sand casting

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1SAND CASTING2

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4Sand, mixed with clay binder & water (so it will hold its shape) plus coal dust to improve surface finishPattern(a copy of the shape you want to produce, made of wood, plastic or metal)Basic materials & equipment for sand-castingContainer of molten metal(filled from furnace)Top and bottom mold forms (made of metal, open at top and bottom)Rammer (tool to compact the sand; often a pressing machine is used)5MOLDING:Sand placed into bottom mold form & compactedMOLDING: Pattern placed into moldBasic summary of the sand casting process. . .21THENFirst of all, mix the sand. 6MOLDING: Add the top mold form34MOLDING: Fill top form with compacted sand. A tube or pipe provides a path to pour the metal inPattern is still inside!7MOLDING:Take the top mold off and remove pattern & pipe or post56MOLDING: Replace the top mold and fasten securely!Pouring holeIn the middle of the sand is a cavity shaped like the pattern!87CASTING: Pour the metal (container is filled from furnace immediately before you are ready to pour)8Wait for the metal to cool(minutes to days, depending on the size of the casting)

98SHAKE OUT: Break apart the two halves of the mold & take out the partusually requires vibrating or striking the mold to break apart the sandCLEANING. Sand is cleaned off the part, the tab where metal flowed in must be removed. 9A copy of the pattern has now been made in metal10Mold forms are reused11Sand is broken up, screened to remove debris and clumps, and sent for remixing10PATTERN&PATTERN MAKING1011

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34PATTERN MAKINGALLOWANCES35

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41MOLDING SAND42

Molding Sand Constituents43

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Types of Molding Sand46

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53CORE & CORE MAKING54

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66SAND CONDITIONING67

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80Melting Furnaces81

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Cupola 83

Construction of Cupola 84

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Zones in Cupola 86Working of Cupola

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88Electric Arc Furnace

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Induction Furnace91

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