patrick ten brink of ieep teeb water and wetlands 27 feb 2013 strp 17 final

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Patrick ten Brink of IEEP TEEB water and wetlands 27 feb 2013 STRP 17 final Ramsar STRP 17

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  • 1.The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity(TEEB): Water and WetlandsPresentation of the Final Report Patrick ten Brink Senior Fellow and Head of Brussels OfficeInstitute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP) Wednesday 27 February 2013Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) 17th meeting of the Scientific & Technical Review Panel (STRP) 25 February - 1 March 2013, Gland, Switzerland

2. Presentation overview1. TEEB & The TEEB for Water and Wetlands Project2. Water and wetlands: what benefits do we derive and what do we risk losing?3. Measuring to manage better4. Integrating the values of water and wetlands into decision making5. Recommendations: Transforming our approach to water and wetlands 3. TEEBs Genesis, Aims and progress G8+5Potsdam Initiative Biological Diversity 2010Potsdam1) The economic significance of the global loss of biological diversity Importance of recognising, demonstrating & responding to values of nature Engagement: ~500 authors, reviewers & cases from across the globe TEEB End UserReports Brussels Interim ClimateTEEB W&W 2009, London 2010 TEEB Report Issues Update Nature & GETEEB Books TEEB OceansSynthesisEcol./Env.Economicsliterature CBD COP 9 Input to Bonn 2008 UNFCCC 2009India, Brazil, Belgium, Japan & South AfricaSept. 2010 TEEB studies The Netherlands, BD COP 10 Germany, Nordics,Nagoya, Oct 2010Norway, India, Brazil 4. TEEB Water and Wetlands Core Team Case contributionsReviewersDiscussions at Rio+20, Ramsar COP 11, CBD COP11Paper citation: Full Report: Russi D., ten Brink P., Farmer A., Badura T., Coates D., Frster J., Kumar R. andDavidson N. (2013). The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity for Water and Wetlands. IEEP London, Brussels.Executive Summary: ten Brink P., Russi D., Farmer A., Badura T., Coates D., Frster J., Kumar R. and Davidson N.(2013) The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity for Water and Wetlands. Executive Summary. 5. 1. TEEB & The TEEB for Water and Wetlands Project2. Water and wetlands: what benefits do we derive and what do we risk losing?3. Measuring to manage better4. Integrating the values of water and wetlands into decision making5. Recommendations: Transforming our approach to water and wetlands For further details see Chapter 2 (page 5 to 17) and Chapter 3(pages 19 to 33) of the TEEB Water and Wetlands report 6. The nexus between water, food and energy is one of the mostfundamental relationships - and increasing challenges - for society.Biodiversity and particularly wetland ecosystems are increasinglyunderstood to be at the core of this nexus.Photo credit: Nick Davidson Water security is a major and increasing concern in many parts ofthe world, including both the availability (including extreme events)and quality of water. 7. Wetlands & Water Cycle Global and local water cycles are strongly dependent on wetlands.Without wetlands, the watercycle, carbon cycle, and nutrientcycles would be significantly altered, mostly detrimentally.Yet policies and do not take intoaccount these interconnectionsand inter-dependenciessedimenttransfer 8. Wetlands & ecosystem services Wetlands are solution to water security. They provide multiple ecosystem servicessupporting water security as well asoffering many other benefits and valuesto society and the economy. Meeting sustainable water managementobjectives cost effectively via wetlandecosystem services. 9. Climate RegulationExtent of carbon storagevulnerable to waterinsecurity Clean waterCities using PAs to provide waterWater scarcity Water availabilityConflictsUse by economic activityHousehold consumptionHydropowerNutrient cycling/clean waterWaste water treatmentWater availabilitySoil moisture Water availabilityLand affected byNutrient cycling/clean waterdesertificationSanitation; Drinking water Water quality Crop waterproductivityArea water-logged/salinisedWater availability mitigatingextremes Sediment transfer 10. Despite their values and potential policy synergies, wetlands have been and continue to be lost of degraded. This leads to biodiversity loss and a loss of ecosystem services. Wetlands loss can lead to significant losses in human well-being and have negative economic impacts on communities, countries and business.Photo credit: Nick DavidsonI believe that the great part of miseries of mankind are brought uponthem by false estimates they have made of the value of things. Benjamin Franklin, 1706-1790 11. Wetlands : historical loss of natural capital Since 1990 the world has lost around 50% of its wetlands (UNWWAP 2003)and around 60% loss in Europe (EEA 2010) In the past two decades, 35% of mangroves have disappeared. Some countries have lost up to 80% (MA 2005)http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/95/World_map_mangrove_distribution.png~20% of the worlds coral reefs - destroyed 24% of the remaining reefs under imminentrisk of collapse through human pressures.