patrick ten brink of ieep teeb natura 2000 and nature & green economy ep 3 dec 2012 final

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Patrick ten Brink of IEEP TEEB Natura 2000 and Nature & Green Economy EP 3 Dec 2012 final


  • 1. Mainstreaming the Economics of Nature:EU nature conservation&Nature and the Green EconomyPatrick ten Brink Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP) Public HearingProtected areas and green employment Monday 3.12.12, 14.00-17.00European Parliament, room PHS 6B054, Brussels

2. Presentation overviewPart A: Mainstreaming the Economics of Naturea) TEEB for Policy Makers and the EUb) Benefits of Natura 2000Part B: Nature and the green economyc) Nature and GE 3. I believe that the great part of miseries of mankind arebrought upon them by false estimates they have made ofthe value of things.Benjamin Franklin, 1706-1790 4. Biodiversity loss Species extinction ~ 100 to 1,000 times more rapid than natural extinction rate (MA 2005) Since 1900, global loss ~ 50%of its wetlands. [2]. Coral Reefs ~ 20% of the worlds coral reefs loss -effectively destroyed by fishing, pollution, disease and coralbleaching~ 24% of remaining reefs under imminentrisk of collapse through humanSource: Nellemann et al 2008: 22pressures.[3][2] [3] Wilkinson C., 2004: Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2004 report 5. Forests Global Forest Area has shrunk byapproximately 40% since 1700. Forests have completely disappeared in25 countries [1].Mangroves In the past two decades, 35% of mangroves have disappeared. Some countries have lost up to 80% through conversion for aquaculture, overexploitation and storms.[4][1]United Nations FAO, 2001.Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000; United Nations Forest and Agriculture Organisation, 2006 Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005[4]Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005: Global Assessment Report 1: Current State & Trends Assessment. Island Press, Washington DC. Detail: Chapter 19 Coastal Systems. Coordinatinglead authors: Tundi Agardy and Jacqueline Alder. Original reference: 35%: Valiela et al. 2001; 80% reference: Spalding et al. 1997 6. Fisheries Worlds Fisheries :overexploited40 % $50 bn/yr lost econ. value, overexploitation (World Bank 2008)40 % Collapse of fisheries: loss of20 % livelihoods 2010 Source: Sea Around Us projectLake Karla, Greece: 1300fishermen lost their jobs due to thedegradation of the former LakeKarla in Greece and impacts oncommercial fisheries. (Zalidis andGerakis, 1999) Source: FAO 2005a: 7 7. Ecosystem servicesProvisioning servicesFood, fibre and fuelWater provisionGenetic resourcesRegulating ServicesClimate /climate change regulationWater and waste purificationAir purificationErosion controlBiological control Cultural Services Aesthetics, landscape, recreation & tourism Cultural values and inspirational services Supporting Services: Soil formation & fertility, photosynthesis, nutrient cycle et al 8. TEEBs Genesis and Developments TEEB End User Nature & Green EconomyReports BrusselsTEEB Water & Wetlands InterimClimate TEEB Oceans 2009, London 2010 ReportIssues UpdateTEEB TEEBSynthesisBooksEcol./Env.EconomicsCBD COP 9 Input toliterature Bonn 2008 UNFCCC 2009India, Brazil, Belgium, Japan & South AfricaTEEB studiesSept. 2010The Netherlands,Germany, Nordics, BD COP 10 Norway, India, Brazil,Nagoya, Oct 2010 South-East Asia 9. TEEB for Policy MakersThe Global Biodiversity Crisis Measuring what we manage Available Solutions PES (e.g. water), PES: REDD+ Markets, GPP Subsidy reform Legislation, liability, taxes & charges Protected Areas Investment in natural capital (restoration et al)Transforming our approach to natural capital 10. Biodiversity (genes, species, ecosystems) & its value is aboutDiversity/variety e.g. pharmaceuticals, food security, biomimicry; Building on Balmford and Rodriguez et al (2009) Scoping the ScienceE.g. genetic resources: > thanQuantity e.g. timber, carbon storage, fish stock, flood control, water retentionE.g. for fish production: > thanQuality e.g landscape & tourism, ecosystems & water filtration, resilience(to climate change, IAS) 11. Values of Working with Nature evidence baseGermany : peatland restoration: avoidance cost of CO2 ~ 8 to 12 /t CO2 (0-4 alt. land use) USA-NY: Catskills-Delaware watershed for NY: PES/working with nature saves money (~5US$bn) France & Belgium: Priv. Sector: Vittel (Mineral water) PES & Rochefort (Beer) PES for water quality Venezuela: PA helps avoid potential replacement costs of hydro dams (~US$90-$134m over 30yr) South Africa: WfW public PES to address IAS, avoids costs and provides jobs (~20,000; 52%) Range of policy synergies of Biodiversity: with Water security, climate change, jobs,health, public and private financeSources: various. Mainly in TEEB for National and International Policy Makers, TEEB for local and regional policy and TEEB cases 12. JobsEU: 14.6 million jobs (7% employment) highly