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  • Slide 1
  • Part 2 The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 8: American Concert Music Comes of Age: The Late Nineteenth Century Americas Musical Landscape 5th edition PowerPoint by Myra Lewinter Malamut Georgian Court University 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Slide 2
  • 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 8: American Concert Music Comes of Age: The Late Nineteenth Century2 American Concert Music Comes of Age: The Late Nineteenth Century Americans preferred the German Romantic style in orchestral music Romantics (Germans and others) approached the elements of music differently from their classical forbears
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  • 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 8: American Concert Music Comes of Age: The Late Nineteenth Century3 Characteristics of Romantic Music Long and lyrical melodies Asymmetrical phrases Repeated songlike melodies with variation or embellishment Chordal harmony became fuller and steadily more dissonant Expansion of tonal harmony through addition of new tones to familiar chords Newly varied and colorful effects Freer treatment of rhythms Sometimes avoiding regularly recurring patterns of a certain number of beats per measure; phrases of irregular length Rich, imaginative instrumental effects affected timbre (color)
  • Slide 4
  • 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 8: American Concert Music Comes of Age: The Late Nineteenth Century4 Romantic Music and the Exploration of Timbres Timbre=Color Nineteenth-century music includes increasingly rich and imaginative instrumental effects Technological changes increasing capabilities of woodwind and brass instruments encouraged their wider use in the orchestra A greatly expanded percussion section added variety in timbre Additional strings added to balance the increased winds and percussion The Romantic orchestra was larger than that of the Baroque or Classical period, with a richer variety of timbres
  • Slide 5
  • 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 8: American Concert Music Comes of Age: The Late Nineteenth Century5 The Late Nineteenth Century and Nationalism in America Americas best-known composers continued to make their music sound as German as possible But a strong nationalistic urge developed among a few dedicated American musicians and listeners 1892: Mrs. Jeanette M. Thurber, an American interested in establishing a nationalistic music style, invited a prestigious Bohemian nationalist composer to direct the National Conservatory of Music in New York City Antonn Dvok (1841-1904)
  • Slide 6
  • 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 8: American Concert Music Comes of Age: The Late Nineteenth Century6 Antonn Dvok in America: He was fascinated by the music of African Americans and Native American Indians Perplexed that Americans lacked interest in native music Illustrating his ideas, plus Americas beauty, he wrote Symphony No. 9 (From the New World), and chamber pieces Used scales of black or Indian music Harmonized and orchestrated as per Western custom The Scout, Friend or Enemy? Painted by Frederic Remington (1861-1909)
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  • 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 8: American Concert Music Comes of Age: The Late Nineteenth Century7 The Second New England School New York City was the center of music performance in the late nineteenth century The Boston area nurtured significant developments in music, philosophy, literature New England produced most of the important American composers of the era 1881: The Boston Symphony Orchestra was founded Supported efforts of local composers Brought their music to public attention Often with repeated performances of a well-received work
  • Slide 8
  • 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 8: American Concert Music Comes of Age: The Late Nineteenth Century8 The Second New England School of Composers: Members The first American composers to write significant works in all the large concert forms Their music was comparable in style and quality to music of many of their European contemporaries Dubbed the Boston Classicists, they shared a dedication to The principles of German music theory Concern for craftsmanship Contributed to every genre of concert music
  • Slide 9
  • 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 8: American Concert Music Comes of Age: The Late Nineteenth Century9 The Second New England School of Composers: Members Many were church musicians and organists who included organ transcriptions of opera arias and symphonic music in their recitals They brought this music to Americans who would otherwise not have access to opera or orchestra concerts Transcription= An arrangement of a piece originally composed for a particular instrument or ensemble so that it can be played by a different instrument or combination of instruments These intrepid pioneer composers also contributed compositions for organ and choral music to the American music repertoire
  • Slide 10
  • 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 8: American Concert Music Comes of Age: The Late Nineteenth Century10 Second New England School: John Knowles Paine (1839-1906) The oldest member and leader of the Second New England School Paine: An American who was educated in music in Germany While in Germany, Paine wrote his Mass in D for chorus, soloists, and orchestra, reminiscent in style to a well-known mass by Beethoven This was the first large composition by an American to be performed in Europe Mass = A setting to music of the most important Roman Catholic worship service
  • Slide 11
  • 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 8: American Concert Music Comes of Age: The Late Nineteenth Century11 John Knowles Paine: The Educator 1861: Back home in America during wartime, Paine became the organist at Harvard University He offered free noncredit lectures in music (not considered a proper course of study in universities) The lectures were well received 1875: Harvard became the first American college to include music in its formal curriculum Paine became the first American professor of music
  • Slide 12
  • 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 8: American Concert Music Comes of Age: The Late Nineteenth Century12 John Knowles Paine: Music Compositions Paines orchestral music is far more significant than that of Heinrich and Fry His Symphony No. 1 was First performed by Theodore Thomass orchestra in 1876 The first American symphony to be publishedbut in Germany rather than Americaonly after Paines death He wrote many other kinds of music as well Songs Hymns An opera Several fine keyboard compositions for organ or piano
  • Slide 13
  • 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 8: American Concert Music Comes of Age: The Late Nineteenth Century13 Fugue: A polyphonic composition with three to five melodic lines or voices entering one at a time in imitation of each other, according to specific rules Originally conceived as a form of European keyboard music Highly structured Suitable for every performing medium, including voice
  • Slide 14
  • 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 8: American Concert Music Comes of Age: The Late Nineteenth Century14 Fugue: Form of the Exposition Exposition = The beginning section of the fugue, in which all the voices are introduced (exposed) The principal theme or subject enters alone After the subject has been heard in entirety, it is imitated by each of the other voices in turn until each has made its entrance The first entrancethe subjectis on the tonic The second voice, or answer, begins on the dominant The answer is similar but not identical to the subject The remaining voices (usually a total of three or four) alternate entrances between tonic and dominant until each voice has been introduced
  • Slide 15
  • 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 8: American Concert Music Comes of Age: The Late Nineteenth Century15 Fugue: After the Exposition Following the exposition, each voice proceeds with independent material, referring to the subject and answer more or less frequently throughout the piece There may be a second theme, or countersubject Introduced in the same manner as the subject Recurring throughout the fugue
  • Slide 16
  • 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 2: The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century Chapter 8: American Concert Music Comes of Age: The Late Nineteenth Century16 The Form of a Fugue Exposition of a four-voice fugue (page 132) Subject (tonic) (Other thematic material) Answer (dominant) (Other thematic material) Subject (tonic) Answer (dominant)
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