Manufacturing Foundations of Technology Manufacturing © 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEM  Center for Teaching.

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Foundations of Technology Manufacturing 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology Teacher Resource Unit 3 Lesson 2 STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning The BIG IdeaBig Idea: Manufacturing is the process of producing goods and materials and ensuring that the properties of materials meet the desired function of the product. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyMaterialsTypes of MaterialsComplete the materials sorting activity. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyNew DayMaterials and ManufacturingMaterials have different properties, limitations, and durability.Selecting the appropriate material for a product is an essential task.Materials can be generally classified as Natural, Synthetic, or Mixed Raw or Processed 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyMaterials and ManufacturingSelecting the appropriate material is based on three qualifications:The material type and the functionThe manufacturing process, quantity, and costSustainability 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyMaterial TypesMaterials are generally categorized into the following groups:Metals Ceramics PolymersComposites 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyMaterial TypesMetals are elements, compounds, or alloys that account for roughly two-thirds of all materials and have properties that include:Strength, ductility, high melting point, thermal and electric conductivity, and toughness Metals can be easily bondedthey have free electrons that can easily move from one atom to the next. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyMaterial TypesMetals account for roughly two-thirds of all elementsElements along the yellow line separating metals from non-metals can exhibit properties of both. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyMaterial TypesWhat are some of the metals people use to make the objects we use? 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyMaterial TypesCeramics are an inorganic and nonmetallic material formed from powdered materials through the application of heat and have properties that include: Strength, hardness, resistance to high temperatures, often brittle, and depending on how the product is formed, dense or lightweight, conductive or not, magnetic or not 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyMaterial TypesPolymers are commonly referred to as plastics or rubber. Plastics are group of synthetic materials that are formed or molded into shape.Rubber can be easily deformed and return to its near original shape.Polymers often resist corrosion, resist conduction, and are less dense than metal or ceramics. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyMaterial TypesPolymers are divided into two categories:Thermoplastics materials that can be melted or re-melted and then molded or extruded into a product (polyethylene, polypropylene)Think ChocolateThermoset plastics materials that are set using heat or a chemical reaction. These materials cannot be re-melted. (resins, epoxies)Think Eggs or Cake 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyMaterial TypesComposites are any combination of two or more distinct materials that maintain their original properties.Common composites include:Reinforced plasticsMetal or ceramic matrix compositesCarbon FiberConcrete and fiberglass 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyNew DayMaterial FunctionsThe properties of materials can be generally categorized into the following groups:MechanicalElectricalMagneticThermal 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyMaterial FunctionsMechanical properties of materials involve a reaction to a load or application of a force.Tensile Strength measures the materials resistance to being pulled apart 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyMaterialForceForce 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyMaterial FunctionsMechanical properties of materials involve a reaction to a load or application of a force.Compression Strength measures the materials resistance to being squeezed 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyMaterialForceForce 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyMaterial FunctionsMechanical properties of materials involve a reaction to a load or application of a force.Fatigue Strength the highest stress that a material can withstand for a given number of cycles without breaking. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyMaterialForce 3 Force 2Force 1 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyMaterial FunctionsMechanical properties of materials involve a reaction to a load or application of a force.Hardness the materials resistance to permanent indentation 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyMaterial FunctionsMechanical properties of materials involve a reaction to a load or application of a force.Elasticity the materials ability to return to its near original shape after a stress has been applied and removed 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyMaterial FunctionsMechanical properties of materials involve a reaction to a load or application of a force.Brittleness a material's tendency tofracture without deforming. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyForceForce 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyMaterial FunctionsMechanical properties of materials involve a reaction to a load or application of a force.Ductility and Malleability the materials ability to stretch, bend, or twist without breaking 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyMaterial FunctionsElectrical conductivity is the measure of how well the material accommodates the movement of an electrical charge.Electrical resistivity is the measure of how well the material resists the movement of an electrical charge. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyMaterial FunctionsMagnetic permeability is the ability of the material to become magnetized. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyMaterial 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyMaterial FunctionsThermal conductivity is the property of a material to transfer heat.Thermal expansion is how much a material expands as heat is increased. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyNew DayManufacturing TypesPrimary processes turn raw materials into standard stock (example timber cut into boards)Secondary processes turn standard stock into finished products (example boards turned into furniture) 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyManufacturing TypesSecondary processes are further broken down into one of three types:CustomBatch, or Job LotContinuous 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyManufacturing TypesCustom Manufacturing:A product that is one of a kind and manufactured by a specialist.Product examples: Yacht, homes, very specific parts or products, custom furniture 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyManufacturing TypesBatch and Job Lot Manufacturing:In Batch Manufacturing, products are made in groups or batches. In Job Lot Manufacturing, products are made to a specific quantity. Product Examples: bakery items, medicines, paints, seasonal items, airplanes, agricultural equipment 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyManufacturing TypesContinuous Manufacturing:Products made with no interruption in the production lineProduct examples: cars, food products, bricks 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyManufacturing TypesDetermining how a product will be manufactured has a large impact on the material(s) selected.Different methods of forming, casting, machining, joining, and rapid manufacturing will impact tool cost, the volume that can be produced, and the rate of production. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyManufacturing ProcessesParts or products are produced in several different ways, included in the list below:Forming the process where a raw material is reshaped to form the desired partCasting when a liquid material is poured into a mold, which represents a hollow version of the part, also known as the cast 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyManufacturing ProcessesParts or products are produced in several different ways, included in the list below:Machining the process in which a piece or raw material is cut into the desired part; generally involves a controlled removal of the raw materialJoining the process of joining two materials using some type of fastener 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyManufacturing ProcessesParts or products are produced in several different ways, included in the list below:Rapid manufacturing also known as additive manufacturing or 3D printing is the process of making a part from a digital model by adding material in layers 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyInterchangeable PartsInterchangeable parts are identical parts manufactured to a specification so that one part can easily replace another without having to build a custom part.The invention of interchangeable parts was developed by the printing industry using moveable type. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologyInterchangeable PartsThe interchangeability of parts has greatly increased the efficiency of all manufacturing processes.Product examples: 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologySustainable ManufacturingSustainable manufacturing is the creation of products and processes that do not pollute, conserve energy/natural resources, and are economically sound and safe for employees and consumers. Sustainable manufacturing also recognizes the importance of producing sustainable products and producing products that are energy-efficient. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of TechnologySTEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign International Technology Education AssocSlide #*TITLE SLIDE12/01/2009STEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign International Technology Education AssocSTEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign[Authors: Please include teacher notes appropriately.] International Technology Education AssocSlide #*12/01/2009STEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign International Technology Education AssocSTEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign[Authors: Please include teacher notes appropriately.] 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