Soil and water pollution

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  • 1.Soil Pollution

2. DIFFERENT TYPE OF SOILS Major soil types in IndiaThe main types of soil in India are as follows: 1) Red soils 2) Laterites and lateritic soil 3) Black soil 4) Alluvial soils 5) Forest & hill soils 6) Peaty and marshy soils 3. Soil Pollution Soil PollutionSoil Pollution is the Soil Pollution is the addition of any addition of any substance that has substance that has a negative effect on a negative effect on land or the living land or the living things. things.The substances that The substances that cause soil pollution cause soil pollution are called pollutants. are called pollutants. 4. Soil pollution is caused byAddition of chemicals reducing the productive capacity of soil Toxic substances from dumps contaminated the ground water by leaching out and percolating through the soil layer. Mining activities leads to loss of land for agriculture production. Residual chemicals of the fertilizers and fertilizers and pesticides pesticides Disposal of urban solid wastes Disposal of urban solid wastes 5. Soil Pollution Un planned Agricultural practicesDisposal of industrial wastes and sludges over land, sub surface disposal of toxic wastes etc 6. The pollutant, if volatile, could evaporate, again causing little harm to the soil (however, not a solution to the bigger pollution problem, as it might become a source of air pollution). Pollutant could infiltrate through the unsaturated soil, in much the same way as ground water. 7. Others involve accidents involving vehicles (automobiles, trucks and airplanes) not transporting wastes, but carrying materials, including fuel, that when spilled contaminate the soil. 8. Other spills are the direct action of humans pouring potentially toxic materials (solvents, paints, household cleaning agents, oil, etc.) onto the soil surface rather than disposing these materials by more appropriate means. Illegal dumping is the disposal of waste in unauthorized areas. It is also known as open dumping, fly dumping, and mid-night dumping. Illegal dumps occur most often along isolated roadsides in remote areas of the country. Materials often found in illegal dumps include large household appliances, tires, excess building materials, old furniture, oil, household chemicals, and common household refuse.Washington stateMissouriVirginiaNew YorkIowa 9. Soil contaminants are spilled onto the surface through many different activities. Most of these are the result of accidents involving the vehicles that are transporting waste material from site of origin to a disposal site.Source: UNEP, Zehng Zhong Su, China, Still PicturesMuch good agricultural land is threatened by chemical pollution, particularly - as here in China - by waste products from urban centres. Chemical degradation is responsible for 12 per cent of global soil degradationwearing levelB" protective gearwearing level A" protective gear 10. Agricultural practices, including the use of agricultural chemicals, are another primary source of pollution on or near the ground surface.Most agricultural chemicals are water-soluble nitrates and phosphates that are applied to fields, lawns and gardens to stimulate the growth of crops, grass and flowers. 11. Agricultural Chemicals When not used by the plants the nutrients can enter streams and lakes during the run-off or leaching events. Once in a body of water, these nutrients continue to promote the growth of plants, the resulting plant detritus is food for micro-organisms, and as the population of such organisms grows, the supply of oxygen in the water is depleted. 12. "Biochemical Oxygen Demand", or "BOD". Water is capable of supporting a large population of bacteria and the bacteria will have a high demand for oxygen. Soon the oxygen supply is depleted by the bacteria and other organisms in the water now lack oxygen (fish kills)Algae in streams 13. Effect of soil pollution 1. The pathogenic bacteria spread infection 2. Chemicals such as Arsenic, mercury, chromium, Nickel, lead, cadmium, Zinc, Iron being toxic affect the living beings 14. Effects of soil pollutionExcess use of fertilizers and pesticides affects the plant growth besides reducing crop yield 15. Effect of soil pollutionWater logging and salinity may increase the level of dissolved salt content in ground water as well as in the soil 16. Control of soil pollutionTreating the sewage before land disposal. By preserving and protecting the top fertile soil, we can control erosion. Disposal of wastes in landfill. Utilizing optimal dose of fertilizers and pesticides . Rotating the crop pattern 17. Land or SoilImportant natural resources for economic development The economy of the country depends on land productivity. All the demands for food, energy and other requirements have to be met by land. So Land is the most important endowment of nature 18. Land or SoilRelentless pressure of increasing human and cattle population and excessive demands of unprecedented rates of economic