varanasi (3)

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City of Varanasi through ages, culture , tradition, ghats and architecture .

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  • banaras-the study of waterfront

    g.sriraj prasun kumar shivangi agrawal vikrant rahi

    b.arch. iii yr (a)

    BANARAS IS OLDER THAN HISTORY, OLDER THAN TRADITION, EVEN OLDER THAN LEGEND AND LOOKS TWICE AS OLD AS ALL OF THEM PUT TOGETHER",

    Mark Twain

  • banaras-the study of waterfront

    g.sriraj prasun kumar shivangi agrawal vikrant rahi

    b.arch. iii yr (a)

    ACCESS TO THE CITY By Air The airport is at Babatpur , 23 km from the city centre and is about 30 km from the ghats. Pre-paid taxis are available outside the airport to transfer you to the city within 45 minutes. By Rail Varanasi is linked to all major cities of the country and is the focal point for the Northern and North-Eastern Railways in India. Varanasi Cantt. is the main railway station of the city and is located on the Grand trunk Road. Pre-paid taxi and auato rickshaw service is available at the railway station. By Road Varanasi is situated at the junction of three national highways -NH2 from Kolkata to Delhi, NH 7 to Kanyakumari and Nh29 to Gorakhpur and undoubtedly it is one of the busiest roads of India. Public Transport Auto rickshaw and rickshaw are the prime modes of communication in city and you will love to travel through the congested lanes of Varanasi. Mini buses run in the outer region of the city. Small boats and small steamers are also used by the common people to cross the river Ganga.

  • banaras-the study of waterfront

    g.sriraj prasun kumar shivangi agrawal vikrant rahi

    b.arch. iii yr (a)

    INTRODUCTION

    The city of Varanasi is known to the world over as the sacred city of India and it is recognized as the most ancient conti nuously living city of the world. The city is unique in the architectural, artistic and religious expressions of traditional Indian culture and is, even today a living example of this culture. As fat as continuity of cultural tradition is concerned Kashi surpasses all civilization centers.

    These zones and circumambulation paths have Ganga River as a distinct edge. The river is an essential component of all the scared ritual practices on the ghat area.

    The riverfront of Ganga comprises of a series of 84 Ghats as a special chain of sacred places Ghats bear testimony to the uniqueness of Ghat architecture which is a mosaic of different cultures.

    The old city is densely populated and lacks open spaces. The ghat area offers relief to high densities of the old city and serves as a breathing space.

    The Ghats which are the focus of all religious and other activities form an integral part of the culture varanasi. All the circumambulation paths include the Ghats and invite millions of devotees along this sacred route.

    CLIMATE

    The city enjoys sub-tropical monsoon climate. The temperature varying between 5c 45 c in a year. The relative humidity is high during monsoon reaching up to 82-85%. Annual rainfall in varanasi is around 1000 mm.

  • banaras-the study of waterfront

    g.sriraj prasun kumar shivangi agrawal vikrant rahi

    b.arch. iii yr (a)

    Evolution of the city during 1830-1880 Among the changes that took place in the later half of the nineteenth century, one of the most significant is the -increase in the pakka mahal which rapidly encroached upon the kachcha houses. Also all vacant spaces in the immediate neighbourhood of the Ganga were filled in by Pakka houses. The two ill-drained areas, formerly occupied by the Godaulia Nala and the Misra Pokhra Jhil 'tank( in the south and the Maidagin and Machhodari tank in the north seem to have disappeared . The site of the Maidagin tank gradually came to be replaced by a park known as the Company garden, north of the present a center of the city. The Machhodari tank was drained into the Ganga though an underground channel and its site was turned into a park with a small tank left in the middle.

    The Godaulia Nala and other tanks and depressions were filled in and the Dasaswamedh road became an important landmark in the urban landscape of the city. A significant development however, was the development of the cantonment and civil lines areas which lay south of the &arria and north of the Grand Trunk road. Although established much before, its major development took place in the later half of the nineteenth century. To cater to the growing needs, suburban bazaars and a few hotels sprang up.

