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<ul><li><p>The culture of alcohol promotion and consumption at major sports </p><p>events in New Zealand </p><p>Research report commissioned by the Health Promotion Agency </p><p> Authors: </p><p>Dr Sarah Gee </p><p>Professor Steve J. Jackson </p><p> Dr Michael Sam </p><p>August 2013 </p></li><li><p>ISBN: 978-1-927224-58-8 (online) </p><p>Citation: Gee, S., Jackson, S. J. &amp; Sam, M. (2013). The culture of alcohol promotion and consumption at major sports events in New Zealand: Research report commissioned by the Health Promotion Agency. Wellington: Health Promotion Agency. </p><p>This document is available at: www.hpa.org.nz </p><p>Any queries regarding this report should be directed to HPA at the following address: </p><p>Health Promotion Agency Level 4, ASB House 101 The Terrace Wellington 6011 PO Box 2142 Wellington 6140 New Zealand </p><p> August 2013 </p></li><li><p>COMMISSIONING CONTACTS COMMENTS: </p><p>The Health Promotion Agency (HPA) commission was managed by Mark Lyne, Principal Advisor Drinking Environments. </p><p>In order to support effective event planning and management, HPA sought to commission research to explore the relationship between sport, alcohol and the sponsorship of alcohol at large events. Dr Sarah Gee of Massey University, a specialist in the associations between alcohol and sport, was commissioned in 2011 to undertake the research. </p><p>The report presents findings from four case studies, each of a large alcohol-sponsored sporting event in New Zealand. Data was collected via ethnographic observation, in situ surveys and broadcast content analysis. The analysis provides a critical reflection of the role of alcohol-sponsorship in the culture of large sporting events in New Zealand. </p><p>Those with interest in an increasingly complex nexus between sport, alcohol and culture, as well as those interested in the use of mixed method approaches for social inquiry, will find the report highly valuable. </p><p>REVIEWED INTERNALLY AT HPA BY: </p><p>Mark Lyne, Principal Advisor, Drinking Environments; Margaret Chartres, Senior Researcher; Dr Sarah Wright, Researcher. </p><p>EXTERNALLY PEER REVIEWED BY: </p><p>This report has been externally reviewed by an internationally recognised expert in the field. </p><p>COPYRIGHT: </p><p>The copyright owner of this publication is the HPA. The HPA permits the reproduction of material from this publication without prior notification, provided that fair representation is made of the material and the HPA is acknowledged as the source. </p><p>DISCLAIMER: </p><p>This research has been carried out by an independent party under contract or by instruction of the HPA. The views, observations and analysis expressed in this report are those of the authors and are not to be attributed to the HPA. </p></li><li><p>TheCultureofAlcoholPromotionandConsumption</p><p>atMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand</p><p>August2013</p></li><li><p>AlcoholPromotion&amp;ConsumptionatMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand</p><p>ii</p><p>ISBN:9781927224267(print)9781927224274(online)</p><p>ReportpreparedfortheHealthPromotionAgencyby:</p><p>SarahGee</p><p>SchoolofSportandExerciseMasseyUniversityPrivateBag11222(PN621)ManawatuMailCentrePalmerstonNorth4442NewZealandSteveJ.JacksonMichaelSamSchoolofPhysicalEducationUniversityofOtagoBox56Dunedin9054NewZealand</p><p>Publishedby</p><p>HealthPromotionAgencyPOBox5023LambtonQuayWellington6145NewZealand</p><p>August2013</p></li><li><p>AlcoholPromotion&amp;ConsumptionatMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand</p><p>iii</p><p>DisclaimerTheobservations,analysisandviewpointsofthisreportremainthoseoftheauthorsandshouldnotbe attributed to the Health Promotion Agency (formerly the Alcohol Advisory Council of NewZealand:ALAC).</p><p>AcknowledgementsWewouldliketothankandacknowledgethecontributionsofMeganGilchrist,KieranCodyandJulieMinktothedatacollectionandanalysisforthisresearchproject.WewouldalsoliketoacknowledgeALACforfundingtheprojectandAndrewGalloway(AucklandCouncil)aswellasDrAndrewHearn,Margaret Chartres, Dr Sarah Wright, Helen Fielding, Dr Craig Gordon and Mark Lyne (HealthPromotionAgency)fortheirsupportinthisproject.</p></li><li><p>AlcoholPromotion&amp;ConsumptionatMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand</p><p>iv</p><p>AbstractThisreportpresentsresearchthatinvestigatedthecultureofalcoholpromotionandconsumptionatmajor sports events in New Zealand. The project was divided into four case studies, each onerelating toaparticularalcoholsponsored sportsevent inNewZealandbetween September2011andFebruary2012:(1)theRugbyWorldCup2011;(2)theHeinekenOpenMensTennisTournament2012; (3) theHertzWellington InternationalRugbyBoardsRugby Sevens2012; and (4) theNewZealandCricketInternationalTwenty20andOneDayInternational2012matches.Foreachofthesefourcasestudies,thealcoholrelatedpromotionandconsumptionofboththe liveexperienceandthe SKY Sport televisionbroadcastof the eventwere analysed.Using amatrixofqualitative andquantitativemethodologicaltools,theresearchteamcapturedthepublicspaceswherealcoholwaspromotedandwherepeopleconsumedbothalcoholandsportsevents,aswellashowthetelevisionviewerencounteredalcoholpromotionsrelatedtothosemajorsportsevents.Thisreporthighlightsthe findingsof the research, including: (1) thenatureandprofileofalcoholpromotionsatmajorsports events; (2) peoples sporteventrelated drinking behaviour; and (3) the frequency anddurationofalcoholrelatedimagesandcrowdalcoholconsumptionatmajorsportseventsbroadcastontheSKYSportnetwork.Furthermore,throughthisprojectwebroadenourunderstandingoftheroleandeffectsofalcoholaspartof theoverallentertainmentpackageandexperienceof sportsmegaevents,includingtheincreasinglycomplexandsophisticatedlinksbetweenalcoholpromotion,sportssponsorshipandtheformationofparticulardrinkingcultures.