%ofthecoverage).Onaverage,theSuperLiquorandMontanaWinesbillboardsscreened16timesperhouror for14.57minutesperhour,whilecrowdalcoholconsumptionwasvisibleseventimesperhourorfor13.86minutesperhour.Theaverage lengthof screening time for theCastle Lager logoon theplayersuniformswas8.36seconds,whiletheaverage lengthoftimeforthebillboardswas55.98seconds.Theaveragescreeningtimeofthecrowdconsumingalcoholwasthelongestat114.91seconds.

    17Thistimereflectsthefirstinningsofthecoverageonly.Unfortunatelythesecondinningwasnotcodedoranalysedowing to issueswith the recordingof theprogramme.Therefore, these resultsonly represent thecontentanalysisforthefirstinnings,whenNewZealandwasatbat.

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    4.0Discussion

    4.1LiveSportsEventsAtthe livesportseventsweexploredtheformsofalcoholpromotionthat linkalcoholsponsorshipwith sports events and observed the culture of alcohol consumption during these events. Takentogether,ourobservationsandethnographicmethodsprovidedthenecessarytoolsto illuminateacommonsenseunderstandingof,andgaingreaterinsightsinto,thenaturalisedalcoholsportlinkintheexperienceofmajorsportseventsinNewZealand.

    4.1.1RugbyWorldCup2011In the caseof theRWC,weusedobservationsandethnographicmethods toexplore theways inwhichalcoholwaspromotedinandaroundvariousstrategicsitesduringthehostingoftheeventinNew Zealand. In doing so, we unearthed some underlying tensions that resonate with currentdebates about the (in)appropriateness of alcohol promotion and sponsorship of sport. The firstrelates to the observed sign wars between alcohol brands competing formarket share and toenhance their symbolic value. There was an inescapable corporate clutter of images betweenHeineken and Steinlager. Part of this paradoxically originates from New ZealandsMajor EventsManagementAct2007(MEMA)legislationonantiambushmarketingandtherighttoassociationbycommercialsponsors,whichpotentiallycontributedtothepropertization(seeScassa,2011)oftheRWCbyHeineken.HeinekensRWCsponsorshiprightsasWorldwidePartnerandtheofficialbeerofthe tournament offered the company sole promotional and advertising privileges for all events,activities and facilities associated with the RWC. Other local New Zealand beer brands such asSteinlager were thus induced to capture other market niches (e.g., social media, televisionadvertisingcampaigns),renderingboththevirtualandphysicalenvironmentssaturated.

    The second tension indicates that to experience the RWCwithout exposure to alcohol symbols,consumption and promotions would have beenimpossible. From Fan Zones located in theentertainment districts ofNew Zealand cities toalcoholsignageandconsumptionatstadiumsandevenspecialpromotionsinsupermarkets,alcoholfeatured prominently across the New Zealandlandscape.Ultimately,Heinekenssponsorshipofthe RWC served to consolidate further theexisting linksbetween sport and alcohol inNewZealand.

    Inapressrelease from theHeineken InternationalwebsiteaboutHeinekenspartnershipwith theRWC,BrianBlake, the thenManagingDirectorofHeinekenNewZealand,noted:AsaWorldwidePartner,weneedtomakesurethereisafantasticatmosphereforbothvisitorstoNewZealandandKiwi rugby fans to enjoy. We want to give them a truly memorable and unique experience(Heineken partners with Rugby World Cup 2011 in New Zealand, n.d.,www.heinekeninternational.com/090317_heineken_partners_with_rwc_2011.aspx). From an

    TheRWCexperiencewasinfusedwithcompetingalcoholbrandlogosandextensivealcoholpromotioninrelationtosportssponsorshipandentertainment,allcontributingtoanatmospherethatencouragedfanstopartywithalcoholtocelebrateamajorsportsevent.

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    ethnographicperspective,theRWCexperiencewasinfusedwithcompetingalcoholbrandlogosandextensivealcoholpromotion inrelationtosportsponsorshipandentertainment,allcontributingtoanatmospherethatencouragedfanstopartywithalcoholtocelebrateamajorsportsevent.

    4.1.2HeinekenOpenMensTennisTournament2012Of the fourevents,ourobservationsandethnographicmethods revealed that theHeinekenOpenhad the highest saturation of alcohol promotions; that is, it had the greatest number of visiblealcohollogosatthevenuecomparedwiththeothereventvenues(inexcessof100Heinekenlogos).Thusalcoholpromotionswereanunavoidable,substantialandexpressivepartoftheevent.

    Notably, the exceptions to thiswere the corporate boxes. From our observations, people in thecorporateboxesconsumedgreateramountsofalcoholthanthemajorityofthepublicticketholdersinthestands.Tournamentwaitstaffwereatthereadytoservealcohol(andfood)tothose inthecorporate boxes. Each corporate boxwas equippedwith outdoor furniture, aHeinekenbrandedumbrellaandachillybintokeepbeveragescold.Additionally,corporateboxoccupantswereabletoselectalcoholbeverages fromamuchmoreextensivewine,beerandchampagnemenu than theregulatedoptions from theconcession stalls forpublic ticketholders.Thispresenteda somewhatparadoxicalelement to the tournamentsatmosphere,wherebypublic ticketholdersappeared toattendtheeventmainlyforthesport,butforthepeople in the corporate boxes the socialatmospherewasbeingwellcateredfor.

