Final Synop Varanasi

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Final Synop Varanasi

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SYNOPSISOnHABITAT OF VARANASI

Submitted ToAR. SANDEEP KUMAR

Submitted byKIRTI PANDEYB.ARCH IV YR (SFS)

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE & EKISTICSJAMIA MILLIA ISLAMIANEW DELHI-1100252011-2012

PREFACETHE city of Banaras has always been known as the backbone of Hindu culture and tradition. Its extent and importance has been observed and feel in all the era. It has always possessed real attraction in respect to culture, life style, temples with majestically carved shikhara, mosques of different rulers, and the most attracting place Ghats, beautified with all nature style. The variety of things exists here simultaneously. Analyzing Ghats at a glance is difficult but we can feel the pleasure on being there. Since the city has been ruled dynasty like mughals Marathas Britishers etc. hence the variation in architecture and stages of development can be found. Out of all the Ghats Dashaswamedh and Manikarnika ghat are prominent Ghats and hold a very important place in history, architecture as well as in tradition. A variety and number of temple can be found on gnat varying different scales. The most worshipped temple kashi vishwanath temple on Dashaswedh ghat had been under development form 11th century to 19 the century. Unlike other Hindu temple instead of shikhara or vimana on garbha griha it has a dome like structure which shows the influence of Mughal on city.Busy narrow streets of Banaras are important in their own way. Hardly 3 to 4 m wide roads are there even though support circulation quiet well. They are so narrow that sometime balcony of houses clash with each other ,there is no provision of direct sun light from the street to entrance .houses are generally in courtyard mode with different level inside which divide space.From large to small scale commercial activities can be seen on Ghats. Tea stalls crowded with gossiping people, or queue of jewelry shops, small stalls of chat, represent the commercial status of city.

HABITAT OF VARANASIIntroduction of topic

Ahabitat(which isLatinfor "it inhabits") is anecologicalorenvironmentalarea that is inhabited by a particularspeciesofanimal,plantor other type oforganism.It is the natural environment in which an organism lives, or the physical environment that surrounds (influences and is utilized by) a speciespopulation.Varanasi is older than history, older than tradition, even older than legend and looks twice as old as all of them put together. The city of Varanasi is known to the world over as the sacred city of India and it is recognized as the most ancient continuously living city of the world. Varanasi records a settlement history since ca 800 BCE. The city is unique in the architectural, artistic and religious expressions of traditional Indian culture and is, even today a living example of this culture. As fast as continuity of cultural tradition is concerned Kashi surpasses all civilization centers. These zones and circumambulation paths have Ganga River as a distinct edge. The river is an essential component of all the scared ritual practices on the ghat area. The riverfront of Ganga comprises of a series of 84 Ghats as a special chain of sacred places Ghats bear testimony to the uniqueness of Ghat architecture which is a mosaic of different cultures. Spreads over an area of 84.55 km2, the city is inhabited by 1.50 million people (in 2001), consisting of Hindus (63%), Muslim (30%) and other religious groups. Additionally, everyday about 40,000 commuters visit the city, which increases to 60,000 during festive season. There are ca 3000 Hindu sanctuaries, and 1388 Muslim shrines. The vividness and multiplicity, and diversity and unity are easily envisioned in its religion, culture, society and economy altogether making a mosaic. Every year about a million Indian pilgrims come here, and approximately 125,000 tourists from abroad visit this city.AimThe object of study is to find patterns and sources of settlement, buildings, living cultures and local indigenous knowledge. Factors responsible for development and factors responsible for variation in development. Climate and typology of city.

The Research Process will be followed by site study, interview library and net study. From these sources different data will be collected and on the basis of all a analyzed report will be developed.

