animal nutrition. 5 basic classes of nutrients water energy nutrients proteins minerals vitamins

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  • Slide 1
  • Animal Nutrition
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  • 5 Basic Classes of Nutrients Water Energy Nutrients Proteins Minerals Vitamins
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  • Water Most Important Nutrient Needed in largest amounts of all nutrients 65%-85% of body weight at birth 45% to 60% of body weight at maturity 90%-95% of blood is water
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  • Functions of Water Transportation of other nutrients and waste products Temperature regulation Maintains shape of cells Lubricates joints and organs in the body
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  • Sources of Water 1.Drinking Water 2.Water within the feed 3.Metabolic water
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  • 1. Drinking Water Things That Affect Drinking Water Consumption Heat Dry Matter Consumption Dietary Factors Feeds high in water reduces drinking Feeds high in fiber, salt, and proteins increase drinking Access to water Location, length of water trough, competition with other animals
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  • 1. Drinking Water Things That Affect Drinking Water Consumption Function of the animal (lactating cow vs. dry cow) Dairy Cow 4-5 lbs of water= 1 lb of milk Dairy Cows allowed water twice a day milk production reduced by 15%
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  • 1. Drinking Water How much water do mature, non-stressed animals need? Swine= 2-5 gal/hd/day Sheep= 1-4 gal/hd/day Cattle= 8-16 gal/hd/day Horses= 10-14 gal/hd/day
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  • 2. Water Within The Feed Grains can range from 8% to 30% water Forages can range from 5% in a dry hay to more than 90% water in lush young grass
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  • 3. Metabolic Water Water produced by the body during chemical reactions 5-10% of total water intake
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  • Water Loss How is water lost from the animals body? 1.Urine 2.Feces 3.Sweat 4.Milk production
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  • Water Deficiencies What happens if animals are deprived of water? 1.Reduced feed consumption Reduces amount of feed eaten by 27% Reduces feed efficiency by 33% Reduces weight gain by 50% 2.Weight Loss 3.Water Intoxication 4-5 days without water animal will drink up to 50% of body weight in hour 4.Death All of these lead to a loss of what?___________________
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  • 5 Basic Classes of Nutrients Water Energy Nutrients Proteins Minerals Vitamins
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  • Energy Nutrients There are 3 types of energy nutrients, what are they? 1.Carbohydrates 2.Fats 3.Oils
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  • Energy Nutrients Where do animals get energy nutrients? Grains Corn, Oats, Wheat, Barley, Rye Forages Corn Silage, Straw, Pasture Grasses Animal Fats Molasses
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  • Energy Nutrients What are the functions of energy nutrients? 1.Provide Energy 2.Maintain body temperature 3.Muscle development 4.Growth 5.Development of fetus
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  • Energy Nutrients What happens if animals dont get enough energy nutrients? Slow growth Delayed puberty Decreased milk production Weight Loss Less resistance to diseases and parasites
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  • Energy Nutrients Animals need more energy nutrients when they are doing what? 1.Producing Milk Energy needs double 2.Pregnant Energy needed for baby 3.Working
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  • Energy Nutrients What is the most important energy nutrient? Carbohydrates
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  • Energy Nutrients -Carbs What are the 4 things carbohydrates are made up of? 1.Sugars 2.Starches 3.Cellulose 4.Lignin
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  • Energy Nutrients- Carbs What are the functions of carbohydrates? 1.Provide energy for the cells Chemical reaction very much like burning 2.Provides energy for muscle movement Heartbeat, Walking, Breathing 3.Produce heat to keep animal warm 4.Extra carbs are stored as fats
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  • Energy Nutrients- Carbs There are 2 types of carbohydrates, what are they? 1.Simple Carbs Nitrogen Free Extract (NFEs) Consist of sugars and starches Supply immediate energy Come from cereal grains
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  • Energy Nutrients- Carbs There are 2 types of carbohydrates, what are they? 2. Complex Carbs Known as fiber Consist of cellulose and lignin More difficult to digest than simple CHOs Fiber is found primarily and roughages such as hay and pasture plants. Examples are alfalfa, brome grass, orchard grass, and bluegrass.