    Inwhatwasperceivedbytheresearcherstobeinstark contrast to a subdued, civilised culture ofspectating the sporting contest of theHeinekenOpen tournament, event organisers encouragedtournament ticketholders to visit the HeinekenOpen Baseline After Party that took place onCourtsTwoandThreeafterthefinalsmatchesonCentreCourthadfinished.Observedtobetailoredfor a younger demographic, Courts Two and Threewere transformed from HeinekensponsoredsportingspacestoaHeinekenendorsedentertainmententerprise,withaninvitingdcor,abrightlylitHeinekenbarandalargeHeinekenbrandedstageandsoundsystemforlivemusicperformances.Accordingly,whileourethnographicapproachhasuncoveredtheHeinekenOpentournamentitselfas one sports event immersed in the alcoholsport sponsorship relationship, the afterpartyinitiativeensuredanalcoholbrandedexperience thatemphasisedanenergetic socialatmospherelinkingtheconsumptionofsport,musicandalcohol.

    4.1.3HertzWellingtonIRBRugbySevensTournament2012Our ethnographicmethods and observations from theWellington Sevens identified promotiondriven alcohol consumption as synonymous with experiencing the culture of the event. It wasapparentthatthesportingcontestwassecondarytotheuniqueandcarnivalesqueatmosphere.InKutchers (1983)discussionof crowdbehaviourat sportsevents,he compares sportseventswithcarnivals,asserting that theyhave in common, rich food,drinking,masqueradingand costumes,andmost importantly the temporary suspension of everyday social roles and rules, a period ofsociallyapproveddeviance (p.38). Indeed, theWellington Sevens reflects thegrowingmarketingappeal of infusingmodern sports events with a carnival atmosphere (Bull & Lovell, 2007). The

    TheHeinekenOpen[is]onesportseventimmersedinthealcoholsportsponsorshiprelationship;[however,]theafterpartyinitiativeensuredanalcoholbrandedexperiencethatemphasisedanenergeticsocialatmospherelinkingtheconsumptionofsport,musicandalcohol.

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    concept of carnival and its characteristic elements offers a unique lens to frame our particularunderstanding of theWellington Sevens, predicated on themanifestation of costumes, alcoholpromotions,theconsumptionofalcoholandthecontextualabrogationofsocialnorms.

    Extravagant costumes at the Wellington Sevens ranged from Lego people to pavlovas andsuperheroes.Byembracing thecostumecultureof theSevens,peoplecreateda spaceof fantasywhere they were free from ridicule and judgement by conventional social identities, whereChewbaccascheerfullycelebratedalongsideStormtroopersregardlessofage,genderandtheirrealworldoccupationsoutsidetheevent.Alcoholpromotionalincentivesandactivitiesfromtheeventsalcoholcosponsor,SpeightsSummit, includedprominentlyplaced logos,contestsandgiveaways.SuchpromotionsweresupportedbytheSpeightsSquad(agroupoffemalesdressedintightlyfittingcamouflagesingletsandshorts)andtheclubsceneSummitSoundStage,whichfurthercontributedto the festive mood as well as the culturalassumptions associated with alcoholconsumptionandtherulesofsocialmembershipforsportspectatorsattheevent.

    Arguably, within this carnival context, theWellington Sevens environment (fuelled by thecostumes, alcohol promotions and clearly thealcohol)provided favourableconditions forheightenedandapprovedactsofdeviance thatwouldotherwisehavebeencriticisedandchastised.AccordingtoTheDominionPost,duringthetwodayWellingtonSevenstherewasatotalof14arrestsand68evictionsfromthevenue,withanother30peopledeniedentrytothestadiumowingtotheirintoxicationlevelsandalcoholsmuggling(Policepraise Sevens fan behaviour, February 5, 2012, www.stuff.co.nz/dominionpost/sport/sevens2012/6368771/PolicepraiseSevensfanbehaviour).GilesMorgan,GroupHeadof Sponsorship forHSBC the inaugural sponsor of the IRBs SevensWorld Series offers a different viewwith astatement that rationalises the events carnivalesque nature as an opportunity to attractmoreconsumers,claiming:theuniquepartyatmospheremakesitperfectforintroducingnewaudiencestothesport(Hughes,2012).OurobservationsfromtheWellingtonSevenssuggestthatthealcoholpromotional strategies cannot be separated from the tacit notion of alcohol consumptionpropagatedbyandculminatingintheeventscarnivallikepartyentertainmentexperience.

    4.1.4NewZealandCricketInternationalT20andODI2012Ourobservationsandethnographicmethods from theT20andODIcricket fixturesdivulgeda lesspervasivealcoholsportenvironmentwith regard topromotionsandassociatedconsumption.Thismaybe, inpart,due to theabsenceofanalcoholnaming sponsor.Theprimary sponsor forNewZealandCricket isTheNationalBank,whosepromotional initiatives includedbillboardsaroundtheperimeterofthepitchaswellasotherapparentpromotionalmediumsthroughoutthevenues(e.g.,bannersandotherstadiumsignage).Incomparison,theextensivepromotionsfromalcoholnamingsponsorsat theothersportseventswereonparwith thoseofTheNationalBankat thesecricketfixtures.

    Therewere,however, twoSuperLiquorbillboards locatedaround thepitchatbothvenuesandaMontana Wines billboard positioned behind the batsmen (a position easily visible during thetelevision broadcast). Less prominent alcohol promotions at the cricket venues appeared at the

    [At]theWellingtonSevensalcoholpromotionalstrategiescannotbeseparatedfromthetacitnotionofalcoholconsumptionpropagatedbyandculminatingintheeventscarnivallikepartyentertainmentexperience.