</p></li><li><p>AlcoholPromotion&amp;ConsumptionatMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand</p><p>v</p><p>TableofContentsExecutiveSummary............................................................................................................................1</p><p>1.0Background...................................................................................................................................5</p><p>1.1LiveSportsEvents.............................................................................................................................6</p><p>1.1.1CaseStudy1RugbyWorldCup2011......................................................................................6</p><p>1.1.2CaseStudy2HeinekenOpenMensTennisTournament2012...............................................7</p><p>1.1.3CaseStudy3HertzWellingtonIRBRugbySevensTournament2012.....................................7</p><p>1.1.4CaseStudy4NewZealandCricketInternationalT20andODI2012......................................7</p><p>1.2SKYSportTelevisionBroadcasts.......................................................................................................7</p><p>2.0Methodology.................................................................................................................................9</p><p>2.1LiveSportsEvents.............................................................................................................................9</p><p>2.1.1TheCultureofAlcoholatSportsEventsSurvey(CASES)............................................................9</p><p>2.2SKYSportTelevisionBroadcasts.....................................................................................................10</p><p>2.2.1TelevisionBroadcastCodingCategories..................................................................................11</p><p>3.0Results..........................................................................................................................................12</p><p>3.1LiveSportsEvents...........................................................................................................................12</p><p>3.1.1TheCultureofAlcoholatSportsEventsSurvey(CASES)Results..............................................12</p><p>3.2SKYSportTelevisionBroadcasts.....................................................................................................14</p><p>3.2.1TwelveGamesoftheRugbyWorldCup2011..........................................................................15</p><p>3.2.2HeinekenOpenMensTennisTournament2012.....................................................................15</p><p>3.2.3HertzWellingtonIRBRugbySevensTournament2012...........................................................16</p><p>3.2.4NewZealandCricketInternationalT202012...........................................................................16</p><p>3.2.5NewZealandCricketODI2012................................................................................................17</p><p>4.0Discussion....................................................................................................................................18</p><p>4.1LiveSportsEvents...........................................................................................................................18</p><p>4.1.1RugbyWorldCup2011............................................................................................................18</p><p>4.1.2HeinekenOpenMensTennisTournament2012.....................................................................19</p><p>4.1.3HertzWellingtonIRBRugbySevensTournament2012...........................................................19</p><p>4.1.4NewZealandCricketInternationalT20andODI2012.............................................................20</p><p>4.1.5TheCultureofAlcoholatSportsEventsSurvey(CASES)Responses.........................................21</p></li><li><p>AlcoholPromotion&amp;ConsumptionatMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand</p><p>vi</p><p>4.2SKYSportTelevisionBroadcasts.....................................................................................................22</p><p>5.0ObservationsforFurtherReview............................................................................................25</p><p>6.0References...................................................................................................................................26</p><p>7.0Appendices..................................................................................................................................29</p><p>Table1.LiveSportsEventsObservations.............................................................................................30</p><p>Table2.TheCultureofAlcoholatSportsEventsSurveyDemographicProfile....................................32</p><p>Table3.TheCultureofAlcoholatSportsEventsSurveyResponses(Items1to11)...........................33</p><p>Table4.TheCultureofAlcoholatSportsEventsSurveyResponses(Items12and13).......................35</p><p>Table5.TelevisionBroadcastsAnalyses..............................................................................................36</p><p>InformationSheetforParticipants.......................................................................................................37</p><p>CultureofAlcoholatSportsEventsSurvey(CASES).............................................................................38</p></li><li><p>AlcoholPromotion&amp;ConsumptionatMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand</p><p>1</p><p>ExecutiveSummaryThe overarching purposes of this research project were to investigate the culture of alcoholpromotion and consumption atmajor sports events in New Zealand, and to answer a call foradditional research that uses nontraditionalmethods in the sportalcohol nexus (Palmer, 2011).Several questions related to alcohol promotion and the practices of alcohol consumption duringsports events were developed to help guide this research project. More specifically, we wereinterestedin:</p><p> Whatformsofpromotionlinkalcoholsponsorshipwitheventpromotion? Howisalcoholconsumptionpromotedduringmajorsportsevents? Howdoalcoholpromotionscontributetotheexpectationsoffansregardingtheirdrinking</p><p>behaviouratmajorsportsevents? Whatarethenatureandextentofalcoholconsumptionatmajorsportsevents? Whatarethenatureanddurationofalcoholrelatedimagesandcrowdalcoholconsumption</p><p>atmajorsportseventsthatarebroadcastontheSKYSportnetwork?</p><p>This researchprojectwasdivided into fourcasestudies,eachone relating toaparticularalcoholsponsored sports event inNew Zealand. For each of these four case studies, the alcoholrelatedpromotionandconsumptionofboththe liveexperienceandtheSKYSport televisionbroadcastoftheeventwereanalysed.Theprojectexaminedthefollowingsportseventsassitesforanalysis:theRugby World Cup 2011 (the RWC), the Heineken Open Mens Tennis Tournament 2012 (theHeineken Open), the Hertz Wellington International Rugby Board Rugby Sevens 2012 (theWellington Sevens) and the New Zealand Cricket International Twenty20 (T20) and One DayInternational(ODI)2012matches.</p><p>TobetterunderstandthecultureofalcoholpromotionandconsumptionwithinboththeliveeventsandtheSKYSporttelevisionbroadcastsoftheevents,theprojectemployedamatrixofqualitativeandquantitativemethods that includedobservations, ethnography, a selfcompletion survey andcontentanalysesofbroadcastprogramming.</p><p>Findingsfromourethnographicandotherobservationsatthelivesportseventswerethat:</p><p> For theRWC, thecorporateclutterof imagesbetweenHeinekenandSteinlagerprecludedthe possibility of experiencing the RWC without exposure to alcohol symbols, alcoholconsumptionandpromotions.</p><p> TheHeinekenOpen had the highest saturation of alcohol promotions; that is, it had thegreatestnumberofvisiblealcohollogosatthevenuecomparedwithothereventvenues.</p><p> At the Wellington Sevens, promotiondriven alcohol consumption was observed to besynonymouswith thecultureof theevent,and thesportingcontestwassecondary to thefanexperienceforthemajorityofthefans.</p><p> The T20 and ODI cricket fixtures featured a less prominent alcoholsport sponsorshiprelationship,with ticket sales and organisational directives aimed at promoting a familyexperiencethroughdesignatedlowalcoholandalcoholfreeseatingareasforfamilies.</p></li><li><p>AlcoholPromotion&amp;ConsumptionatMajorSportsEventsinNewZealand</p><p>2</p><p>Takentogether,theseobservations illuminateourcommonsenseunderstandingofan increasinglynaturalised alcoholsport link in the entertainment experience of major sports events in NewZealand.1</p><p>The research teamdevelopedaCultureofAlcoholatSportsEventsSurvey (CASES)and randomlyselectedattendeesatthreeofthefourevents(i.e.,theHeinekenOpen,theWellingtonSevensandthe T20 and ODI cricket) to complete the questionnaire.2 The CASES was designed to gatherresponses from attendees to gain insights into their perceptions of alcohol promotions, theirinvolvementinsportsrelateddrinking,andthedrinkingculturessurroundingtheevents.</p><p>A totalof 154participants (HeinekenOpenn=14;Wellington Sevensn=106; T20 andODI cricketn=34)completedtheCASESandtheresultsindicatethefollowing:</p><p> Acrossallselectedsportsevents,68%ofparticipantsagreedthattheywereawareofalcoholpromotionsattheevents.</p><p> 82% of participants agreed that alcohol consumptionwas part of the atmosphere of theevents,andinparticular91%ofparticipantsattheWellingtonSevensagreed.</p><p> 74%ofparticipantsagreed thatalcoholconsumptionadded to theentertainmentvalueoftheevents,andinparticular82%ofparticipantsattheWellingtonSevensagreed.</p><p> 90%ofparticipantsat theWellingtonSevensand65%ofparticipantsat theT20andODIcricketagreed that these sportseventscreated theexpectation thatone shouldconsumealcohol.</p><p> 61%ofparticipantsattheWellingtonSevensagreedthattheywouldconsumemorealcoholattheeventthantheywouldonanaveragedrinkingoccasion,while79%ofparticipantsattheHeinekenOpendisagreed.</p><p> 77%ofparticipantsat theWellingtonSevensagreed that consumingalcoholat theeventwasjustwhatyou...</p></li></ul>