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  • Energy Nutrients- Carbs Fiber Content Dry weight- weight of a feed with the moisture content removed The dry weight of most grains and roughages ranges from 65-80% CHO Mature roughages contain more fiber when harvested than those that are less mature The mature plant is not easily digested Ruminants can digest large amounts of fiber
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  • Energy Nutrients Carbohydrates are the most important energy nutrient what are the other 2 energy nutrients? Fats and Oils
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  • Energy Nutrients- Fats and Oils Contain more carbon and hydrogen than do CHOs Fats have 2.25 times the energy value of CHOs Fats are solid at room temperature, oils are liquid Easily digested by animals
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  • Energy Nutrients How do we measure the amount of energy nutrients in a animal feed? Calories
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  • Energy Nutrients What is a calorie? Unit of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree centigrade From 14.5 to 15.5 degrees centigrade Energy in feeds is expressed in the unit of measurement of the calorie. Kilocalorie (1,000 cal) states the heat content of feed.
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  • Energy Nutrients Review 1.What are the three types of energy nutrients? 2.Name 2 sources of energy nutrients 3.Name 2 functions of energy nutrients 4.What are 3 things that can happen if an animal doesnt get enough energy nutrients? 5.What is the difference between complex carbs and simple carbs? 6.Why can cows digest fiber better than pigs? 7.Explain what a calorie measures
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  • 5 Basic Classes of Nutrients Water Energy Nutrients Proteins Minerals Vitamins
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  • Proteins What are proteins? Organic compounds that are made up of amino acids Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins Most expensive part of animal ration
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  • Proteins What are the functions of proteins? 1.Build and repair body organs and tissues Ligaments, Hair, Hooves, Horns, Skin, Muscles 2.Production of milk, eggs, and wool 3.Fetus development
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  • Proteins When do animals need the greatest amounts of protein? 1.Young and Growing 2.Pregnant 3.Lactating (producing milk)
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  • Proteins What are the 2 types of amino acids? 1.Non-Essential Amino Acids Needed by animals Are synthesized by the body from other A.A.s and do not have to be provided
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  • Proteins What are the 2 types of amino acids? 2. Essential Amino Acids Cannot be made from other A.A.s Must be provided in the diet Nonruminants need most of their A.A.s provided
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  • Proteins What are the 2 sources of proteins? 1.Animal Proteins Meat and Bone Scraps Blood Meal Fish Meal 2.Vegetable Proteins Soybeans Peanut Meal Hay Pastures
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  • Proteins Animal Proteins Source vs. Vegetable/Plant Protein Source Which is a better source? Animal Proteins Why? They contain a good balance of the essential amino acids
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  • Proteins Simple stomached animals need a balance of the essential A.A.s Cereal grains combined in the right amounts, can provide a balanced ration Urea- synthetic nitrogen source that is mixed in a ration to provide nitrogen for making AAs in the ruminants body
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  • Proteins What is crude protein? The amount of ammonical nitrogen in the feed (ammonia) multiplied by 6.25 It may contain materials that are not true protein
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  • Proteins What is digestible protein? The true protein in a feed Not all protein is digestible 60% of the crude protein(CP) in a roughage diet is digestible 75% of the CP in a high concentrate ration is digestible
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  • Protein Review 1.What are proteins and what are the functions of proteins? 2.Explain what crude protein is. 3.Name two sources of proteins and an example of each. 4.Why do young animal require more protein that older animals? 5.What is the difference between essential and nonessential amino acids? 6.What is digestible protein?
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  • 5 Basic Classes of Nutrients Water Energy Nutrients Proteins Minerals Vitamins
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  • Minerals What are minerals? Inorganic substances that animals need in small amounts Minerals contain no carbon
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  • Minerals What are some functions of minerals? 1. Provide material for growth of: Bones, Teeth, and Tissue 2. Help with muscular activities 3. Reproduction 4. Digestion of feed
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  • Minerals Minerals are divided into 2 groups, what are they? 1.Major (macro) Minerals 2.Trace (micro) Minerals
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  • Minerals- Major Needed in large amounts 7 Macro Minerals Calcium Phosphorus Sodium Chlorine Potassium Sulfur Magnesium
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