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    pointofsale,promotingthebrandsavailableforpurchase(i.e.,SpeightsSummit,SteinlagerEdge,BrancottEstateWine).Butthesealcoholpromotionsdidnotappeartocontributetoeithereventsatmosphere.Onepossibleexplanation is that Super Liquor isa commercial liquorenterprise thatsellsa rangeofalcoholvarieties (e.g.,beer, spirits,wine, readytodrinks)anddifferentbrandsofeach.Thatis,whileSuperLiquorislinkedwiththesaleofalcoholasanofflicenceprovider,itdoesnotnecessarilypromoteoneparticularbrandof alcohol forpurchase at the cricket venues, thusreducingtheopportunityforanyonealcohollogotodominatethevisuallandscapeofthevenues.

    Overall,thefindingsfromourethnographicmethodsfromtheT20andODIcricketfixturesindicatethatthesesportseventshavealessprominentalcoholsportsponsorshiprelationshipthantheRWC,theHeinekenOpenandtheWellingtonSevens.Also,theirticketsalesandorganisationaldirectiveswereaimedatpromotingafamilyexperience,which includeddesignated lowalcoholandalcoholfree seating areas for families at each venue, branded as The National Bank Neighbourhood.Additionally, Ease up on the Drink messages frequented the big screens at the venues andattendeeswereobservedtobelessinterestedinconsuminglargeamountsofalcohol.

    4.1.5TheCultureofAlcoholatSportsEventsSurvey(CASES)ResponsesThe researchers developed the CASES as an exploratory instrument to examine how alcoholpromotionscontributetotheexpectationsoffansregardingtheirdrinkingbehaviouratmajorsportsevents, and to investigate thenature and extentof alcohol consumption atmajor sports events.Overall, the results highlight the perception that there is an entrenched, naturalised culture ofalcoholpromotionandconsumptionatsomesportsevents,moststronglyexhibited in the resultsfromtheWellingtonSevens.Wediscussthesefindingsingreaterdetailbelow.

    Participants responses from the CASES indicated that attendees at sports eventswere aware ofalcoholpromotionsatsportsevents.ThepercentageofT20andODIcricketparticipantswhoagreedwaslowerthanthatofparticipantsattheothertwoevents,whichcouldbeabyproductofthefactthat thecricket fixturesdidnothaveanalcoholnaming sponsor.Theparticipants responsesalsosignalled that, to somedegree,attendeesat sportseventsviewalcoholpromotions tobepartofexperiencingtheevents,orattheveryleastcontributingtotheatmosphereattheevents.

    Additionally,thesurveyprovidedinsightsintothemultifariousculturalassumptionsassociatedwithalcoholconsumptionatdifferentsportsevents.AlthoughparticipantsattheHeinekenOpenagreedthatdrinkingalcoholwaspartoftheatmosphereat the event and also made the event moreentertaining, the responses opposed assertionsthatalcoholconsumptionwaspartofthecultureoftheevent.AttheWellingtonSevens (andtoalesser extent the T20 and ODI cricket)participantsresponsesreproducedthenotionofapositivelinkbetweenalcoholconsumptionasasocially acceptable (and arguably expected) activity and the enjoyable social atmosphere (overallentertainmentculture)oftheevents.Inessence,theseperceptionsilluminatethewaysinwhichtheWellingtonSevenshashistoricallybeen,andcontinuestobe,brandedasapartyorcarnival,andthe powerful connection of the role of alcoholwith the social constructions of these rituals ofcontemporaryculture.

    TheCASESresultshighlighttheperceptionthatthereisanentrenched,naturalisedcultureofalcoholpromotionandconsumptionatsomesportsevents,moststronglyexhibitedintheresultsfromtheWellingtonSevens.

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    FurtherresultsfromtheCASESrevealedthatadisproportionatepercentageofparticipantsagreedthat theyattended theHeinekenOpenmore for thesport than for theatmosphere,andahigherpercentage of participants agreed that they attended the Wellington Sevens more for theatmospherethanforthesport.Ofthe17%whorespondedthattheydisagreedwithattendingtheWellingtonSevensmoreforthesport,themajority(72%)werefemaleandonly28%weremale.

    Moreover,theCASESresults indicated thatwhilemostparticipantshad indeedreceivedmessagesabout regulating their own alcohol consumption, they were not overly alarmed about youthvulnerability to alcohol messages at the events. Considering that, across the events, 68% ofparticipantsagreedthattheywereawareofthealcoholpromotionsattheevents,thissuggeststhatthese alcohol images and their ensuingmessages arebecoming increasinglynaturalisedwith thecultureofsportseventsandthatdrinkingalcoholisanormalisedactivityinNewZealandsocietyatlarge.

    In general, the Wellington Sevens participantsreportedthehighestnumberofdrinksconsumedpreevent,butalso thehighestnumberofdrinksthat they anticipated drinking and actuallyconsumingduring the event.Accordingly, theWellington Sevens is an event (only in comparisonwith theother twoweexamined)where spectatorsconsumeagreateramountofalcoholbeforearrivingattheeventaswellasagreateramountofalcoholattheevent,andperhapsexplainstheobservedgreaterpolicepresenceandmorerigorousbagchecksuponentrytotheevent.