dependent on ecosystem services(Nunes et al, 2011)USA: Nature-based recreation. Wildlife-related recreational activities ~ US$ 122 billion just under 1% of GDP in 2006 (US Fish and Wildlife Service 2007).New Zealands South Island (West Coast Region)- additional 1,814 jobs (15% of total jobs in2004) and extra spending US$ 221m/yr (10% of total spending), mainly from tourismrelated to conservation lands (Butcher Partners 2004).Black Sea and job losses: invasion by a non native comb jellyfish in late 1980s led tocollapse of the fishing industry with a loss of 150,000 jobs. (Lubschenco, 1997) 13. CBD COP 10 Nagoya: Strategic Plan 2011-20 5 strategic goals & 20 headline targets .extractsTarget 1: people aware of the values of biodiversity ..Target 2: . biodiversity values have been integrated .into strategies planning national accounting. reporting systems.Target 11: By 2020, at least 17% cover of terrestrial and inland water and 10% coastal and marine areas . are conserved through effectively and equitably managed... systems of protected areas 14. Protected Areas - crown jewels of biodiversityCurrent status: ~12.9% terrestrial; 6.3% territorial seas, positive impacts on GDP (0.1 - 0.26 per cent at national level). Network estimated to generate an additional 12,792 jobs. Andaluca, Aragon and the Canarias islands - benefit most from Natura 2000: 0.26 - 0.44 per cent increase in their GDP and between 1346 - 5957 additional jobs created. (Fernandez et al 2008 in Gantioler et al 2010) Germany: national park Wattenmeer in Germany is responsible of around 23 per cent of total tourists in the region, with associated gross economic income of over 100 million in 2003 (Neidlein and Walser, 2005) Finland: The Total annual revenue linked with the visitor spending in national parks was 70.1 million and supported local employment by creating 893 person-years. In general, it was estimated that 1 public investment to protected areas provided 20 return. (Metsahallitus, 2009). 24. Natura 2000 Benefits: interpreting the results A first estimate Methodological issues Impossible to attribute EU wide numbers to all services eg water, pollination, natural hazards, HNV farming. Whole picture of benefits is needed For robust value focus at site level assessments EU wide assessment to communicate the benefits beyond intrinsic values Useful to attract funding, encourage restoration, wise use & management 25. Part B: Nature and the greeneconomyChallenges Feeding the 9 billion; Water; Poverty alleviation,Urbanisation, Jobs, Climate change, Financial crisisetc The rising level of consumption and production willput increasing stress on the planets resources andecosystems limits, scarcity, price volatility, critical(ecological and social) thresholds... 26. Nature and the Transition to a Green Economy Need for a transition towards a green economythat promotes social equity, poverty eradicationand human well-being. Increasing appreciation of biodiversity andecosystem services and the value of nature. Healthy and resilient ecosystems are necessaryfor long-term socio-economic development Efforts to build a green economy should be basedon an appreciation of the values of nature. 27. The Greening EconomyEnvironment / Nature Society The EconomyDomesticNatural Capital Economic SectorsExports(examples) Minerals, Energy - Agriculture, hunting, forestry & fishing - Oil and Gas; Mining & quarrying Water, Land - Wood and wood products PublicProducts & Services - Food products, beverages & tobaccoTimber, Fish, Ag Sector - Pulp, paper & paper products Other Biodiversity- Research & development Outputs:- Hotels & restaurants(genes, species, - Chemicals- Pharmaceuticalsecosystems) Ecosystem service flows - Recycling- Manufacturing - Electricity- Water supply - Education- Finance & insurance Private Imported natural Sector Outputs from one sector can be capitalTimber, Human & intermediate inputs to another Food , Primary materials Social Capital & Inputs:embedded labour, skills, Man-made capitalWaste /House- Biodiversity,knowledge, (inc. financial capital) pollution Water, holdsCarboninstitutions,in productscultureSocial impactNatural Impacts on environment capitalSource: ten Brink, Russi and Mazza, 2012 building on ten Brink et al. 2011 28. The Transition to a Green Economy Current SituationBuilding Blocks in theAmbitions for the FutureTransition to a Green Economy A Green EconomyDeclining Sustainability in a Brown Economy Improved human well-being andBusiness-as-Usual social equity, while significantlyApproachesreducing environmental risks andResource over-exploitation &pollution pressures Avoiding Unsustainable Trade- ecological scarcitiesoffsClimate Change+Staying within a safe operating Environmental compliance & space: using resources within the Biodiversity and natural infrastructureplanets regenerative capacities &Good governanceGood Governance capital loss avoiding critical ecological+ threshold


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