sand casting presentation

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bronze cast model

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INTRODUCTION Sand casting, the most widely used casting process, utilizes expendable sand moulds to form complex metal parts that can be made of nearly any alloy. The sand casting process involves the use of a furnace, metal, pattern, and sand mould.

MATERIALS Sand casting is able to make use of almost any alloy. An advantage of sand casting is the ability to cast materials with high melting temperatures, including steel, nickel, and titanium. The four most common materials that are used in sand casting are shown below, along with their melting temperatures.


Melting temperature 1220 F (660 C) 1980 F (1082 C) 1990-2300 F (10881260 C) 2500 F (1371 C)

Aluminum alloys Brass alloys Cast iron Cast steel

ADVANTAGES Can produce very large parts Can form complex shapes Many material options Low tooling and equipment cost Scrap can be recycled Short lead time possible

DISADVANTAGES Poor material strength High porosity possible Poor surface finish and tolerance Secondary machining often required Low production rate High labor cost

THE SANDDifferent types of sand are used in sand casting; Petro-bond This is a mixture of quality sand and oil or synthetic resin. Green sand A mixture of sand, clay, water and sometimes other additives. It is called green sand because it is reusable. The right amount of water has to be added to prevent porosity. Sand mixed with water glass can be hardened with CO2 gas .

(This transforms the sand into a solid mould, which can be used after the cope & drag are removed.)

CHARACTERISTICS OF SAND FLOWABILITY The ability to pack tightly around the pattern. PLASTIC DEFORMATION Have the ability to deform slightly without cracking so that the pattern can be withdrawn. GREEN STRENGTH Have the ability to support its own weight when stripped from the pattern, and also withstand pressure of molten

PERMEABILITY This allows the gases and steam to escape from the mold during casting. THERMAL STABILTY Ability to resist damage, such as cracking, from the heat of the molten metal. REUSABILITY Ability of the sand to be reused for future sand molds.

EQUIPMENTS CASTING FLASK Consists of the cope (top halve) and the drag (bottom halve) to receive the pattern.

The drag (left) and cope (right) of a casting flask

PATTERN Model of products, made of wood, plastic or metals.

CORE To produce cavities within the casting, made of plaster, metals and ceramics.

Left:- Corebox, with resulting (wire reinforced) cores directly below. Right:- Pattern (used with the core) and the resulting casting below (the wires are from the remains of the core)

STRAIGHT EDGE BAR To level the sand above or below the casting flask, made of metals.

RAMMER Consists of 2 different ends, an wedgeshaped end and a flat shape end. Use to compress the sand.

PARTLING SAND Put on the pattern to make it easier to remove.

LADLE Use to melt the metals and pour into the

GATING SYSTEMThis picture shows the cross section of a sand casting mould.

DEFINATIONS POURING CUP This is where the metal is poured into the mold.

SPRUE The vertical channel from the top of the mold to the gating and riser system. Also, a generic term used to cover all gates, runners and risers.

RUNNER The portion of the gate assembly that connects the sprue to the casting in gate or riser.

GATE The end of the runner in a mold where molten metal enters the mold cavity.

RISER A reservoir of molten metal provided to compensate for the contraction of the metal as it solidifies.

MOLD CAVITY The impression in a mold produced by the removal of the pattern. When filled with molten metal it forms a casting.

COPE Upper or top most section of a flask, mold or pattern.

PARTING LINE A line on a pattern or casting corresponding to the separation between the parts of a mold.

DRAG Lower or bottom section of a flask, mold or pattern.


A wooden pattern of the required casting shape is made. A metal or plastic can also be used.

A metal or wooden flask is used to contain the sand.

The pattern is placed in the flask and packed in with sand.

The other half of the mould is placed on top, again staring with a wooden or metal frame.

Sand is added around the pattern through a sieve, so that it packs together better.

The sand is then packed around the pattern using the wedgeshaped end of a rammer.

More sand is added, this time not sieved.

The sand is then rammed in firmly using a peen or the flat end of the rammer.

The sand is then leveled off, and the excess removed.

A piece of pipe is carefully pushed through the sand to the pattern to create a runner, and some risers.

Small holes are created in the surface of the sand, and CO2 gas is passed through to harden the molding sand mixed with the water glass.

The 2 halves of the mould are then separated and the pattern removed.

The entrance to the mould ( the runner ) is then connected to the mould cavity, and the other half mould is hardened with CO2.

The 2 halves of the mould are placed back together, ready to make the casting.

Molten metal is poured through the runner until it fills the mould and starts to flow up the risers.

The metal is left to cool and solidify, and then the mould is broken apart to reveal the casting.

The metal is left to cool and solidify, and then the mould is broken apart to reveal the casting.

The runner and risers can then be cut off, and the casting polished to give a better surface finish.