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  • Chapter 13 Manifest


    Chapter 13.1 Trails West

    Mountain men like Jedediah Smith and Jim

    Beckworth survived by being tough and resourceful.

    To obtain furs, mountain men roamed the Great

    Plains to the far west, and between the Mississippi

    River and the Pacific Ocean.

    The rendezvous system allowed individual trappers

    to come to a prearranged site for a rendezvous with

    traders from the east who in turn sold supplies to

    the trappers.

    Mountain Men and the


    Jedediah Smith

  • Chapter 13 Manifest


  • Chapter 13 Manifest


    Chapter 13.1 Trails West

    Smith, Beckworth, and other daring fur trappers

    and explorers opened up routes West by

    discovering the best trails through the Rocky


    Mountain men worked some streams so heavily,

    they killed off the animals forcing them to search

    for other streams

    These explorations provided Americans with first-

    hand knowledge of the Far West

    Thousands of pioneers used South Pass, the wide

    valley through the Rockies that Jedediah Smith had


    South Pass was wide and less steep, wagon trails

    could run through it

    Mountain Men Open the


    Jim Beckwourth

  • Chapter 13 Manifest


    Chapter 13.1 Trails West

    People called land speculators bought huge areas

    of land

    They made great profits by selling those sections to

    the thousands of settlers who dreamed of owning

    their own farms

    They earned money by making and selling items

    that farmers needed

    The Lure of the West

  • Chapter 13 Manifest


    Chapter 13.1 Trails West

    Missouri trader William Becknell set out with

    hardware, cloth, and china along the Santa Fe Trail,

    that went from Missouri to Santa Fe

    One of Becknells bags, was cut, and spilled gold

    and silver on the street

    The next spring, Becknell headed to Santa Fe by

    loading his trade goods into covered wagons he

    discovered a shortcut and allowing him to avoid

    steep slopes

    Before long, hundreds of traders and prairie

    schooners braved the cutoff to make the 800-mile

    journey from Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico

    each year

    The Trail to Santa Fe

  • Chapter 13 Manifest


    Chapter 13.1 Trails West

    The Oregon Trail ran from Independence, Missouri

    to the Oregon Territory

    Marcus and Narcissa Whitmans glowing reports of

    Oregons rich land began to attract other American


    In 1843, nearly 1,000 people traveled from

    Missouri to Oregon

    Oregon Fever

    Oregon Trail

  • Chapter 13 Manifest


    Chapter 13.1 Trails West

    Henry Sager, his wife, and six children left Missouri

    to find fertile land in Oregon

    The Oregon Trail was dangerous, so pioneers

    joined wagon trains

    Life on the trail was full of hardship and, later

    camp fever killed both of the Sager parents

    One Family Heads West

    Conestoga Wagon on the Oregon Trail

  • Chapter 13 Manifest


    Chapter 13.1 Trails West

    The Mormons were members of the Church of

    Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints

    Joseph Smith had founded this church in upstate

    New York in 1830

    Brigham Young moved his people out of the United

    States to Utah

    They built a new settlement by the Great Salt Lake,

    and through teamwork, they made their new

    desert homeland bloom

    The Mormon Trail

  • Chapter 13, Section 2 The Texas


  • Chapter 13 Manifest


    Chapter 13.2 The Texas Revolution

    The Spanish land called Tejas was rich and

    desirable, and had forests in the east, rich soil for

    growing corn and cotton, and great grassy plains

    for grazing animals

    The Spanish officials wanted settlers to move to

    Texas to defend against Native Americans and

    illegal Americans

    The Spanish government offered huge tracts of

    land to empresarios

    Moses Austin asked for permission to start a

    colony in Texas, Spain agreed, and the settlers on

    his land had to follow Spanish laws

    Spanish Texas

  • Chapter 13 Manifest


    Chapter 13.2 The Texas Revolution

    In 1821, Mexico successfully gained its

    independence from Spain

    Stephen Austins land grant became worthless, so

    he had to persuade the new government to let him

    start his colony

    The original Texas settler families, Old Three

    Hundred, agreed to become Mexican citizens and