    Thereareseveral limitations to thispartof the researchproject thatwarrantdiscussion.First,weacknowledge the small sample sizeand its limitedapplication for statistical comparisons.Second,being a pilot study to gauge peoples receptiveness to completing a research questionnaire at asportsevent,wepurposelydevelopedtheCASES(i.e.,aonepage,directsetofstatements)totakeas littletimeaspossibleforparticipantstocomplete.Thereforethenumberofstatementsthatwecouldincludewaslimitedandtheydidnotincludethenegativeaspectsofalcoholatsportsevents.Third,we did not standardise a definition for participants of the term atmosphere used in theCASES.Thistermwastakentomeanwhatevertheparticipantsdeemed ittobe,accordingtotheirpersonal perceptions as well as the events they were attending. Fourth, and as previouslymentioned,unliketheothereventstheT20andODIcricketdidnothaveanalcoholindustrynamingsponsor. Thus alcohol signage andpromotionswerenot asnumerousor evident as at theotherevents. Finally,weunderstand thatparticipantsmayhavebeen intoxicatedwhen completing thesurvey,orrespondedtoitemsinthesurveyinasociallydesirableway,thusintroducingapotentialbias,especiallyconsideringthatthe itemswereaboutahighlydebatedtopic inalcoholpromotionandconsumption(Davis,Thake&Vilhena,2010).

    4.2SKYSportTelevisionBroadcastsThroughthecontentanalyses,weexaminedthenatureanddurationofalcoholrelatedimagesandcrowdalcoholconsumptionatmajorsportseventsbroadcastontheSKYSportnetwork.

    Capturingthebillboardcategoryaspartofthebroadcastwasconditionalonthepartofthefieldorcourtinwhichthesportingcontestwasoccurring.Acrosstheevents,alcoholrelatedbillboardswere

    TheWellingtonSevensparticipantsreportedthehighestnumberofdrinksconsumedpreevent,butalsothehighestnumberofdrinksthattheyanticipateddrinkingandactuallyconsumingduringtheevent.

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    visible for 9% (Wellington Sevens) to 53% (Heineken Open) of the televised broadcasts. Notsurprisingly,daytimesportseventsarevaluedbyalcoholsponsorsgiventhattherearefew, ifany,brands competing at the same time, thus ensuring a kind of exclusivity not possible throughstandard television advertising (which remained less than 1% of the coverage in four of the fivebroadcasts).Additionally, sportseventsareappealing toalcoholcompaniesbecauseof the tightlyprescribed sponsorshiparrangementsbetween sportsgoverningbodiesand localorganisers (e.g.,MEMA 2007, and other exclusive naming rights associated with official taglines to the sportsevents).

    Likewise,capturingtheclothingcategory,inwhichtheCastleLagerlogoappearedonsomeoftheSouthAfricancricketplayersuniforms,alsohingedonthecameraanglescapturingplay.Tothisend,discussionsaboutothercountriessportsteamsandathletealcoholsponsorshipscompetinginNewZealand sports events alsowarrant attention as debates about regulating sports sponsorship byalcoholcompanies inNewZealandproceed.This isespeciallysignificantgiven that in theT20andODI cricket broadcasts, the Castle Lager logo was visible for 40% and 35% of the coveragerespectively, andwas the highest tallied and timed alcoholrelated event for the analysis of thecricketbroadcasts.

    Measuringthefrequencyanddurationofcrowdalcoholconsumptionwasauniqueinclusioninthecontent analysis for this study. Television coverage of alcohol consumption by the crowd,whichranged from0.4% (12gamesof theRWC) to29% (T20cricket)of thebroadcasts,screenedduringbreaksinthesportingcontests,betweengames,setsandinnings,andafterteamsandathleteshadscored. Indeed, this category (compared with, for example, billboards) is dependent on thediscretionofboththecameraoperatorsandtheproducersofthebroadcasts.Moreover,broadcastsofcrowdalcoholconsumptionhaveimplicationsfortelevisionviewerswishingtoattendtheeventsthe following year. Namely, televisedmoments of alcohol consumption by the crowds producerepresentations of particular drinking cultures associated with attending the events. Suchrepresentations provide information on how anattendee is supposed to act and drink, whichfurtherservestonaturalisetheprofileofalcoholwithinthelivesportseventenvironment.

    As stated in the Results section, the billboardcategories for the Wellington Sevens, theHeinekenOpenandthe12gamesoftheRWChadaverage screening frequencies ranging from 64times per hour to 180 times per hour. Virtuallyevery minute of the broadcasts contained alcoholsponsored stadium signage visible to thetelevision viewer. In comparisonwith the aforementioned studies from theUnited States,whichreportedfrequenciesofstadiumsignagescreeningsduringbroadcastsofgridironfootball,basketballand baseball occurring at 2.82 times per hour (Madden&Grube, 1994) and 3.1 times per hour(Zwarun,2006), the current studys results are substantially larger.While a formal and statisticalcomparisonisnotapplicablebetweentheresultsofthecurrentstudyandthoseofpreviousstudiesgiven thedifference inmethodologiesand sports codesanalysedweoffer theseaspointsofreference to highlight the increasing presence of alcohol sponsorship within highprofile sportsevents(Wenner&Jackson,2009).

    Televisioncoverageofalcoholconsumptionbythecrowdscreenedduringbreaksinthesportingcontests,betweengames,setsandinnings,andafterteamsandathleteshadscored.Thiscategoryisdependentonthediscretionofboththecameraoperatorsandtheproducersofthebroadcasts.

