performance of artificial insemination: challenges and opportunities

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Presented by Desalegn G/Medhin at the IPMS Workshop on Alternatives for Improving Field AI Delivery System to Enhance Beef and Dairy Production in Ethiopia, ILRI, Addis Ababa, 24-25 August 2011

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  • 1. PERFORMANCE OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION : CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES PRESENTED BY DESALEGN G/MEDHIN ETHIOPIAN MEAT AND DAIRY TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE IPMS Workshop on Alternatives for Improving Field AI Delivery System to Enhance Beef and Dairy Production in Ethiopia ILRI, Addis Ababa, 24-25 August 2011
  • 2. OUTLINE OF THE PRESENTATION
    • INTRODUCTION
    • REQUIREMENTS FOR A SUCCESSFUL AI OPERATION
    • ARTIFICIAL INSEMIATION IN OTHER COUNTRIES: THE KENYAN EXPERIENCE WHAT CAN WE LEARN?
    • PERFORMANCE OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN ETHIOPIA A RVIEW OF VARIOUS RESEARCH FINDINGS
      • AN OVERVIEW OF THE AI OPERATION
      • OPPORTUNITIES
      • CHALLENGES
    • CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI
  • 3. INTRODUCTION
    • Artificial insemination (AI) is a process by which sperm is artificially collected from the male, processed, stored, and introduced into the reproductive tract of females for the purpose of attaining conception by means other than the natural way or natural mating
    • Artificial insemination has been widely used for livestock breeding, especially for dairy cattle and pigs_ 70% of dairy cattle and 5 to 10 % of beef cattle
    • The use of AI in cattle breeding has a history of more than 100 years and the vast majority of dairy cattle are produced in this way
    • AI can be carried out by technicians from approved AI centers, by qualified vets , or by trained farmers
    • .
    08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI
  • 4. ADVANTAGES OF AI OVER NATURAL BREEDING
    • Allows the choice of using the best possible bulls of proven quality in improving the genetic make-up of the cattle population
    • Farmers have access to genes from superior bulls
    • Gives better opportunity for oestrus synchronization
    • Frozen semen can be transported globally
    • Disease control
    • Cost effectiveness as compared to rearing a bull
    • Flexibility
    • If proper semen is chosen and used, then the quality of livestock will improve:
      • Use of AI Improve productivity Money/ better return from livestock production
    08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES, DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI
  • 5. DRAWBACKS OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION
    • Requires well trained and experienced AITs
    • Requires closer supervision of females
    • High cost on investment and higher running costs
    • poor conception rates due to poor heat detection and inefficiency of AI technicians
    • High risk of dissemination of reproductive diseases and poor fertility rates if the overall operation fails to meet accepted standards and procedures
    • Problems associated with inbreeding
    08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI
  • 6. DEFORMITIES AND ABNORMAL GROWTH 08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI
  • 7. REQUIREMENTS FOR A SUCCESSFUL AI OPERATION
    • Good record keeping is a prerequisite to an organized breeding and prevention of the deleterious effects of inbreeding
    • Well established system of progeny testing and selection of AI bulls
    • Efficient and effective supply of quality semen and other inputs
    • Well established operating systems _ Reliability
    • Well established monitoring and evaluation
    • Appropriate animal health service and improved fertility levels of herds
    08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI
  • 8. ARTIFICIAL INSEMIATION IN OTHER COUNTRIES: THE KENYAN EXPERIENCE
    • Artificial Insemination was started in Kenya in 1935 at a Government Farm with the objective to control venereal diseases. However, it soon became apparent that AI could also be used for dairy cattle improvement through use of selected bulls
    • In 1946, Central AI Station was established
    • In 1966, Kenya National AI Service (KNAIS) was established as a section within the Department of Veterinary Services with the objective of expanding coverage of AI service provision in the country to meet increasing demand
    • Costs /fees were raised and lowered in different points in time due to various reasons
    08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI
  • 9. THE KENYAN EXPERIENCE, cont
    • In 1979, there was tremendous uptake of AI Services in the country and peak performance was achieved by performing a total of 549,000 inseminations
    • In 1988, Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAP) were introduced which prescribed cost sharing between GoK and beneficiaries
    • By 1991, there was a major policy shift to privatization of AI services which entailed encouraging cooperative societies, self help groups, private veterinarians and AI technicians starting own AI Services and gradual withdrawal of GoK services where privatization was picking
    08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI
  • 10. THE KENYAN EXPERIENCE, cont
    • Central AI Station continued servicing the AI Privatization Programme with semen, Liquid Nitrogen and the AI equipments while the Department of Veterinary Services offered advisory services in planning, budgeting and technical management of the upcoming private and communal practices. The Department also carried out regulatory and supervisory services
    • The number of licensed AI Service providers has also continued rising from a mere 23 in 1992 to 145 in 2001 to 260 in 2004 to 550 in 2006 and 750 in 2008
    08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI
  • 11. THE KENYAN EXPERIENCE, cont
    • The Department of Veterinary Services has continued regulating and supervising the AI Service Provision through the local DVOs
    • CAIS currently supplies 85% of the semen requirement in the country while the remaining 15% is supplied by Bovine genetic Importers who distributed, for example, an estimated 75,000 doses of semen in the Year 2008
    • Strong coordination at national level and appropriate bull selection methods
    • Artificial insemination and dairying in general are nowadays in much better status in Kenya
    08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI
  • 12. PERFORMANCE OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN ETHIOPIA
    • AN OVERVIEW OF THE AI OPERATION
      • In Ethiopia, AI was first introduced in 1938 in Asmara
      • In 1967, an independent service was started in Chilalo Awraja of the then Arsi Region
      • In 1981, the National AI Center was
      • established at Kality to coordinate the AI
      • operation at national level
      • At present, AI service is provided mainly by
      • government employed AITs with little
      • private service delivery which started
      • recently
    08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI
  • 13. PERFORMANCE, Cont
      • The sources of semen for these technicians is mainly the National Artificial Insemination Center and to a little extent private organizations which imp

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