cryopreservation,sperm banking,artificial insemination
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CRYOPRESERVATIONSPERM BANKING ANDARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION
G. KarthikeyanLS141082nd YearM.Sc., Life SciencesBharathidasan University
INTRODUCTIONCryobiology derives from three greek words:
Cryos- cold; Bios-Life; logos-course of study
It is defined as the process of arresting all biological process and placing biological material (cells, oocytes, embryos, spermatozoa or tissue )into a suspended state of animation at an ultra-low temperature.
CRYOPRESERVATIONFirst documented by Boyle (1663).First concept of sperm preservation by Lazzaro spallanzini(1760). Most significant discovery was the use of glycerol as cryoprotectant by Polge and smith(1949)
CONT..The ability of glycerol to protect cells from freezing injury was discovered accidentally. The subsequent development of cryopreservation techniques has had a huge impact in many fields, most notably in reproductive medicine.
Freezing injury has been shown to have two components, direct damage from the ice crystals and secondary damage caused by the increase in concentration of solutes as progressively more ice is formed.Intracellular freezing is generally lethal but can be avoided by sufficiently slow cooling, and under usual conditions solute damage dominates.
WHY CRYOPRESERVATION?Availability and preservation of raw biological materials are the major challenge in the widespread use of assisted reproduction technology in humans and livestock.For example, many artificial insemination procedures rely on availability of cryopreserved sperm.
Similarly, cryopreserved oocytes and embryos are being increasingly used in assisted reproduction procedures.
CRYOPROTECTANTSA cryoprotective agent is a substance added to the freezing medium to prevent the biological material from freezing injures that is damage due to ice formationIn experimental biology, the conventional CPAs are glycols and glycerol
DMSO-Dimethyl sulfoxideEthylene glycolGlycerol
The presence of cryoprotectants in the freezing solution is necessary to prevent cell damage during freezing and thawing of the samples
Cryoprotectants are included in the solutions to freeze the cells to lower the freezing point
Sperm banking is the name for the collection and storage of semen
Semen is the fluid that contains sperm, Sperm banking is also known as sperm cryopreservation or semen storage
PURPOSE:The purpose of cryopreserving semen (sperm banking) is to help ensure the possibility of conception in the future
TWO TYPES :Short-term Semen CryobankingLong-Term Semen Cryobanking
Short-term Semen Cryobanking
Short-term semencryobankingis the depositing, freezing and storage of sperm at a sperm bank for less than one yearCryobanked sperm is then used inartificial insemination, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and other fertility treatment proceduresAssisted reproductive technologies ,(i.e., in vitro fertilization, gamete intrafallopian transfer, etc...)
Long-Term Semen Cryopreservation
Time-tested techniques enable semen specimens and embryos to be frozen and stored indefinitely in liquid nitrogenAccording to the donors specific wishes, these specimens and embryos can later be thawed and used in an attempt to conceive throughartificial insemination, IVF or other fertility treatment techniques.
Artificial insemination is a fertility treatment that delivers sperm to the female using a tube to reach the cervix for intracervical insemination (ICI) or the uterus for intrauterine insemination (IUI)ICI and IUI are very quick and painless procedures that can be attempted many times without any injury to the receiving party
Artificial Insemination Method
The insemination procedure involves injecting prepared sperm into the female reproductive tract through the vaginaIntra cervical insemination (depositing of sperm into the cervical opening)Intra uterine insemination (depositing of sperm into the uterus)
Speculum , a medical tool is used to insert the sperms into female reproductive track
Small amount of fluid is present inside the injection needle were the catheter is at edge of the needle Needle is fixed into speculum and further process of injection was carried out
The insemination procedure takes 5 to 10 minutes and is usually performed once or twice a month until pregnancy is achieved
REFERENCE Textbook of Animal BiotechnologyInstitute of Cancer Biology , United Kingdom