Part 2 The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century America’s Musical Landscape 6th edition © 2010 The

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<ul><li><p>Part 2The Tumultuous Nineteenth CenturyChapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth CenturyAmericas Musical Landscape 6th edition 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved</p><p>*Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century</p><p> 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century*Part 2 Introduction: The Tumultuous Nineteenth CenturyRomanticism in America: Historical and Cultural PerspectiveNineteenth century European writers, painters, and musicians abandoned the coolly reasoned Classical style to reveal in their art characteristics associated with romanticism in the arts:A fierce independenceFascination with the unknownWorshipful love of nature</p><p>1825-1900Romanticism dominated the arts in EuropeGerman musicians dominated music in the Western world</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century</p><p> 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century*Romanticism in America: Historical and Cultural PerspectiveThe artistic style newly dominant in Europe came to America quite naturally because</p><p>Americans revealed strong romantic tendencies long before the nineteenth century and continue to do so today</p><p>Perhaps the pioneers bred their sense of adventure into later generations of Americans</p><p>Or perhaps the vast, wild land encouraged the demand for freedom and independence</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century</p><p> 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century*The Emergence of Characteristically American ArtFrom the 1830s one could travel from America to Europe by steamshipBut such travel was neither safe nor reliableMost Americans remained isolated from European cultureLittle diplomatic exchange took placeFew people immigrated to America during the mid-centuryMusic and Art at this time in America:American musicians shied away from the originality of the Yankee tunesmiths, instead emulating German musicAmerican writers and visual artists often expressed romantic ideals in characteristically American ways</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century</p><p> 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century*The Emergence of Characteristically American Art: Independence1800s: Americans defended their new independence Resisted French and British in skirmishesFought the notorious Barbary pirates</p><p>1823: Monroe DoctrineFormalized Americas resistance to foreign interference in the Western Hemisphere</p><p>1828: Populist hero Andrew Jackson was elected United States presidentThis caused new American nationalismArtists and writers began to create works on a variety of American subjects, due to patrons new interest in American art for Arts sake </p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century</p><p> 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century*The Emergence of Characteristically American Art: IndependenceClaiming freedom from European dominance, American writers developed distinctive ways to express the American experienceA genuine American literature evolvedProlific literary activity reflected a new American nationalismPoets and novelists wrote on American subjects, placed in American settingsView of Detroit in 1836Painted by William James Bennett (1787-1844)</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century</p><p> 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century*The Emergence of Characteristically American Art: IndependenceIn the mid-nineteenth century, Boston housed the transcendentalists</p><p>Transcendentalists were writers and philosophers who</p><p>Trusted intuition, rather than reason, as the guide to truth</p><p>Shared Protestants and frontier peoples belief in the integrity and ability of the individual</p><p>Expressed in their writings love of nature and pride in Americas natural beauty</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century</p><p> 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century*The Emergence of Characteristically American Art: Independence1861-1865: Abraham Lincoln was PresidentSermons, speeches, poems, articles, and proclamations addressed the slavery issueHumorist, author and amateur musician Mark Twain (1835-1910) depicted scenes between blacks and whitesTwain wrote of songs and instrumentsDisliked pianoEnjoyed the reed organ = parlor organ= cabinet organ= cottage organ=melodeonMelodeon</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century</p><p> 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century*The Emergence of Characteristically American Art: The UnknownRomantic curiosity with the unknown led pioneers to push Americas frontier farther westOptimistically defying great perils is a Romantic characteristicEarly nineteenth century surveyors and engineers explored and mapped wilderness areasNew York, New England, the West1825: The Erie Canal was openedSteam railroads arrived!The Erie Canal</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century</p><p> 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century*The Emergence of Characteristically American Art: The UnknownThe unknown, and abnormal psychology fascinated writers and artistsEdgar Allen Poe (1809-1849)Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864)Painters: Interested in science; made discoveries James Audubon (1785-1851): Painted watercolors of realistic American birds</p><p>Niagara Falls, by Frederic Edwin Church(1826-1900)</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century</p><p> 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century*The Emergence of Characteristically American Art: The UnknownSamuel Morse (1791-1872)Had interest and talent in science and artHelped make the pre-photographic process known as daguerreotype popular with AmericansAmericans often had more interest in the new and mechanical, not in art for its own sakeMorse studied painting in Europe, then produced fine paintings back home in AmericaHe became discouraged at Americans preference for local landscapes over large European-type history