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    Findingsfromthesetypesofstudyunderscoretheneedtotakeheedofalcoholrelatedimagesthatmay[fly]undertheradar(Zwarun,2006,p.1496)duringthebroadcastofalcoholsponsoredsportsevents. In this light, the linksbetween sport and alcohol atevents andhow these areultimatelybroadcast should not be overlooked by policymakers and regulatory agencies.While the formalregulationofalcoholsponsorship remainsacontroversialpublicpolicydebate,alcoholbrandscanstillachieveapresenceintelevisedsportseventsthroughvariousformsofalcoholrelatedimages.

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    5.0ObservationsforFurtherReviewThefindingsfromthisresearchprojectofferinsightsforfurtherinvestigationintothelinksbetweenalcoholandsportsponsorshipinthefollowingareas:18

    Acomprehensivereviewoftheresponsibilityofbroadcasterswithrespecttotheproductionand representationofalcohol sponsorshipandalso,as this studyhashighlighted,alcoholconsumptionbyspectatorswhoareincreasinglypartoftheentertainmentproductionoftheevents.

    Indepthinterviewswithnationalsportsorganisationsandsportseventsorganisersacrossarange of sports codes to examine the underpinnings of contractual agreementswith thealcoholindustryandhowtheseorganisationsprioritiseandconsideralcoholpromotionandalcoholsponsorship.

    A crosscultural analysis of both local and international policies and their pathways andeffectswithnationalsportsorganisationsandkeystakeholders(e.g.,FrancesLoivin19andlegislative changes inBrazil for the FIFA 2014WorldCup20),whichmay provide theNewZealandgovernmentandotherpolicymakerswithevidenceto informanydecisionsabouttheimplicationsofalcoholsponsorshipofsport.

    Ongoing,quantitativemonitoringofalcoholrelated imagesduring televisedbroadcastsofsports events, which help to inform broadcast policy for alcoholsponsored events andregulatory guidelines seeking to reduce youth consumption of alcoholthemed imagesduringdaytimesportsbroadcasting.

    Qualitative researchwith key authorities (e.g., police, event security and liquor controlmanagers) about the challenges ofmonitoring and regulating alcohol sales and alcoholconsumptionatsportsevents.

    18ItisacknowledgedthattheNewZealandGovernmenthasindicatedthatitwillputtogetheranexpertreviewintheareaofalcoholadvertisingandsponsorship.Thiscanconsidermostoftheseissues.19OneofthemostfrequentlyreferredtolegislationsontheregulationofalcoholisFrancesLoivin(Baboretal.,2010).Implementedin1991toprotectagainstrisksandharmtopublichealth,oneofthemostsignificantoutcomes of Loi vin is that no alcohol advertising is allowed on television or in cinemas and alcoholsponsorshipofculturalandsporteventsisprohibited(Rigaud&Craplet,2004).OnesuccessfulexampleunderLoi vins comprehensive regulation of alcohol marketing was Frances hosting of the 2007 RWC, whenHeinekenwasaWorldwidePartnerandtheofficialbeerofthetournament.WhileLoivinremains,formany,ablueprintforregulatorypracticesagainstalcoholadvertisingandsponsorship,itisimportanttonotethatLoivindoesnotrestrictthesaleofalcoholatsportseventsinFrance.20InBrazil,theFdrationInternationaledeFootballAssociation(FIFA;theglobalgoverningbodyforfootball)requireda change toa law thathasprohibited the saleof alcohol inBrazilian sports stadiums since2003.FIFAsWorldCuptournamentwillbehostedbyBrazilin2014andFIFAwantedthelawchangedtoprotectthecommercialrightsofoneofitsWorldCupSponsors,Budweiser(anAmericanbeercompany).ThislawchangewaspartoftheconditionsstipulatedbyFIFAwhenBrazilwasawardedthe2014WorldCup.InJune2012,theCongress and President of Brazil eventually passed the highly publicised and nicknamed Budweiser Bill(BrazilWorld Cup beer law sign by President Rousseff, June 6, 2012,www.bbc.co.uk). Indeed, this casehighlightsthepowerofoneglobalgoverningsportsbodytoinfluenceamendmentstopreexistingnationstatelegislationtopreservealcoholsponsorshiprightstosportsevents.

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    Focusgroups,indepthinterviewsandethnographicinquirywithparticulargroupsatsportsevents togainanunderstandingof the socialmeaningof theevents, the consumptionofalcohol propagated by the entertainment experience, and how consuming alcohol caninfluencethesocialconstructionofparticulargroupidentities(e.g.,gender).

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    Davis,C.G.,Thake,J.,&Vilhena,N.(2010).Socialdesirabilitybiasesinselfreportedalcoholconsumptionandharms.AddictiveBehaviours,35(4),302311.

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    Gee,S.,&Jackson,S.J.(2012).Leisurecorporations,beerbrandculture,andthecrisisofmasculinity:TheSpeightsSouthernManadvertisingcampaign.LeisureStudies,31,83102.

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    Jones,S.C.,&Jernigan,D.H.(2010).Editorial:Alcoholadvertising,marketingandregulation.JournalofPublicAffairs,10,15.

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    New Zealand Cricket says fullstrength beer will not be sold at any venue during internationalmatchesthissummer.(2010,December6).RadioNewZealand.RetrievedJuly26,2011fromwww.radionz.co.nz/news/national/63444/fullstrengthbeerbanatallcricketinternationals.

