lockheed martin diamond presentation

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  • Lockheed-Martin Advanced Technology Center J. Michael Pinneo, Ph.D., J.D.

    September 24, 2009

    1 J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

  • Survey

    ! I. Diamond synthesis and properties

    ! II. Aerospace applications

    2 J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

  • CVD Diamond - Synthesis ! Overall chemistry: deposition occurs in diamond metastability region, graphite stability region ! i. CxHy + H0 ! Cg+ Cd (mostly graphite) ! ii. Cg + H0 !!! CxHy ! iii. Cd + H0 -> CxHy (~1/400 ii.)

    ! Yields poly- and single-crystal

    3 J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

  • CVD Diamond Synthesis Methods ! Hot filament, plasmas, combustion, ...

    4

    VHF Plasma, 8

    Combustion, 4 linear

    Microwave Plasma, 4

    RF Plasma Torch

    DC Plasma Torch

    J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

  • CVD Diamond - Varie7es Scale-up ExperienceMicrowave Diamond CVD

    30Kw, 915 MHzPlasma ScanningDeposition Diameter 14"Conformal 3-D CapabilityThickness Uniformity

  • CVD Diamond Thermal Proper7es

    ! Thermal conductivity @ 273K: 8 25 W/cm-K ! Thermal conductivity peak ~ 77K: 60 W/cm-K ! Thermal diffusivity: 1.16 cm2/sec ! Thermal conductivity is high even in nanocrystalline films

    ! Extremely useful in thermal management

    6 J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

  • CVD Diamond Mechanical Proper7es

    ! Hardness: 10,000 kg/mm2 ! Modulus: 1,100 Gpa ! Poissons ratio: ~ 0.06 ! Thermal Expansion Coefficient: ~ 1 x 10-6/C @ 273K ! Coefficient of sliding friction (): 10-2 to 10-3 ! Sonic velocity: ~ 18 km/sec

    7 J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

  • CVD Diamond Op7cal Proper7es

    ! Transparent: 225 nm > DC ! ~ 5m 6m, intrinsic phonon absorption

    ! Refractive Index ~ 2.4 ! Emissivity @ 273K ~ 0.04

    8 J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

  • CVD Diamond Electronic Proper7es

    ! Resistivity, intrinsic: > 1015 -cm ! Resistivity, B-doped: 10-3 -cm ! Dielectric constant: 5.7 ! Breakdown field: > 107 V/cm ! P and N dopants: B, B & D plasma

    9 J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

  • Aerospace Applica7ons Thermal Management

    10 J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

  • Heat Spreaders for Ac7ve Devices

    Device

    Cold Plate

    Diamond Heat Spreader!

    K = 12 W/cm-K

    SiC Heat Spreader!

    K = 2.5 W/cm-K

    T1

    T2

    Tr1

    Tr2

    Trn

    Q (T1 T2)

    Q 1/( Tr1Trn)

    11 J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

  • Diamond Microprocessor Heat Spreaders

    ! IR image of processor temperature

    ! Diamond enabled 1.8x clock rate increase

    12

    Die Temperaturew/ Copper Spreader

    Die Temperaturew/ Diamond Spreader

    Copper Heat Spreader Diamond Heat Spreader

    J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

  • GaN HEMT

    13

    5 2005-2006 Group4 Labs, LLC. All Rights Reserved

    !""#$%&'%()*+#"%,+#-./+*+"#-)*/%0+1)2+3%&*%4#56(+*/-,%&'%,+#-%3&7"2+3%)3%(&*/%)*%2&89#")3&*%:)-,%-,+%3+9#"#-)&*%! #*0%:)0-,%&'%-,+%3&7"2+3;

    4#5%+9)(#$+"3

  • Thermal Management Heat Spreaders, GaN HEMTs

    ! Attach 100m diamond heat spreader to GaN device: ! 200% increased power cf. SiC heat spreader;

    ! 1000% increased power cf. Si heat spreader.

    Courtesy Group 4 Labs, and Jonathan Felbinger and Prof. Eastman, Cornell University.

    14 J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

  • ! 4 free-standing GaN wafer on diamond

    15

    Courtesy Group 4 Labs

    J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

  • 16 J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

    Separation between linear sources [m]

  • GaN HEMT on Diamond ! Benefits:

    ! Higher output power ! Lower operating temperature ! Greater device density

    ! System Impact: ! Radar -> increased target acquisition distance ! Active ECM -> increased range, effectiveness ! Increased MTBF -> reduced maintenance $, time

    17 J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

  • Poten7al Applica7on

    ! F-35 thermal issues ! Fuel used as internal systems heat sink ! Low fuel near end of mission:

    ! Higher fuel temperature ! Lower T in thermal transfer chain ! Increased avionics temperature

    18 J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

  • F-35 Thermal Issue

    ! Reduce overall thermal resistance between avionics and fuel ! Apply diamond to thermal transfer path:

    ! Device level: diamond heat spreaders ! Card/module level: diamond heat pipes & plates ! Heat exchangers: diamond or diamond/SiC composites

    19 J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

  • Op7cal Applica7ons

    ! Important properties ! Broadband transparency

    ! 225 nm -> DC ! Intrinsic phonon absorption ~ 5 m 6 m

    ! Hardness ! Low loss tangent (< 10-4)

    20 J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

  • IR Op7cal Applica7ons

    Rain/dust impact damage on IR optic (F-15E)

    21 J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

  • IR Op7cal Applica7ons

    ! Erosion barrier for ZnS/ZnSe IR optics ! Hardness, IR transparency

    ! Cant CVD direct on IR material, but chalcogenide glue works.