REASON FOR SELECTIONBanaras is oldest city rich with culture of different color, faith of different category, architecture of different era and blessed with nature beauty. Existing of such things on one place is rare to find. I have selected specifically dashaswamedh ghat and munikarnika ghat as they are oldest of all ghats and store valuable history and place .these ghats are religiously important as well important for the coexistence of different architecture. In between these ghats there is a famous temple vishwanath temple and gyan vapi mosque. These two are built back to back and there is a very close existence of two different architectural features. Hence there is a very interesting environment and we can see how to different architecture are accommodating or giving space to one another.TOPICS TO BE COVER IN REPORT: Introduction Access to the city The regional settings History Typology of city Existing pattern of urban habitat Evolution of ghats Activity pattern of ghats Threat Costruction details

Location

"Varanasi is older than history, older than tradition, even older than legend and looks twice as old as all of them put together. -Mark TwainAccesstothecity:By Air :The airport is at Babatpur, 23 km from the city centre and is about 30 km from the ghats. Pre-paid taxis are available outside the airport to transfer you to the city within 45 minutes.

By Rail :Varanasi is linked to all major cities of the country and is the focal point for the Northern and North-Eastern Railways in India. Varanasi Cantt. is the main railway station of the city and is located on the Grand trunk Road. Pre-paid taxi and auto rickshaw service is available at the railway station.

By Road: Varanasi is situated at the junction of three national highways -NH2 from Kolkata to Delhi, NH7 to Kanyakumari and NH29 to Gorakhpur and undoubtedly it is one of the busiest roads of India.Public Transport: Auto rickshaw and rickshaw are the prime modes of communication in city and you will love to travel through the congested lanes of Varanasi. Mini buses run in the outer region of the city. Small boats and small steamers are also used by the common people to cross the river Ganga.

Climate:The city enjoys sub-tropical monsoon climate. The temperature varying between 5c 45 c in a year. The relative humidity is high during monsoon reaching up to 82-85%. Annual rainfall in varanasi is around 1000 mm.INTRODUCTION OF CITYVaranasi is older than history, older than tradition, even older than legend and looks twice as old as all of them put together. The city of Varanasi is known to the world over as the sacred city of India and it is recognized as the most ancient continuously living city of the world. Varanasi records a settlement history since ca 800 BCE. The city is unique in the architectural, artistic and religious expressions of traditional Indian culture and is, even today a living example of this culture. As fast as continuity of cultural tradition is concerned Kashi surpasses all civilization centers. These zones and circumambulation paths have Ganga River as a distinct edge. The river is an essential component of all the scared ritual practices on the ghat area. The riverfront of Ganga comprises of a series of 84 Ghats as a special chain of sacred places Ghats bear testimony to the uniqueness of Ghat architecture which is a mosaic of different cultures. Spreads over an area of 84.55 km2, the city is inhabited by 1.50 million people (in 2001), consisting of Hindus (63%), Muslim (30%) and other religious groups. Additionally, everyday about 40,000 commuters visit the city, which increases to 60,000 during festive season. There are ca 3000 Hindu sanctuaries, and 1388 Muslim shrines. The vividness and multiplicity, and diversity and unity are easily envisioned in its religion, culture, society and economy altogether making a mosaic. Every year about a million Indian pilgrims come here, and approximately 125,000 tourists from abroad visit this city.Varanasi or Banaras derive its name from two streams the Varuna and Asi rivers, which bound it on the north east and south west. Its ancient denomination was Kashi. The historical traditions concur in assigning a remote date to the origin of kashi. The actual period of its foundation or the name of its founder is not specified. During the first millennium BCE there developed an established habitation in Banaras area based on the commercial transaction with nearby rural areas. The suitable situation along the river Ganga had helped accessibility and transport references in the ancient mythologies mention the existence of Banaras as port town and later as a political administrative educational and religious centre.The regional settings:The religious centre in Ganga delta:In india along certain holy rivers the river edge settlement have grown into religious cities or holy centres. Varanasi is one such city in uttar Pradesh along river Ganga .TheGangesorGanga is atrans-boundary riverofIndiaandBangladesh. The 2,525km (1,569mi) river rises in the westernHimalayasin the Indian state ofUttarakhand, and flows south and east through theGangetic Plainof North India into Bangladesh, where it empties into theBay of Bengal.The city of Varanasi is located in the middle Ganges valley of North India, in the Eastern part of the state of Uttar Pradesh, along the left crescent-shaped bank of the Ganges river. Varanasi is located on a higher ground between rivers Ganges and Varuna, the mean elevation being 80.71m. As a result of absence of tributaries and canals, the main