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    7.0Appendices

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    Table1.LiveSportsEventsObservations RWC2011

    GameRWC2011Fan

    Zone HeinekenOpen2012HertzWellingtonIRBSevens

    2012InternationalT20Cricket2012 ODICricket2012

    EventLocation OtagoStadium,DunedinCaptainCookWharf,

    AucklandASBStadium,Auckland

    WestpacStadium,Wellington

    SeddonPark,Hamilton

    WestpacStadium,Wellington

    TicketEntryPrice $95.00 Free $74.00$99.00/day $95.00/day $20.00 $25.00NumberofLiquorOutletsInsideEvent 4 2 3 23 3 12

    Max.NumberofDrinks/Person 4 2 Nolimit 4 4 4

    PriceofAlcohol$7.50beer

    $6.50lightbeer$9.50wine

    $7.50beer$6.50lightbeer$9.50wine

    $7beer/cider$8wine

    $7beer/cider$4.50lightbeer

    $8wine

    $6.50beer$6lightbeer$8wine

    $7beer/cider$4.50lightbeer

    $8wine

    AlcoholServingTimeCutoff

    20minutesintosecondhalf

    Nospecifictimesetaspartycontinuedaftergameended

    None

    Outsideliquoroutletsclosed30minutesbeforeeventoverInsideliquoroutletsclosedjustbeforethelastmatch

    4oversremaining

    Outsideliquoroutletsclosed30minutesbeforeeventoverInsideliquoroutletsclosedwith5oversremaining

    AlcoholOpenedatPointofSale Yes Yes Yes No No No

    BagCheckUponEntry Yes Yes No Yes Yes YesPolicePresence Yes Yes No Yes Yes YesApprox.QueueTimestoPurchaseAlcohol 5minutes 30minutes 12minutes 710minutes(atbusiesttime)

    Minimalqueues(23peopledeep)

    Minimalqueues(coffeelinelonger)

    BrandsofAlcoholAvailableHeineken

    AmstelLightBrancottEstate

    HeinekenAmstelLight

    BrancottEstate

    HeinekenMonteithsCiderJacobsCreekWine

    SpeightsSummitSpeightsCiderSteinlagerEdgeTwoTracksWine

    SpeightsSummitSteinlagerEdgeBrancottEstate

    SpeightsSummitSpeightsCiderSteinlagerEdgeBrancottEstate

    TypesofAlcoholPromotion

    HeinekenbillboardsaroundthepitchAtpointofsale

    HeinekenlogosaroundtheperimeterofthebigscreensAtpointofsale

    Heinekenlogosaroundtheplayingcourt,onumbrellas,flagsandofficialsclothingAroundseatingareas

    SpeightsSummitlogospaintedonpitch,electronicbillboardsaroundpitch,stationerybillboardsaroundpitchAtpointofsale

    2signsaroundpitch(SuperLiquor)Atpointofsale

    2signs(Tuistadiumsignage)2SuperLiquorsignsaroundpitchAtpointofsale

    TypeofAlcoholContainer CansforbeerPETwinebottlesPlasticcupsforbeerPETwinebottles Glassbottles PETbottles PETbottles PETbottles

    MessagesAboutModeratingDrinking

    EnjoyResponsiblybillboardsaroundpitchandsignsatpointofsale

    None

    Averbalmessageof:EnjoyresponsiblyandDontdrinkanddriveattrophypresentationbyPeterWills(HeinekenNational

    VideomessagebyNZSevensteamonbigscreensaboutsunscreen,drinkingwaterandlookingaftermatesPublicserviceaudiomessage

    EaseupontheDrinkmessageappearedonbigscreens

    EaseupontheDrinkmessageappearedonbigscreens

  • AlcoholPromotion&ConsumptionatMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand

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    SponsorshipandEventsCoordinator)

    beforeenteringstadium(aboutdrinking,parking,streaking,etc.)

  • AlcoholPromotion&ConsumptionatMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand

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    Table2.TheCultureofAlcoholatSportsEventsSurveyDemographicProfile HeinekenOpen

    2012(n=)HertzWellingtonIRBSevens2012(n=)

    InternationalT20&ODICricket2012(n=)

    Numberofrespondents 14 106 34Male 3 61 18Female 11 45 16

    1825yrs 0 44 212635yrs 2 30 43645yrs 0 18 44655yrs 3 6 45665yrs 2 8 16675yrs 7 0 075yrs+ 0 0 0Avg.numberoftimestoevent 6.1 2.4 4.6Attendedwithfriends 3 84 29Attendedwithfamily 10 19 5Attendedwithcoworkers 0 3 0Attendedwithother 1 0 0

  • AlcoholPromotion&ConsumptionatMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand

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    Table3.TheCultureofAlcoholatSportsEventsSurveyResponses(Items1to11) HeinekenOpen2012 HertzWellingtonIRBSevens2012 InternationalT20&ODICricket2012

    Item StronglyAgree Agree Neither DisagreeStronglyDisagree

    StronglyAgree Agree Neither Disagree

    StronglyDisagree

    StronglyAgree Agree Neither Disagree

    StronglyDisagree

    1.Iamawareofthealcoholpromotionsatthisevent.

    N 5 5 3 0 1 17 59 17 10 2 8 11 10 3 2

    % 71.43 21.43 7.14 71.7 16.98 11.32 55.88 29.41 14.71

    2.Alcoholsponsorssignageandpromotioncontributetothesocialatmosphereatthisevent.

    N 1 4 5 3 1 4 49 29 19 5 3 6 10 13 2

    % 35.71 35.71 28.57 50 27.36 22.64 26.47 29.41 44.12

    3.Drinkingalcoholispartoftheatmosphereatthisevent.

