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Nineteenth-Century Symphony. Dan Grimley daniel.grimley@music.ox.ac.uk. Lecture 1. Antiphonies: Schubert, Berlioz. Studying the Nineteenth-Century Symphony: Some historical/analytical problems Genre Tradition Inheritance Form Expression/Affekt Sources Reception. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Introduction to History of Western Music

FHS List A: Nineteenth-Century SymphonyDan Grimleydaniel.grimley@music.ox.ac.ukLecture 1. Antiphonies: Schubert, BerliozStudying the Nineteenth-Century Symphony: Some historical/analytical problemsGenreTraditionInheritanceFormExpression/AffektSourcesReceptionJames Hepokoski, Beethoven Reception: the symphonic traditionSymphonic practice in later nineteenth-century Europe was no unitary activity that we should collapse into a crisp, linear narrative. The reality was messier. (p.424)Tradition understood as [response to] common set of problems rather than mythical consistency of practice (p. 425)Carl Dahlhaus: The Symphony after BeethovenTo speak of the nineteenth-century symphony as the symphony after Beethoven is not to refer to a chronological truism but to point out a problem for the historian, a problem arising from the fact that later examples of the genre relate directly and immediately to models left by Beethoven, with intermediate stages playing only a minor role. (p. 152)2 challenges of the Eroica: 1. teleology [goal direction] and thematic manipulation2. monumentality and seriousnessA . B. Marx and the SymphonyDie Lehre von der musikalischen Komposition (1838)A few words about concert life, especially in big cities [Berliner allgemeine musikalische Zeitung, 1825]Symphony exclusive property [Eigenthum] of the GermansSymphonies should be performed several times in the same seasonSymphonic music should be properly rehearsedSymphonies should be played complete, not as individual movementsWhoever really wants to hear a Beethoven symphony in our area knows that he must receive a spiritual baptism of fire to his head and banish thoughts of amusement and sensual pleasure. Therefore, Beethovens listeners will not lack the concentration needed for the entering into the spirit that lives in artworks. [BamZ, 1826]Schubert: an Unfinished Symphony?ms dated Vienna 30 October 1822contains first 9 bars of scherzo. Surviving short score sketch includes part of first movement, Andante complete, 112 bars of scherzo plus 16 bb. of trio.FS to Leopold Kupelwieser, 31 March 1824: I wrote two Quartets and an Octet, and I want to write another quartet, in fact I intend to pave my way towards grand symphony in that manner.Awarded membership of Styrian Music Society, Graz, September 1823. Promised to send score of new symphony; sent ms of Unfinished to Anselm Httenbrenner, by August 1824. No public acknowledgement of ownership until August 1863.First public performance December 1865, Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna. Published as unfinished, 1867.An unfinished symphony?Maynard Solomon, Schuberts Unfinished Symphony[p. 112] It is conceivable that in the course of its working out the Symphony took an unexpected structural and rhetorical turn that made a continuation unnecessary, even impossible. [Cf. Beethoven precedent in 2-mvmt piano sonatas opp. 54, 90, 111.]

An unfinished Symphony opens up the connections between Schubert and that aspect of the Romantic aesthetic that valorises ruins, fragments, longing, sudden death, and every other idea of incompletion; it is emblematic of an inability to achieve conventional patterns of archetypal transcendencethose bearing on homecoming, triumph, closure, happy ending. (p. 129)First movement: Allegro moderatoBarsFormal SectionKeyTexture/AffektEXPOSITION1-38Intro+P-Spaceb minor: closedLied texture39-41TRi-V/Ghorn calls42-104S-Space (EEC)G major!Lndler104-110CODA

DEVELOPMENT111-217(P material)E minorWild ride, bb. 184-212

REPRISE (n.b. introduction omitted!)218-252P-Space b minorV/b (open)Lied texture252-255TRVV/Dhorn calls256-322S-Space (ESC)Db!Lndler

328-360CODAb minorIntroduction returns

Berlioz: Symphonie FantastiqueBeethoven symphonies played as complete cycle, Socit des Concerts du Conservatoire, 1828.D. Kern Holoman:Berlioz was less concerned with purity of the symphonic genre as he inherited it than with the symphony as a forum for experiment and progress towards his own ideals as a composer of dramatic music [p. 108]Symphony inspired by meeting with Harriet Smithson, productions of Hamlet and Romeo and Juliet, 1827Decided to compose a descriptive symphony based on Faust (1829): became An Episode in the Life of an Artist (1830)Ide fixe: theme taken from Prix de Rome cantata Herminie(1828)Symphonie Fantastique: InnovationsProgramme: Episodes in the Life of an ArtistLiterary/musical allusions [Byron/Beethoven]PictorialismThe Romantic sublime5-movement plan1. Rveries. Passions (key: C)2. Un bal (A)3. Scne aux champs (F)4. Marche au supplice (g)5. Songe dune nuit du Sabbat (C)OrchestrationExtended woodwind (piccolo, cor anglais, E-flat clarinet, 4 bassoons)Extended brass (valve trumpets, trombones, 2 tubas)Percussion (2 sets of timpani)2 harpsThird movement: Scne aux champs (adagio)1845 programme :Finding himself one evening in the country, [the artist] hears in the distance two shepherds piping a ranz des vaches in dialogue. This pastoral duet, the quiet rustling of the trees gently brushed by the wind, the hopes he has recently found some reason to entertainall concur in affording his heart an unaccustomed calm, and in giving a more cheerful colour to his ideas. He reflects upon his isolation; he hopes that his loneliness will soon be over.But what if she were deceiving him!This mingling of hope and fear, these ideas of happiness disturbed by black presentiments, form the subject of the Adagio. At the end one of the shepherds again takes up the ranz des vaches; the other no longer replies.Distant sound of thunderlonelinesssilence.

SchubertBerlioz: ConclusionsBeethoven: point of emulation/resistanceSymphony as site of melancholic contemplationExpansion of expressive range/musical spaceFormal innovationProgramme/narrativeTextural effectsIdea of unfinished: open musical work

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