  • banaras-the study of waterfront

    g.sriraj prasun kumar shivangi agrawal vikrant rahi

    b.arch. iii yr (a)

    The river Barna was bridged at two points viz. the Chaukaghat and the Civil coizrts.The cantonment area was extended to the north--east of the civil lines in the vicinity of Pandepur and a small bazaar called Hukulganj began to grow on the eastern margin of the civil lines not far from the river Barna and the Pandepur cantonment. A new jail, many ,missionary establishments, a few churches and missionary service areas were among the notable additions to the white part of the city. The first railway link came into existence towards the closing decade of the last century. This period thus, is marked in general by the slow growth of the c~ty with no appreciable addition of new areas except by way of building over the gaps and vacant spaces in the outer zones of the city.

    A mohalla near dasaswamedh ghat A scene of assi ghat A potters shop near tulsi ghat

  • banaras-the study of waterfront

    g.sriraj prasun kumar shivangi agrawal vikrant rahi

    b.arch. iii yr (a)

  • banaras-the study of waterfront

    g.sriraj prasun kumar shivangi agrawal vikrant rahi

    b.arch. iii yr (a)

  • banaras-the study of waterfront

    g.sriraj prasun kumar shivangi agrawal vikrant rahi

    b.arch. iii yr (a)

    TYPOLOGIES OF THE CITY. Over the years Banaras has developed a range of urban sequences, witness to seceding dominations which have shaped its urban space by their structuring lines or their built form in accordance with their prevalent ideologies of space. On observation of the architectural form of the city, it can be divided into a number of typologies on the basis of its structuring of its architectural form. These are as follows: 1. The urban band that developed along the river from Asi in south to Raj ghat in the north and is composed of river facing buildings 'mainly palaces( and ghats. 2. The distinctive urban fabric flanking the river-front urban band and developing westwards from it. Known as the pakka mahal, it consists of a web of mohallas, intricately weaved together. 3. The gardens and pleasure residences of the rich merchants on the lines of the Mughal gardeiLs, situated on the outskirts of the 18th century city. 4. The recent plotted development extending from the outskirts of the 18th century city to the cantonment. 5. The ancient cantonment lying south of the Barna and north of the Grand Trunk road. Besides the remnants of the British

  • banaras-the study of waterfront

    g.sriraj prasun kumar shivangi agrawal vikrant rahi

    b.arch. iii yr (a)

    The pre-urban physical landscape consisted natural forest cover and wss carved out by the ganga and its left hand tributary streams. Notably amongst which even today re the varuna in the north and the Asi in the south, forming the limit and the physical terrain of its habitat.

    The high concave bank of the ganga formed of lime concretions washed by the perennial deep water channel did furnish protective as well as attractive site of human occupancy.

    Such a physical landscape induced the origin and growth of a multi-nuclei urban settlement ' the pre-urban nucleus referred to earlier( to start with, as clearings amidst the forests which later afforded their names to different mohallas. In fact, the sages and thinkers first established their retreats in the forests and became engaged in their scholastic pursuits along with their disciples, from sarnath in the north beyond the general precincts to Assi in the south, along water bodies including the sides of the tributary streams.

  • banaras-the study of waterfront

    g.sriraj prasun kumar shivangi agrawal vikrant rahi

    b.arch. iii yr (a)

    The city of Banaras can be divided into different zones based on its sacred geography. The three forms of Lord Vishvanath namely, Omkareshvar, Vishvesvar and Kedareshvar formed the three main nuclei of ancient Banaras around which the three Khandas of the city evolved in course of time. Starting first from the nucleus of Omkareshvar in the north under the shadow of the Reajghat Plateau, the highest place in the city, being above the flood limit and subject to minimum erosion. This zone lay between the varuna in the north and the Mandakini in the south. The vishvesvar Khand forms the central One developed around Adi vishveswar established at the highest point in the central zone and in its central most square.

  • banaras-the study of waterfront

    g.sriraj prasun kumar shivangi agrawal vikrant rahi