    N 1 7 4 1 1 44 52 10 0 0 6 21 1 5 1

    % 57.14 28.57 14.29 90.57 9.43 0 79.41 2.94 17.65

    4.Drinkingalcoholmakestheeventmoreentertaining.

    N 0 7 5 0 2 33 54 16 2 1 7 14 4 8 1

    % 50 35.71 14.29 82.08 15.09 2.83 61.77 11.76 26.47

    5.Icometothiseventfortheatmosphere.

    N 1 6 1 2 4 58 40 8 0 0 7 18 8 1 0

    % 50 7.14 42.86 92.45 7.55 0 73.53 23.53 2.94

    6.Icometothiseventforthesport.

    N 9 5 0 0 0 32 43 13 12 6 12 18 2 2 0

    % 100 0 0 70.76 12.26 16.98 88.24 5.88 5.88

    7.Theatmosphereatthiseventmakesmefeellikehavingadrinkcontainingalcohol.

    N 0 5 3 3 3 34 61 4 7 0 5 17 4 8 0

    % 35.71 21.43 42.86 89.63 3.77 6.60 64.71 11.76 23.53

    8.TheatmosphereatthiseventmakesmefeellikedrinkingmorethanIwouldonanaveragedrinkingoccasion.

    N 1 0 2 7 4 20 45 12 23 6Nodata.

    % 7.14 14.29 78.57 61.32 11.32 27.36

    9.Drinkingalcoholatthiseventisjustwhatyoudo.

    N 0 2 3 7 2 46 36 13 11 0 3 10 11 9 1

    % 14.29 21.43 64.28 77.36 12.26 10.38 38.24 32.35 29.41

    10.Iamveryconcernedwiththeexposuretoalcoholmessagesforyouthatthisevent.

    N 1 1 8 2 2 7 25 20 39 15 2 6 12 10 4

    % 14.29 57.14 28.57 30.19 18.87 50.94 23.53 35.29 41.18

    11.Ihaveseenorheardmessagesaboutmoderatingmydrinkingat N Nodata. 13 53 13 24 3 6 13 5 7 3

  • AlcoholPromotion&ConsumptionatMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand

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    thisevent. % 62.27 12.26 25.47 55.88 14.71 29.41

  • AlcoholPromotion&ConsumptionatMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand

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    Table4.TheCultureofAlcoholatSportsEventsSurveyResponses(Items12and13)

    Heineken

    Open2012HertzWellingtonIRBSevens2012

    InternationalT20&ODICricket2012

    Item

    12.Howmanydrinkscontainingalcoholdidyouconsumebeforecomingtothisevent?

    0N 13 15 19% 92.86 14.15 55.89

    1or2N 1 22 11% 7.14 20.75 32.35

    3,4,or5N 0 38 2% 0 35.85 5.88

    6,7,or8N 0 23 1% 0 21.70 2.94

    9ormoreN 0 8 1% 0 7.55 2.94

    13.Howmanydrinkscontainingalcoholhaveyouorwillyouconsumeatthisevent?

    0N 5 2 8% 35.71 1.89 23.53

    1or2N 6 15 6% 42.86 14.15 17.65

    3,4,or5N 0 29 13% 0 27.36 38.24

    6,7,or8N 3 33 3% 21.43 31.13 8.82

    9ormoreN 0 27 4% 0 25.47 11.76

  • AlcoholPromotion&ConsumptionatMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand

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    Table5.TelevisionBroadcastsAnalyses 12Gamesofthe

    RWC2011HeinekenOpen

    2012HertzWellingtonIRB

    Sevens2012InternationalT20Cricket2012 ODICricket2012

    BillboardFrequency 4,593 10,109 1,310 176 69

    Timeinsec(%ofbroadcast) 27,324(30%) 108,379(53%) 6,604(9%) 3,509(26%) 3,863(24%)

    EnjoyResponsiblyFrequency 1,661

    Timeinsec(%ofbroadcast) 8,661(9%)

    CrowdDrinkingFrequency 78 4,872 635 82 32

    Timeinsec(%ofbroadcast) 330(0.4%) 17,922(9%) 3,776(5%) 3,823(29%) 3,677(23%)

    SignatureFrequency 48 362

    Timeinsec(%ofbroadcast) 123(0.1%) 1,161(0.5%)

    CommercialFrequency 31 19 4 2 0

    Timeinsec(%ofbroadcast) 610(0.7%) 555(0.3%) 90(0.1%) 45(0.3%) 0

    EventLogoFrequency 1,627

    Timeinsec(%ofbroadcast) 15,326(7%)

    ClothingFrequency 321 547 658

    Timeinsec(%ofbroadcast) 1,789(0.9%) 5,302(40%) 5,503(35%)

    TotalCoverageRecorded 25h:27m:13s 57h:05m:38s 20h:14m:6s 3h:40m:18s 4h:25m:00s*

    Note:ThistimereflectsthetotaltimethetournamentairedontheSKYSportnetwork,includingraindelaysandpreviousyearsmatches,whichwerenotcodedbecausetheywerenotconsideredpartofthecoverageoftheliveHeinekenOpen2012.

    *Note:This timereflects the first inningsof thecoverageonly.Unfortunately thesecond inningswasnotcodedoranalysedowing to issueswith therecordingoftheprogramme.

