2. Sand Casting

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Sand CastingaPriori Training

www.aPriori.com

Sand Casting Process OverviewTOOLINGMake Core Boxes Make Patterns Custom Mold Parts ( If needed) Tooling Materials Preparation Steps

MELTINGCore Sand & Additives Purchased Metal

Process Steps Optional Steps

SAND PREPARATIONBinders, New Sand, Additives Sand Preparation

Metal Charging Melting Alloying Recycle Waste Metal (Sprues, Gates, Risers, Runners,

CORE MAKINGCore Making

Scrap

Mold Making -Pack Sand - Set Cores -Add risers, gates, filters

CASTING PROCESSPour Solidification & Cooling Shakeout Cleaning Finishing In-line Inspect

Recycle Mold Sand

SECONDARYHeat Treat Off-line Inspection Secondary Processes (Machining, ) Heat Treat

2009-2010 aPriori Confidential, all rights reserved

Sand Casting Mold Elements

Chaplets

2009-2010 aPriori Confidential, all rights reserved

How aPriori Works Sand CastingConfigured Data Layer

aPriori VPEsProcess Capability & Routing Rules

Customer VPEsPhysical Manufacturing Capabilities

Supplier VPEs

Cost Accounting Data

aPriori User Interface

aPriori Geometry AssessmentP

Geometric Cost Drivers

Process Routing EngineP

Physics Based Mechanistic ModelsP

Cost ModelsP

Non-Geometric Cost Drivers

2009-2010 aPriori Confidential, all rights reserved

P

Patent Protected aPriori IP

Sand Casting GCDs: Draw DirectionDraw Direction Click to Override Current parting line (orange)

Possible parting planes (blue)

Advanced parting line option 2009-2010 aPriori Confidential, all rights reserved

Sand Casting GCDs: Holes, Voids, ThicknessHoles Evaluated for core or other operation based on size, shape orientation and tol.

aPriori Geometry AssessmentP

Voids Candidates for core

Min & Max Thickness Mold and part feasibility

2009-2010 aPriori Confidential, all rights reserved

Sand Casting GCDs: Combo VoidsCombo Voids = Voids merged with Holes Combo Voids are considered as a single feature in the casting process You can Merge and Unmerge Holes from a Combo Void This may result in a different routing, part cost, and tooling cost

aPriori Geometry AssessmentP

2009-2010 aPriori Confidential, all rights reserved

Sand Casting Process RoutingsDashed = Optional Process

Process Routing EngineP

Melting

Core Making

Mold Making, Pouring, Cooling

Shakeout

Cleaning

Finishing

In-line Inspection

Oil Core

Vertical AutomaticC02 Cured Hot Box Isocure Gas No bake Shell Stock/Extruded None or all of these can be part of the process Mold Making Pouring Cooling

Horizontal AutomaticMold Making Pouring Cooling

Manual StandardMold Making Pouring Cooling

Manual FloorMold Making Pouring Cooling

* Only one of these four is part of the process 2009-2010 aPriori Confidential, all rights reserved

Selecting Molding Type and MachineProcess Capability and Routing Rules Configurable Data Layer Selected VPE

Process Routing Engine

P

32 x 6 x 6

X X X X X X

X

Molding Type Selection -Compares part size to machine flask size for each machine in the mold type -Selects first feasible machine -Calculates the number of cavities that will fit in the mold

2009-2010 aPriori Confidential, all rights reserved

P

Patent Protected aPriori IP

Sand Casting Machine SelectionMelting Lowest conversion cost Cleaning Selects first feasible based on machine capacity (# of parts) and size Finishing Selects first feasible based on part weight and machine capacity

Process Routing EngineP

Molding Selects first feasible based on part and machine size Core Making Selects first feasible process that can fabricate all cores based on core box size

Cooling, Shakeout, Inspection VPE default machine

2009-2010 aPriori Confidential, all rights reserved

Pour Selects first feasible based on part weight and ladle capacity

How aPriori Works Sand Casting Cycle TimePhysical Manufacturing Capabilities Configurable Data Layer Selected VPE

aPriori Geometry AssessmentP

Physics Based Mechanistic ModelsP

Time Calculations -Calculated for each feasible routing -Machine Cycle Time -Machine Setup Time -Labor Handling Time Material Calculations -Yields -Material Utilization 2009-2010 aPriori Confidential, all rights reserved

How aPriori Works User Overrides with Process Setup OptionsNumber of Cavities Calculated value based on mold size Direct user override

Check for Drafts Compares drafts on part to variables in VPE

Check Minimum Thickness Compares minimum wall thickness of part to minimum allowable wall thickness from material table

Check for Rounds Compares sharp corners on part to variables in VPE

Recommendation: leave draft, rounds, min thickness unchecked until design matures 2009-2010 aPriori Confidential, all rights reserved

How aPriori Works Sand Casting Cost ModelPhysics Based Mechanistic ModelsP

Cost Accounting Data Cost ModelsP

Configurable Data Layer Selected VPE

Variable Costs Material Labor and Overhead Setup Capital Investments Pattern Making Core Box Amortized Investments Investment per Part Expendable Tooling Sand for cores and molds 2009-2010 aPriori Confidential, all rights reserved

Tips for Use Sand CastingCheck the Parting line There can be multiple good parting line assignments depending on part geometry Parting line assignment affects the number of cavities (as seen in the Process setup screen) Look for Combo Voids and unmerge features if appropriate Apply Machining with One-Click-Costing Apply tolerances/roughness to individual features As the part design matures, verify the cavity count and machining requirements User can override cavity count via Sand Casting Process Setup For as-cast designs: do Draft, Rounds, and Minimum Thickness feasibility checks toward the final stages of design As manufacturing details are known about the part, verify mold making routing, machine selection and coring process User can override coring process down to the individual GCD if they have requisite knowledge or info 2009-2010 aPriori Confidential, all rights reserved

Tips for Use NX Machined Castings2010 R1.1. Improvement for NX files with a single subcomponent and Machining cuts Behavior in aPriori 2010 with the NX beta configuration propertyaPriori always recognized these files as assemblies (not parts)

Behavior in aPriori 2010 R1.1Users can control aPrioris behavior based on an additional property: apriori.free.bodies.preserve.CAD=falseSet to false, aPriori opens those files as machined parts Set to true, aPriori opens those files as Assemblies with 2 subcomponent parts (cast part and machined part)

Limitation: If a model contains a machined part, its cast version AND other subcomponents, aPriori will still interpret it as an assembly.

2009-2010 aPriori Confidential, all rights reserved