manifest destiny and its legacy 1841-1848 destiny---1840 to 1850 ... •all compromises were...
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Manifest Destiny and Its Legacy 1841-1848
I. Conflicts over slavery and Compromises Slavery in Louisiana Purchase? Manifest Destiny---1840 to 1850
President James K. Polk1845 to 1849 Oregon Territory---1846 Texas Statehood--1845 Mexican War---1846 to 1848
US acquired the Mexican Cession Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo1848
Slavery in the Mexican Cession? Compromise of 1850
Calif. Admitted as a free state South: Enforce the Fugitive Slave Law North: stop the slave trade in Washington, D.C.
Stephen Douglas---build railroad in the North
Organize Kansas and Nebraska Territory and open it up to Popular Sovereignty
Abolitionists against it
Ruined the Missouri Compromise
led to violence----Bleeding Kansas---1856
Republican Party---1856---formed. II. Judicial Arguments Dred Scott1857-----slave sued for his freedom
Supreme Court Decision Constitution did not apply to slaves Legalized slavery in the U.S. All compromises were unconstitutional
First coined by newspaper editor, John OSullivan in 1845.
".... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and
to possess the whole of the continent which Providence
has given us for the development of the great experiment of
liberty and federaltive development of self-government
entrusted to us. It is right such as that of the tree to the
space of air and the earth suitable for the full expansion of
its principle and destiny of growth."
He felt that Americans had a right to develop the continent, which implied a sense of
cultural and racial superiority.
American belief that U.S. would
control the continent from
the Atlantic to the Pacific.
The Fateful Election of 1844
1. Southern leaders favored territorial expansion to extend the slave
system & demanded the immediate annexation of Texas.
3. Texas became the central issue in the 1844 election; Democrats
selected James K. Polk, who called for the annexation of Texas &
the taking of all of Oregon.
4. The Whigs nominated Henry Clay, who suggested that he
might support annexation of Texas.
5. Polks method of linking the issues of Texas & Oregon
was successful; immediately after Polks victory, congressional
Democrats moved to bring Texas into the Union.
Maine Boundary Settlement, 1842
The Independence of Texas
1. Adams-Ons Treaty of 1819 guaranteed Spanish sovereignty
2. After winning independence from Spain in 1821, the
Mexican govt. encouraged settlement by Mexicans & migrants
from the U.S..
3. 1829- Americans won special exemption from a law
ending slavery in Mexico.
Key Figures in Texas Independence, 1836
1830s- Americans in Texas had split into 2 groups:
A. peace partywanted more self-government for the province
B. war party wanted independence from Mexico.
March 2, 1836, the war party proclaimed the independence of Texas & adopted a
Constitution legalizing slavery.
The Republic of Texas
Texas entered as a U.S. state in
o One cause of the war with
Mexico in 1846.
The Oregon Dispute: 54 40 or Fight!
In 1843 a national convention
demanded that the U.S. seize
Oregon all the way to 5440
Joint British-U.S. occupation
ended in 1846.
Polks 1844 campaign slogan was
54,40 or fight
To avoid simultaneous war with Britain,
Polk signed the Oregon Treaty,
dividing the Oregon region at the
Wilmot Proviso, 1846
The Wilmot Proviso was intended to prohibit slavery in any new territories acquired from Mexico; the
Senate killed the proviso. But the Wilmot Provisos
call for free soil was the first antislavery proposal to
attract broad popular support.
Provided, territory from that, as an express and
fundamental condition to the acquisition of any
the Republic of Mexico by the United States, by
virtue of any treaty which may be negotiated
between them, and to the use by the Executive of
the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery
nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist
in any part of said territory, except for crime,
whereof the party shall first be duly convicted. Congr. David Wilmot (D-PA)
The Mexican War (1846-1848)
By the end of 1846, the U.S. controlled much of northeastern Mexico, & US forces
seized control of California in 1847.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848
Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio
Mexico gave the U. S. California and New Mexico.
U. S. gave Mexico $15,000,000 and agreed to pay
the claims of American citizens against Mexico
The Treaty was basically forced on Mexico!
Long Term Causes
Texas statehood, 1845
Mexico refusing to sell California
US receives Mexican Cession
Disputes over expansion of slavery will lead to the Civil War