(Wilkinson C., 2004; Nellemann et al 2008) 12. The evidence base: range of values of ecosystem servicesOpen oceans (14)For further details see Page 9 of Chapter 2 Woodlands (21)of the TEEB Water and Wetlands reportand associated references Sources: de Groot et al 2012 building on TEEB 2010Grasslands (32) Temperate Forest (58)Rivers and Lakes (15)Tropical Forest (96)Inland wetlands (168) Coastal systems (28) Coastal wetlands (139)Coral reefs (94) 1 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000 10,000,000 Values of both coastal and inland wetland ecosystem services are typically higher than for other ecosystem types 13. Evidence base - Assessing values and actionsAssessing the value of working with natural capital has helped determine whereecosystems can provide goods and services at lower cost than by man-madetechnological alternatives and where they can lead to significant savings USA-NY: Catskills-Delaware watershed for NY: PES/working with nature saves money (~5US$bn) New Zealand: Te Papanui Park - water supply to hydropower, Dunedin city, farmers (~$136m) Mexico: PSAH to forest owners, aquifer recharge, water quality, deforestation, poverty (~US$303m) France : Priv. Sector: Vittel (Mineral water) PES et al for water quality Venezuela: PA helps avoid potential replacement costs of hydro dams (~US$90-$134m over 30yr) Vietnam restoring/investing in Mangroves - cheaper than dyke maintenance (~US$: 1m to 7m/yr) South Africa: WfW public PES to address IAS, avoids costs and provides jobs (~20,000; 52%)Critical to assess where working with nature saves money for public (city, region,national), private sector, communities and citizens & who can make it happenSources: various. Mainly in TEEB for National and International Policy Makers, TEEB for local and regional policy and TEEB cases 14. Wetlands provide natural infrastructure that can help meet a range ofpolicy objectives. Beyond water availability and quality, they are invaluable insupporting climate change mitigation and adaptation, support healthas well as livelihoods, local development and poverty eradication 15. 1. TEEB & The TEEB for Water and Wetlands Project2. Water and wetlands: what benefits do we derive and what do we risk losing?3. Measuring to manage better4. Integrating the values of water and wetlands into decision making5. Recommendations: Transforming our approach to water and wetlands For further details see Chapter 2 (page 5 to 17), Chapter 3 (pages 19 to 33) and Annex II (page 62 to 71) of the TEEB Water and Wetlands report 16. Benefits provided by mangroves & shrimp farms: an economic illustration (in US$/ha NPV 9 years 10% discount rate) Commercial CommercialEconomic returnsEconomicEconomic value of Economic value profits from profits fromfrom shrimpreturns fromshrimp farmingof mangroves15000shrimp farming mangrovefarmingmangrove and restorationincluding storm forest excluding including fishcostsprotectionsubsidies nurseryStorm10000 ProtectionSubsidies108218412 50009632Fish nursery 987 9871220 1220 0584584 584Restorationcosts -5000 -9318For further details seeChapter 2, page 13 of the TEEB Water and Wetlands reportand associated references-10000 Source: drawn from data from Barbier et al., 2007 and Hanley andAll values are NPV over 9 years and a 10% discount rate, given in 1996Barbier, 2009 US$. 17. Knowledge base: what have studies focused on?Types of wetlands and services For further details see Annex II (page 62 to 71) of the TEEB Water and Wetlands reportNeed to improve the knowledge base for inland wetlands, particularly lakes and rivers 18. Knowledge base: what have studies focused on? Geographic RegionsFurther valuation research should be more widely distributed across the globeFor further details see Annex II (page 62 to 71) of the TEEB Water and Wetlands report 19. For further details see Annex II (page 62 to 71) of the TEEB Water and Wetlands report 20. Knowledge base: SummaryGrowing evidence base of values, but range of gaps that need attentionStudies focused mainly on food, raw materials, lifecycle maintenance (e.g. nursery services)and recreation/tourism opportunities + extreme events & gene pool protectionNeeds for additional assessments of value include:Inland vegetated wetlands: moderation of extreme events, erosion prevention, pollination or biologicalcontrol + inspiration, spiritual experience or education and science servicesFreshwater lakes & rivers: There is generally a lack of information for all types of ecosystem services forfreshwater lakes and rivers.Coastal wetlands: need for assessments re genetic and medicinal resources, erosion prevention, nutrientcycling, life cycle maintenance + education and science values.Mangroves and tidal mashes: genetic and ornamental resources, regulation of water flows andpollination, nutrient cycling and biological control + aesthetic, inspiration and spiritual experience.+ to input into specific land use decisions (e.g. permitting, zoning, use), investment decisions,policy development, design and implementation Further valuation re

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