    members of the Roman Catholic Church

    The success of Austins colony attracted more land

    speculators and settlers moved to Texas, and by

    1830 the population had swelled to about 30,000

    Mexican Independence

    Changes Texas

  • Chapter 13 Manifest


    Chapter 13.2 The Texas Revolution

    As more Americans settled in Texas, tensions with

    Tejanos increased

    The Tejanos found the Americans difficult to live

    with, because Americans seemed unwilling to

    adapt to Mexican laws

    Responding to warnings, Mexico closed the state to

    further American immigration, required Texans to

    pay taxes for the first time, and the government

    sent more Mexican troops to Texas

    Rising Tensions in Texas

  • Chapter 13 Manifest


    Chapter 13.2 The Texas Revolution

    Some Texans talked about breaking away from


    In 1833, Austin set off for Mexico City with a

    petition to request that Texas become a self

    governing state within Mexico

    Austin met with General Antonio Lopez de Santa

    Anna, but was jailed after Santa Anna learned of a

    letter Austin had written that supported Texas

    becoming its own state

    In late September 1835, Mexican soldiers marched

    to Gonzales to seize a cannon, and Texans had

    hung a flag that said, Come and Take It

    Two months later, Texans drove Mexicans out of

    San Antonio; angered by these insults, Santa Anna

    and 6,000 troops headed to Texas

    Texans Revolts Against


  • Chapter 13 Manifest


    Chapter 13.2 The Texas Revolution

    March 1-2, 1836, Texans met at a settlement called


    They declared independence with Sam Houston in

    command of the army

    420 men, led by James Fannin, were stationed at

    Goliad, and 183 volunteers were at the Alamo,

    headed by William Travis, and this included Davy

    Crockett, Jim Bowie, and Juan Seguin

    The Alamos defenders held of the Mexican attack

    for 12 days, but on the 13th day, Santa Anna

    ordered more than 1,800 men to storm the fortress

    All but 5 Texans were dead and the Battle of the

    Alamo was over, 183 died, and Susanna Dickenson

    was ordered to tell others the story of what she


    The Fight for the Alamo

  • Chapter 13 Manifest


    Chapter 13.2 The Texas Revolution

    With Santa Anna on the attack, Texans, both

    soldiers and settlers, fled eastward

    Over 300 soldiers were captured by Mexicans and

    executed at Goliad, but even in retreat and defeat,

    Houstons army doubled to 800 angry men

    On April 21, 1836, the Texans advanced on the

    Mexican army at the San Jacinto River screaming

    Remember the Alamo! Remember Goliad!

    In 18 minutes, the battle was over, and Texas was

    now independent

    The Victory at San Jacinto

  • Chapter 13 Manifest


    Chapter 13.2 The Texas Revolution

    Sam Houston was elected president of the Lone

    Star Republic by a landslide

    In 1836, Texas asked Congress for annexation, but

    it was rejected on the issue of slavery, so they

    remained an independent nation for almost ten


    Lone Star Republic

  • Chapter 13, Section 3 The War

    with Mexico

  • Chapter 13 Manifest


    Chapter 13.3 The War with Mexico

    Although populated with Native Americans and

    Mexicans, those lands were viewed by white

    settlers as unoccupied.

    Many Americans believed that the US was destined

    to stretch across the continent from the Atlantic

    Ocean to the Pacific Ocean.

    Manifest destiny suggested that expansion was not

    only good but bound to happen, even if it meant

    pushing Native Americans and Mexicans out of the


    Since 1818, Oregon had been occupied jointly by

    the United States and Britain, but in 1846, the

    United States and Britain agreed to divide Oregon

    at the 49th parallel.

    Americans Support Manifest


  • Chapter 13 Manifest


    Chapter 13.3 The War with Mexico

    In 1845, Congress admitted Texas as a slave state,

    but Mexico still claimed Texas.

    Texas and Mexico could not agree on the official

    border, Texas claimed the Rio Grande, Mexico

    claimed the Nueces River as the border of Texas .

    James K. Polk sent John Slidell to Mexico and

    offered $25 million for Texas, California, and New

    Mexico, but it failed.

    Zachary Taylor was stationed on the northern bank

    of the Rio Grande, but on April 25, a Mexican

    cavalry uni


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