session 2 basic nutrients

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  • 1.

2.

  • a substance that must be consumed as part of the diet to provide a source of energy, material for growth, or substances to regulate growth or energy production.
  • - Bantam Medical Dictionary

3. a raw or processed agricultural commodity or other nutrient source - SACN, 5 thEd. 4.

  • Essential Non-dispensable Body cannot produce
  • Non-Essential Dispensable The body can produce
  • Conditionally Essential Required during certain physiologic orpathologic conditions

5.

  • Supply energy
  • Cofactors in metabolic chemical reactions
  • Transport substances throughout body
  • Regulate body temperature
  • Impact food palatability
  • Form structural components of the body

6.

  • Water
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein
  • Fat
  • Minerals
  • Vitamins
  • Antioxidants*

Energy Producing Nutrients 7.

  • Most important nutrient
  • Body composition ~ 70% of fat-free body weight
  • Functions:
      • Solvent
      • Transports materials
      • Chemical reactant (hydrolysis)
      • Supports blood volume and pressure
      • Regulates body temperature
      • Provides shape to body

8. * Loss of 15% results in death How Water Gets Into an Animal Metabolizable Ingested Breakdown of carbohydrates, protein, fat as used for energy Free Water Routes of Water Loss Urine, Feces, Respiration, Perspiration, Milk, 9. Water Content Varies by Nutrient Carbohydrates 0.6 grams of water per gram of carbohydrate Protein 0.4 grams of water per gram of protein Fat 0.2 grams of water per gram of fat 10.

  • What types of things influence the amount ofwater an animal needs?

11.

  • Species
  • Environment (climate, air movement, etc.)
  • Food type and source
  • Diet composition (high protein, fiber, mineral salts)
  • Life stage and lifestyle
  • Water quality

12.

  • Total Dissolved Solids
  • Index for measuring water quality
  • More dissolved solids, decreased water quality
  • 6 most common minerals present in water are chloride, sodium, calcium, magnesium, sulfates and bicarbonate
  • Other factors: pesticides, pathogens, bacteria, algae, protozoa
  • < 2,500 mg/L dissolved solids desired

13.

  • Energy: the ability to do work -SACN, p.26
  • Calorie: amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 C.
  • Kilocalorie= 1000 calories

14.

  • All living cells require energy
  • After water, energy is most critical requirement in nutrition
  • Carbohydrates, Protein, Fat provide energy from the diet
  • Not all of consumed energy is used

15. GROSS ENERGY (GE) DIGESTIBLE ENERGY (DE) METABOLIZABLE ENERGY (ME) 16.

  • Gross Energy (GE)
  • Total amount of heat produced when feed is burnt completely
  • GE determines total energy content of a feed, butdoesnt equal amount of energy available to the animal

GROSS ENERGY (GE) 17.

  • Digestible Energy (DE)
  • the energy remaining after the energy lost in feces is subtracted from the gross energy
  • Measure of the energy absorbed from the feed after consumption
  • Not a true measure, some energy is from tissue sloughing from the GI tract

DIGESTIBLE ENERGY (DE) 18. Digestible Energy DIGESTIBLE ENERGY =Gross Energy Fecal energy losses Image source:Dr. Geneva Acor, Hills Pet Nutrition, Inc. 19.

  • Metabolizable Energy (ME)
  • Energy available to the animal after energy from feces, urine, and gases has been subtracted from the gross energy
  • More accurate than DE for estimating amount of energy available to animal
  • Expensive: feeding trials

METABOLIZABLE ENERGY (ME) 20. Metabolizable Energy METABOLIZABLE ENERGY= Gross Energy Fecal, Urine, Gas losses Digestible Energy Image source:Dr. Geneva Acor, Hills Pet Nutrition, Inc. Gross Energy 21. 22.

  • Most accurately predicts amount of energy available to the animal
  • Has been determined on a few feedstuffs
  • Used widely in formulating diets for ruminant species

23.

  • Method for estimating energy content in a feed
  • Food is fed and all dietary components are measured
  • Amount of dietary components in feces is measured

24.

  • Digestible crude protein
  • + digestible crude fiber
  • + digestible nitrogen free extract ( starches and sugars)
  • +2.25 X Digestible ether extract ( fat)
  • TOTAL DIGESTIBLE NUTRIENTS

25.

  • WHAT CHARACTERISTICS OF A FEED MIGHT AFFECT ITS DIGESTIBILITY?

26.

  • Maturity of plant material- as plants mature, an undigestible material calledligninincreases in plant cell walls

27.

  • Energy producing nutrient
  • Composed of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O) CH 2 O
  • Includes sugars, glycogen, starch and cellulose
  • Mainly in plants(~75% of solid plant material)
      • Cell layer is cellulose;
      • Starch is the energy source

28. Classified according to molecule size Type of CHO Example CH 2 O Monosaccharides (one molecule) Glucose, dextrose, fructose (CH 2 O) 2 Disaccharides(two molecules) Sucrose, Lactose (CH 2 O) 3 Polysaccharides(three or more molecules) Cellulose, Glycogen, Pectin 29.

  • MonosaccharidesCH 2 O GLUCOSE
  • Glucose&fructosemost common
  • Glucose is immediate source of energy for cellular reactions i.e. tissue repair, muscle contractions, nerve transmissions
  • Body continually supplies glucose to blood from stored compounds in liver (glycogen)

ExtremelyImportant 30.

  • Disaccharides(CH 2 O) 2
  • Short chain of 2 CHO molecules
  • Lactose(milk sugar);Sucrose(table sugar)
  • Plants convert their stores of carbohydrates to sucrose for easy transport through the plant
  • Proteins often have attached disaccharides

31.

  • Polysaccharides (CH 2 O) 3
  • Includesstarches ,glycogenandcellulose
  • The most abundant of all carbohydrates

32.

  • Starches- from plants, broken down into glucose subunits
  • Glycogen- storage form of glucose in animal cells, stored in liver and muscle, broken down to release glucose
  • Cellulose- comprises majority of plant cell wall, insoluble, digested by bacteria in the herbivore digestive tract

33.

  • Energy producing nutrient
  • Found in highest concentration of any nutrient except water in all living organisms
  • Composed of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), andnitrogen(N) (and sometimes sulfur (S) and phosphorus (P)

34.

  • WHAT FUNCTIONS DO PROTEINS PERFORM INTHE BODY?

35.

  • Functions
  • Tissue Building
  • Hormones
  • Growth
  • Enzymes
  • Immune System
  • Blood cells

36.

  • Made up ofamino acid (AA) sub-units
  • Definition:
  • Small organic compound that consists of an amino group (NH 2 ) on one end and a carboxyl group (COOH) on other plus a special group that defines the individual amino acid
  • AA are linked together by peptide bonds
  • 2 linked bonds = dipeptide
  • 3+ linked bonds = polypeptide

37.

  • Synthesized by plants, rumen microorganisms
  • Non-herbivores get AA in diet
  • Absorbed in the anterior small intestine
  • Most protein in plants and animals composed of only 20 amino acids
  • 10 Essential Amino Acids (11 for cats)

38. Essential Amino Acids Phenylalanine Histidine Valine Arginine Tryptophan Lysine Threonine Leucine Isoleucine Methionine Taurine* Cats only 39.

  • Requirement for monogastric and avian species is for amino acids
  • High needs for:
      • young, rapidly growing
      • gestating and lactating animals
      • surgery or trauma
      • certain pathologic conditions

40.

  • Protein Deficiency
  • Poor growth rate in young; weight loss in a

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