cardiovascular system chapter 15. overview basic function: bulk transport basic function: bulk...

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  • CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMChapter 15

  • OVERVIEWBASIC FUNCTION: Bulk TransportMove nutrients and gases to tissue areasNutrients for energy, building materialsOxygen for cellular respirationRemove wastes from tissue areasUrea and other metabolic wastesCarbon dioxideBASIC STRUCTURE: Heart + VesselsHeart force pumpPulmonary Circuit blood to lungs and back to heartPulmonary Artery alveoli + pulmonary capillaries pulmonary veinsSystemic Circuit circulation to all parts of bodyArteries take blood away from heartCapillaries material exchangeVeins take blood towards heartDIAGRAM

  • HEART STRUCTURECoveringsPericardiumDouble layeredSeparated by pericardial cavityEpicardium visceral pericardiumOuter layerSerous membraneMycardium cardiac muscle tissueThickestEndocardium lines chambersPurkinje fibersChambersAtria upper (L & R)Auricles outside flapsVentricles lower (L & R)Ineratrial and interventricle septumsValves one way flowChordae Tendinae and Papillary musclesTricuspid b/w R. Atria & R. VentricleBicuspid (mitral) b/w L. Atria & L. VentriclePulmonary Semilunar b/w R. Ventricle & Pulmonary ArteriesAortic Semilunar b/w L. Ventricle & AortaDIAGRAMINTERACTIVE DIAGRAMVALVE DIAGRAM

  • HEART STRUCTUREOrder of Blood Flow (Deoxygenated Blood)Veins from Systemic (Body) CircuitSuperior/ Inferior Vena CavaRight AtriaTricuspid ValveRight VentriclePulmonary Semilunar ValvePulmonary ArteriesLungs (capillaries)

    Order of Blood Flow (Oxygenated Blood)Lungs (capillaries)Pulmonary ArteriesLeft AtriaBicuspid ValveLeft VentricleAortic Semilunar ValveAortaArteries of Systemic CircuitHeart circulationCoronary arteries capillaries cardiac veins coronary sinusHEART DIAGRAM

  • CARDIAC CONDUCTION SYSTEMSpecialized tissue to transmit muscle impulse for proper heart contractionsFunctional synctiumSelf-excitatoryCardiac cycle 1 complete heartbeatSystole contraction Diastole relaxationlub dup1st sound A-V valves2nd sound semilunar valves

    Atria systole; Ventricle diastoleBlood through A-V valvesSA (sinoatrial) nodePacemakerTransmit impulse to atriaAtria diastole; Ventricle systoleAV (atrialventricular) node AV bundle (Bundle of His) purkinje fibersBlood forced through semilunar valvesLub AV valves slam shutMurmur - defectAtria diastole; Ventricle diastoleHeart resetsDIAGRAM

  • EKG AND HEART ACTIONSElectrocardiogram graph of electrical activity of heart during cardiac cycleP wave depolarization of atriaImpulse causes atria systoleP-Q interval flat lineImpulse travels from atria to ventricular fibersNo contraction QRS Complex depolarization of ventricles; repolarization of atriaVentricular systoleAtria returning to relaxed stateT wave repolarization of ventriclesDIAGRAM

  • FACTORS AFFECTINGCARDIAC CYCLEParasympathetic pathways inhibitAchVegas NerveSympathetic pathway excitatoryNorepinephrineControlled by cardiac center (medulla oblongata)Baroreceptors in carotid arteries and aortaCerebrum and hypothalamusFainting slow downAnxiety speed upTemperatureIonsArrythmias irregular heartrate (ECG)Clinical Application 15.3 P. 588 - 589Tachycardia, bradycardia, ventricular fibrillationECG interactive tool

  • LAYERS OF THE HEART

  • OPERATION OF VALVES

  • ECG Depolarization and Repolarization of cardiac tissue

  • CORONARY ARTERIES &CARDIAC VEINS

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