paintingsInvented the telegraph</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century</p><p> 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century*The Emergence of Characteristically American Art: Love of NatureNature, formerly viewed as a menacing force to be conquered and tamed, now received reverent admiration in American literature, painting, and music idealizing the natural beauty of the American continent</p><p>Writers expressed in American ways ideals similar to those of the British Romantic poets, portraying nature as good and beautiful </p><p>Poets William Cullen Bryant and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow</p><p>Essayists Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century</p><p> 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century*The Emergence of Characteristically American Art: Love of NatureAmerican paintings in the post-Revolutionary period reflected New American nationalismRomantic love of nature caused artists to captureClear light, blazing sky, vast open spaces of landscape</p><p>American viewers lagged behind Europeans in appreciating art for its own sake, yet American artists producedPaintings and sculptural works in quantity and varietyLandscapes predominated, but also popular were scenes of everyday life such as cornhusking, dancing, work and playMargaretta Angelica Peale (1795-1882): one of a very few professional women painters, known for still lifes</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century</p><p> 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century*The Emergence of Characteristically American Art: Love of NaturePainters accompanying explorers and adventurers across the American wilderness depicted the wild beauty of untamed areasGeorge Catlin (1796-1872)A dedicated artist-explorerVividly portrayed the vast American wilderness, complete with Indians and wild animalsGeorge Catlin, Indian Boy</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century</p><p> 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century*Fusion of the ArtsThe relationships between literature, painting, and music of the Romantic period are striking in their strength and significance</p><p>Nineteenth-century artists in Europe and America drew inspiration from close association with each other and interest in each others work</p><p>Provided each other with moral and practical support</p><p>Artists were newly dependent on the approval of a public audience that lacked the training and experience of audiences of previous eras</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century</p><p> 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century*Fusion of the Arts: The Hudson River SchoolHudson River School: The first important group of American painters, led for a time by Thomas Cole (1801-1848)</p><p>Coles large landscape paintings capture the spaciousness and grandeur of the Catskill and Adirondack mountains of New York Coles painting Scenes from the Last of the Mohicans (see page 72) was based on his friend James Fenimore Coopers novel </p><p>This exemplifies the close Romantic period association between artistsCooper is sometimes called a Hudson River painter using prose rather than pigment to depict landscapes</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century</p><p> 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century*Fusion of the Arts: Writers and ArtistsThe intertwined relationships among writers and artists is revealed in the painting Kindred Spirits by Asher B. Durand (1796-1886)see textbook page 73</p><p>Durand succeeded Cole as leader of the Hudson River School</p><p>Kindred Spirits embodies the feeling of Romantic artists of various media that reverence for the natural beauty of their homeland transcended the feelings of more mundane souls; this painting</p><p>Was a memorial to artist Thomas Cole, who is portrayed</p><p>Also portrays the poet William Cullen Bryan</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century</p><p> 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century*Fusion of the Arts: MusicMusic proved a congenial medium for the romantic blending of the arts</p><p>The Art Song was the setting of a poem to musicProgram music often depicted scenes from literature in musical termsMusical theater including operas and operettas constituted complex combinations of visual, literary, and musical arts</p><p>There was no Hudson River School of musicians</p><p>Leading composers and performers nonetheless found inspiration from the physical beauty of the Hudson River Valley</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century</p><p> 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century*The Civil War Era1860s: Reform movements begun in the early nineteenth century gathered strengthTension heightened Between blacks and whitesBetween supporters of slavery and of abolitionNortherners were repelled by slaverySoutherners believed slavery was essential to the plantation economyOrganized workers forced enactment of tough new labor lawsFeminists marched and demonstrated for women's rights</p><p>Social issues were reflected in literature, art and music</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century</p><p> 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century*The Civil War Era: American Artists, 1850-1875Painters shared European fascination with lightAmerican art used light to capture American scenery</p><p>American artists idealized nature romantically as well as viewing it as morally uplifting</p><p>Andrew Jacksons optimism and the idealism of the American pioneer were reflected in the scenes of mountain splendor and rural calm</p><p>Yet American patrons did not appreciate American artGreat American artists, such as James McNeill Whistler (1834-1903) left for Europe because of lack of a market in the USWhistler became famous in Europe, then later in the US</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century</p><p> 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.</p><p>Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 5: Religious Music in the Early Nineteenth Century*The Civil War Era: American Paintings and Sculptu...</p></li></ul>

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