How do you know what you know? How do you know it? What don’t you know? Why don’t you know it?

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Slide 1 How do you know what you know? How do you know it? What dont you know? Why dont you know it? Slide 2 The scientific revolution and the subsequent discoveries made us smarter! So, how does that research work for Psychologywhat are the different methodologies? Here is an example of Psychological researchPsychological research Slide 3 There are various Methodologies? methodology - According to the text, methodology simply refers to the methods that we use to conduct an investigation. describe behaviorexplain its causespredict behaviors may occur again control certain behaviors The goals of research are to describe behavior, to explain its causes, to predict the circumstances under which certain behaviors may occur again, and to control certain behaviors. Psychologists use various methods of research to accomplish each of these goals. As we go through this, try to figure out what kind of research you would like to do Milgrim Short Version Milgrim Short Version Milgrim Full Version Milgrim Full Version Slide 4 Naturalistic Observation: Naturalistic Observation: A research method in which the psychologist observes the subject in a natural setting without interfering. (In other wordsWatch, but do not touch!) Slide 5 Participant Observation: Participant Observation: A research method in which the psychologist observes the subject in a natural setting but gets involved. (In other wordsWatch AND interact Slide 6 Surveys: Surveys: A research method in which information is obtained by asking many individuals a fixed set of questions. This is usually used to get an idea of the populations attitudes toward something. Note: - Note: These are only accurate if they are representative of the population as a whole. Slide 7 Longitudinal Study: Longitudinal Study: A research method in which data is collected about a group of participants over a number of years to assess how certain change or remain the same during development. Cross Sectional Studies: Cross Sectional Studies: A research method in which data is collected from groups of participants of different ages and compared so that conclusions can be drawn about differences due to age. Experiments Experiments : A research method in which variables are manipulated in order to determine causation. While surveys and other methods are good at determining Correlationexperiments are good at determining Causation Slide 8 Case Studies: Case Studies: A research method that involves an intensive investigation of one or more participants. (long term, very involved.) Note: - Note: By itself, a case study does not prove or disprove anything. The researchers conclusions may not be correct. This was the technique used by Freud. Slide 9 Case studies may be used to describe particularly rare phenomena. The study of presidential assassins is limited to case studies of a few people who have killed or tried to kill U.S. Presidents. Investigations of mass murderers are also limited to case studies. Slide 10 Study things that are difficult to test. -ethically, there are limits to what we can studyor is there? Video 4 of 5 2:00-7:00 Video 4 of 5 2:00-7:00 Slide 11 Case studies provide illustrative anecdotes. Researchers and teachers often use case studies to illustrate general principles to students. Slide 12 There are also at least 2 major limitations to case studies: 1.) They are virtually useless in providing evidence to test behavioral theories or treatments. The lives and events studied often occur in an uncontrolled fashion and without comparison information. No matter how reasonable a researchers explanations may be, you cannot rule out alternative explanations. Slide 13 2.) Most case studies rely on the observations of a single investigator. We often have no way of assessing the reliability of that single researchers observations and interpretations. Because the researcher may have some sort of vested interest in the outcome of the study, one must always be concerned about the self-fulfilling prophecy. Slide 14 2. Surveys Slide 15 Surveys are very appealing. Seems like an efficient way to do research. What are some of the flaws that you can think of with surveys? Wording Audience Order Who is asking? Slide 16 Wording: How can the wording of a survey influence the responses given? Sex vs. Relations Hate vs. Dislike Love vs. Like Slide 17 Audience: How can the audience to which the survey is given influence the responses? Location and topic How are the questions asked? Slide 18 Order: How can the order in which the questions are asked influence the responses? -1.) Do you think the actions of the Sept. 11 th attacks were wrong? -2.) Does is anger you that American soldiers are dying in Iraq? -3.) Do you think people in the Middle East are generally violent? Slide 19 Who is asking? How could the person asking influence the answers given? Race Gender Background Inflection Slide 20 Why is it important to have random samples in survey research? Some fun statistics: 68% of people roll toilet paper over the spool 79% squeeze toothpaste from the top 7% look behind the shower curtain when using someone elses bathroom 80% of people eat corn on the cob in circles instead of rows 10% of people have seen a ghost 7% of people have flossed their teeth with their own hair Slide 21 What was wrong with each one of those statistics? Those responses were the results of only about 7,000 people