  • AlcoholPromotion&ConsumptionatMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand

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    InformationSheetforParticipantsThankyouforshowinganinterestinthisproject.Pleasereadtheinformationsheetcarefullybeforedecidingwhetherornottoparticipate.Participationisvoluntary,ifyoudecidetoparticipatewethankyou.Ifyoudecidenottotakeparttherewillbenodisadvantagetoyouofanykindandwethankyouforconsideringourrequest.Whatistheaimoftheproject?ThisinvestigationseekstoexplorealcoholpromotionandconsumptionatmajorsportingeventsinNewZealand.Whatwilltheparticipantsbeaskedtodo?Shouldyouagreetotakepartinthisproject,youwillbeaskedtovolunteeryourtimetotakepartinaquestionnaireregardingtheaboveissues.Thequestionnairewilltakeapproximately5minutestocomplete.Canparticipantschangetheirmindandwithdrawfromtheproject?Youmaywithdrawyourparticipationintheprojectatanytimeandwithoutanydisadvantagetoyourselfofanykind.Howwilltheinformationbeused?Pleasenotethatanypersonalinformationobtainedfromthesurveywillremainstrictlyanonymousandyourconfidentialitywillbepreservedatalltimes.Onlytheresearcherinvolvedintheprojectwillhavedirectaccesstopersonalinformation.Noinformationthatcanidentifytheparticipantsindividuallywillbedisclosedorpublished.Aplainlanguagesummaryoftheresultswillbeavailableuponrequest.Ifyouhaveanyquestionsconcerningthisstudy,pleasedonothesitatetocalloremail:DrSarahGee (06)3569099ext.81568 S.Gee@massey.ac.nzThedatacollectedwillbesecurelystoredinsuchawaythatonlytheresearcherwillbeabletogainaccesstoit.Attheendoftheprojectanypersonalinformationwillbedestroyedimmediatelyexceptthat,asrequiredbytheUniversitysresearchpolicy,anyresearchdataonwhichtheresultsoftheprojectdependwillberetainedinsecurestorageforfiveyears,afterwhichitwillbedestroyed.Thisprojecthasbeenevaluatedbypeerreviewandjudgedtobelowrisk.Consequently,ithasnotbeenreviewedbyoneoftheUniversitysHumanEthicsCommittees.Theresearchernamedaboveisresponsiblefortheethicalconductofthisresearch.Ifyouhaveanyconcernsabouttheconductofthisresearchprojectthatyouwishtoraisewithsomeoneotherthantheresearcher,pleasecontactProfessorJohnONeill,Director(ResearchEthics),telephone063505249,emailhumanethics@massey.ac.nz.

    **Pleaseturnovertobeginsurvey.

  • AlcoholPromotion&ConsumptionatMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand

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    CultureofAlcoholatSportsEventsSurvey(CASES)Areyou(pleasecircleone): male female Howoldareyou(pleasecircleone)? 1825 2635 3645 4655 5665 6675 76+Areyou(pleasecircleone): LivinginNewZealandpermanently VisitingNewZealandHowmanytimeshaveyoubeentothisevent?___________Areyouherewith(pleasecircleone): friends family workcolleagues

    other,pleasespecify:__________________Pleasereadeachstatementcarefullyandcircletheboxthatbestdescribesyouranswer.Therearenorightorwronganswers,sodonotspendtoomuchtimeonanyonequestion,andpleaseanswerashonestlyasyoucan.

    Iamawareofthealcoholpromotions(e.g.,signage,etc.)atthisevent.

    StronglyAgree Agree

    NeitherAgreenorDisagree

    Disagree StronglyDisagree

    Alcoholsponsorssignageandpromotionscontributetothesocialatmosphereatthisevent.

    StronglyAgree Agree

    NeitherAgreenorDisagree

    Disagree StronglyDisagree

    Drinkingalcoholispartoftheatmosphereatthisevent.

    StronglyAgree Agree

    NeitherAgreenorDisagree

    Disagree StronglyDisagree

    Drinkingalcoholmakestheeventmoreentertaining.

    StronglyAgree Agree

    NeitherAgreenorDisagree

    Disagree StronglyDisagree

    Icometothiseventfortheatmosphere. StronglyAgree AgreeNeitherAgreenorDisagree

    Disagree StronglyDisagree

    Icometothiseventforthesport. StronglyAgree AgreeNeitherAgreenorDisagree

    Disagree StronglyDisagree

    Theatmosphereatthiseventmakesmefeellikehavingadrinkcontainingalcohol.

    StronglyAgree Agree

    NeitherAgreenorDisagree

    Disagree StronglyDisagree

    TheatmosphereatthiseventmakesmefeellikedrinkingmorealcoholthanIwouldonanaveragedrinkingoccasion.

    StronglyAgree Agree

    NeitherAgreenorDisagree

    Disagree StronglyDisagree

    Drinkingalcoholatthiseventisjustwhatyoudo. StronglyAgree AgreeNeitherAgreenorDisagree

    Disagree StronglyDisagree

    Iamveryconcernedwiththeexposuretoalcoholmessagesforyouthatthisevent.

    StronglyAgree Agree

    NeitherAgreenorDisagree

    Disagree StronglyDisagree

    Ihaveseenorheardmessagesaboutmoderatingmydrinkingatthisevent.

    StronglyAgree Agree

    NeitherAgreenorDisagree

    Disagree StronglyDisagree

    Howmanydrinkscontainingalcoholdidyouconsumebeforecomingtotheevent? 0 1or2 3,4,or5 6,7,or8 9ormore

  • AlcoholPromotion&ConsumptionatMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand

    39

    Howmanydrinkscontainingalcoholhaveyouorwillyouconsumeattheevent? 0 1or2 3,4or5 6,7,or8 9ormore

    Thankyouforyourtime!

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