development are the major causes of the widespread degradation of the land 19. Soil Pollution Pressure of population and failure of agricultural productivities to keep places with population have led to cultivation in marginal lands and lands on hillsides 20. Soil Pollution Soil Pollution Preservation of ecological balance may mean conservation and wise management of the life support systems of land, water flora, fauna and the atmosphere 21. END 22. Water pollution 23. A very small amount of DDT in water can build up to harmful levels in living things 24. Major Sources of Water Major Sources of Water Pollution PollutionThe three major sources of water The three major sources of water pollution are human wastes, pollution are human wastes, industrial wastes, and chemical industrial wastes, and chemical runoff. runoff. 25. Human WasteSewage in cities During heavy rains or floods, sanitary sewers sometimes overflow and can pollute the surface water. If this happens, people are often told to boil water for drinking and cooking after a flood. The boiling kills many disease-causing organisms. 26. Sewage in Rural Areas Sewage in Rural AreasIn rural areas, people must be careful where they locate septic tanks. If a tank is too near a stream or on a hill, wastewater can leak into the stream or flow downhill to the area of a well. 27. Leaking septic tank 28. Sewage in Rural AreasWastes from cattle, pigs, and chickens can also be a problem in rural areas. Animal wastes can run off from pastures and barnyards and pass disease-causing bacteria and other kinds of pollution into bodies of water. 29. Industrial Wastes Industrial WastesChemicals, smoke , and heated Chemicals, smoke , and heated water are three types of pollutants water are three types of pollutants produced by factories, mines, and produced by factories, mines, and other industries. other industries. 30. Chemicals Chemicals Many factory processes Many factory processes involve toxic chemicals and involve toxic chemicals and strong acids. strong acids. Other toxic wastes are Other toxic wastes are produced as a result of produced as a result of manufacturing and mining manufacturing and mining processes. processes. Although laws control many Although laws control many point sources of chemical point sources of chemical pollution, some factories pollution, some factories still release toxic chemicals still release toxic chemicals directly into nearby rivers directly into nearby rivers and lakes. and lakes. 31. Chemicals Chemicals Another problem is pollution Another problem is pollution caused by nonpoint sources. caused by nonpoint sources. In the past, many industries In the past, many industries stored toxic wastes in barrels stored toxic wastes in barrels or other containers buried or other containers buried underground. underground. Over the years, however, many Over the years, however, many of these containers rusted or of these containers rusted or broke. broke. The chemicals leaked out, The chemicals leaked out, polluting both the soil and the polluting both the soil and the groundwater. groundwater. 32. Barrels of nuclear waste found in an abandoned German salt mine 33. Smoke and Exhaust Smoke and ExhaustMany power plants and factories burn coal or oil Many power plants and factories burn coal or oil to fuel their processes. to fuel their processes.The engines of millions of cars, trucks, and buses The engines of millions of cars, trucks, and buses burn gasoline. burn gasoline.Smoke and exhaust from these sources pour into Smoke and exhaust from these sources pour into the air, especially around large cities. the air, especially around large cities. 34. Smoke and Exhaust When coal, oil, and gasoline are burned, the gases sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide are released into the atmosphere. The sulfur and nitrogen react with water, forming sulfuric and nitric acids. The result is acid rain. 35. Acid Rain Acid Rain Acid rain is rain or another form of precipitation that is more acidic than normal. Acid rain can affect fish, harm trees, and eat away the stone of buildings and statues. 36. Heat Pollution Heat Pollution Much of the water in factories is used to cool machinery or metal objects. The warm water alone can act as a pollutant. Many water organisms can live in only a narrow range of temperatures. Warm water released by factory into a nearby river or pond raises the temperature of the water, sometimes enough to harm the living things there. 37. Chemical Runoff Chemical Runoff Farmers spread or spray fertilizing chemicals on their fields to produce better crops. When rain falls on the fields, it washes some of the chemicals away as runoff. Water used for irrigation also creates runoff. The fertilizers in the runoff are a nonpoint 38. Examples of runoff 39. Runoff from farms Runoff from farmsWith the addition of fertilizers running off into ponds and lakes, the process of eutrophication speeds up. Runoff and irrigation water carry away pollutants from farm fields such