    ! AR coatings are available. VIS

    IBLE

    22 J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

  • Op7cs: High Power Lasers

    ! Windows/Lenses ! High damage threshold ! Physically robust

    ! Solid State Lasers ! Increased output ! Reduced module volume

    Northrop-Grumman 100 Kw laser, Phase 3, JHPSSL

    Advanced Tactical Laser (ATL)

    23 J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

  • Op7cs: HPM Windows

    ! DEW: high power microwave windows (HPMW) ! High K, low loss tangent, low TCE ! >1 Gw CW, > 10 Gw pulsed @ 90 GHz ! USAF BAA/Raytheon 2009 win to provide domestic source

    ! Current vendors: Europe, Asia ! >$100K each

    24 J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

  • Mechanical, Fric7on & Wear

    ! Important properties ! Low friction ! Hardness ! Modulus ! Corrosion resistance

    25

    F-15E Exhaust Flap Mechanism

    J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

  • Machining Opera7ons

    ! Diamond-coated tooling Increased tool life Higher machining speeds Better workpiece finish

    26

    Diamond coated cutting tools courtesy of Crystallume, Inc.

    J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

  • Bearings and Seals

    ! Good coating and performance increases shown for diamond on Si3N4 ball bearings, BC wear shoes, and SiC pump seals.

    ! Diamond pump seals in commercial production by Advanced Diamond Technologies, Inc.

    27

    Diamond-coated pump seals, courtesy of Advanced Diamond Technologies, Inc.

    J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

  • Diamond as a MEMS Material

    ! Hardness & Modulus ! Low self-adhesion/stiction ! Hydrophobic ! Tolerate aggressive environments

    ! Surface can be functionalized to provide sensing capability

    28 J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

    Diamond RF MEMS Switch

  • Diamond for High Power Lasers ! Desirable properties: transparency, K, TCE, damage threshold

    ! Natural diamond laser demonstrated in 1985(1) ! Optically pumped (Ar ion laser) ! Lasing medium: H3 color center, 530 nm ! Tunable due to coupling with phonon energy levels ! Efficiency 13.5%

    ! Interesting, but natural diamonds too costly & rare

    29

    (1) Rand & DeShazer, Optical Letters, 1985 vol. 10 (10) pp. 481-483

    J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

  • Diamond for High Power Lasers ! Whats changed? ! Large, high quality single crystal diamonds by CVD

    ! R. Hemleys group at Carnegie Institute(2)

    ! Microwave plasma CVD followed by HP or LP anneal ! Highly accessible with relatively simple equipment ! Cost-effective technology

    30

    (2) Recent advances in high-growth rate single-crystal CVD diamond, Qi Liang, et al., Diamond and Related Materials, 2009 vol. 18 (5-8) pp. 698-703

    J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

  • Diamond for High Power Lasers ! High efficiency diamond Raman laser(3)

    ! 1.2 watt output @ 573 nm, 532 nm pump ! Conversion efficiency 63.5% ! Slope efficiency 75% ! Peak photon conversion efficiency 91%

    ! Diode-pumped diamond Raman laser shown in 2005(4)

    31

    (3) Highly efficient diamond Raman laser, Mildren and Sabella, Optics Letters, 2009 vol. 34 (18) pp. 2811-2813 (4) Diode pumped diamond Raman microchip laser, Demidovich, et al., Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) Europe, 2005, p. 251

    J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org

  • Diamond for Hypersonic Flight

    ! Challenge: extreme aeroheating of vehicle and control surfaces during endoatmospheric flight ( 2,500C) ! Constrains thermal solutions to ablative materials ! Ablatives can substantially depart from nominal aerosurface design during flight

    ! Impact on vehicles: ! Increased control authority required ! Increased total divert energy needed ! Increases vehicle weight/size, reduces range ! Introduces weather (rain, dust) as launch limitation

    ! Resolution: robust, nonablative thermal coating

    J. Michael Pinneo, michael@pinneo.org 32

  • Diamond for Hypersonic Flight ! Critical info: diamond does not bulk graphitize at T > 2,200C for hours

    ! Suggests: Anti-oxidation coating + thick diamond film could be useful as a robust, nonablative material for some hypersonic endoatmospheric missions. ! Oxidation barrier: Re/Ir affordable because < 10m ! Low diamond TCE helps maintain antioxidati

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