out of 25,000 surveyed. Slide 22 Obtaining random samples for any purpose is difficult. The government has had no more success than the private sector. The 1970 lottery to determine the order of the military draft was almost certainly unfair. The 31 capsules for January were placed in the bin first, then the 29 for February, and so on until the 31 for the next December. What do you think happened when the bin was not turned enough? The December Birthdays were drawn much earlier. Slide 23 You need to be aware of the difference between correlation and causation Slide 24 Correlation: Correlation: The measure of a relationship between two variables or sets of data. Whaaaaaaaaaaaaaa? There are 2 types of Correlation. Positive and Negative. positive correlation For example, there is a positive correlation between IQ scores and academic success. Low IQ scores tend to go with low grades. negative correlation (High score = Low score, Low score = High score) Another example, there is a negative correlation between the number of times you go down a slide and the number of times you get hurt from it. In other words, the more you practice, the less you will get hurt! (High score = Low score, Low score = High score) Why? It is important to remember that while the word correlation describes the relationship between 2 things, it does not always mean that one thing causes the other. Why? RELATIONSHIP.Not cause! It is very easy to misinterpret correlation studies as a cause an effect issue, but this is not accurate. Slide 25 A Story; In the early twentieth century, thousands of Americans in the South died from Pellagra, a disease marked by dizziness, lethargy, running sores, and vomiting. Slide 26 Finding that families struck with the disease often had poor plumbing and sewage, many physicians concluded that pellagra was transmitted by poor sanitary conditions. In contrast, Surgeon General Joseph Goldberger thought that the illness was caused by an inadequate diet. Slide 27 He felt that the correlation between sewage conditions and pellagra did not reflect a casual relationship, but that the correlation arose because the economically disadvantaged were likely to have poor diets, as well as poor plumbing. So, how was the controversy resolved? Slide 28 Well, the answer demonstrates the importance of the scientific method. To prove he was right, Goldberger not only had himself injected with the blood of a victim with sores all over his body, he found a victim with diarrhea and.ate his excrement! He did NOT come down with pellagra! Slide 29 To further make his case, Goldberger asked two groups from a Mississippi state prison farm to volunteer for an experiment. One group was given a high carbohydrate, low protein diet that Goldberger suspected to be the culprit, while the other received a balanced diet. Within months, the first group was ravaged by pellagra, while the second showed no signs of the disease. Slide 30 Causation refers to 1 variable causing another variable to behave a certain way. Slide 31 While surveys can highlight correlations, experiments can show causations In experiments there are multiple variables Independent variable- variable that causes something to happen to DV Dependent variable- variable that shows the effect of changing the IV Confounding variable -variable other than IV that can produce a change in DV Experimental group- participants are exposed to treatment Control group- participants are NOT exposed to treatment Double-Blind procedure- when the researchers and participants dont know the procedure being used. Slide 32 Now, try to go back to Milgrams Obedience experiment and figure out the following: Independent Variable Dependent Variable Experimental Group Control Slide 33 In order for experiments to be considered valid, they must be repeatable. How do we really know if something is legit if it is not repeatable? Could be a one-time fluke. Slide 34 There are different types of bias: Confirmation bias A tendency to search for information that confirms a pre- conception. THIS IS DANGEROUS!!!! WE ALL DO IT Check out these videos123123 Slide 35 Now try this activity2, 4, 6can you figure out the rule? Write 3 numbers down that match the rule and I will tell you if it is correct or not. Then write down the rule and check it with me. Participant Bias Research participants behave in a certain way because they know they are being observed or part of an experiment. Slide 36 Slide 37 MEAN: The MEAN is the arithmetic average, the average you are probably used to finding for a set of numbers - add up the numbers and divide by how many there are: (80 + 90 + 90 + 100 + 85 + 90) / 6 = 89 1/6. Slide 38 MEDIAN: The MEDIAN is the number in the middle. In order to find the median, you have to put the values in order from lowest to highest, then find the number that is exactly in the middle: 80 85 90 90 90 100 ^ since there is an even number of values, the MEDIAN is between these two, or it is 90. Notice that there is exactly the same number of values ABOVE the median as BELOW it! Slide 39 MODE: The MODE is the value that occurs most often. In this case, since there are 3 90's, the mode is 90. A set of data can have more than one mode. 80 85 90 90 90 100 Slide 40 RANGE: The RANGE is the difference between the lowest and highest values. In this case 100 - 80 = 20, so the range is 20. The range tells you something about how spread out the data are. Data with large ranges tend to be more spread out.

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