decommissioning the fukushima daiichi site: a global challenge

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  • 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

    Decommissioning the Fukushima

    Daiichi Site: A Global Challenge

    William D. Magwood, IV Director-General

    Nuclear Energy Agency

    First International Forum on the Decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi NPS

    April 10, 2016

  • 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2

    The NEA: A Forum for Cooperation

    Founded in 1958

    31 member countries

    7 standing technical committees

    75 working parties and expert groups

    21 international joint projects

  • 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

    The NEA's committees bring together top governmental officials and technical specialists from NEA member countries and strategic partners to solve difficult problems, establish best practices and to promote international collaboration

    NEA Committee Structure

    3

  • 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 4

    Fukushima Daiichi: Reviewing Post-Accident Recovery

    Lessons Learned

  • 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 5

    Key Message from Stakeholder Dialogues: Decommission Quickly!

    NEA supported 12 dialogue sessions organised by ICRP between 2011 and 2015, with stakeholders from affected areas of Fukushima Prefecture

    Addressed many stakeholder concerns regarding radiological safety

    Reflected desire of residents to regain control of their lives and to return to normality

    Important message from those who evacuated and have not returned: We might return, but only if the site is safe.

  • 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 6

    Lessons from the Stakeholder Dialogues

    Trust is a necessary and central component of successful stakeholder engagement.

    Successful stakeholder engagement provides information and support to enable stakeholders to make informed decisions and develop a positive vision of their future.

    It is essential to clearly acknowledge the validity of all individual decisions (i.e., whether to stay in an affected area or to relocate).

    Must plan for long-term technical support to stakeholders--not just short-term responses. Recognize that this can be very resource intensive.

  • 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 7

    Post-Accident Food Management

    The Fukushima accident demonstrated the complexities and sensitivities of post-accident food consumption and trade.

    NEA developed a comprehensive approach to post-accident food management that provides consistent criteria for:

    - Local consumption - Domestic markets - Export - Import

    To build confidence, an international verification mechanism is needed.

  • 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 8

    Post-Accident Food Management: Remaining Issues

    Vital to assure establishment of clear, verifiable criteria and processes to support export and import of food productions while protecting domestic markets.

    Effective verification would address:

    - How are consumption criteria set? Consumption assumptions

    Dose calculation process

    - What is the process for food certification? Measurement equipment

    Measurement processes

    The NEA is exploring approaches for the international community to

    provide greater assurance

  • 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 9

    Lessons for Operating Plants Around the World

    As-built conditions may not match drawings

    Many plants have structures and features not fully reflected in drawings that might be referenced after an accident

    Important work areas, e.g. beneath reactor vessel, operating deck, etc., may be inaccessible due to dose rates

    Some equipment may require recertification (e.g. cranes, refuelling bridge, etc.)

    Access and operability needed to recover from significant on-site disaster

  • 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 10

    Advances are Needed in Remote and Robotic Work

    Most work will be in unique work environments conventional equipment tooling insufficient

    Dose rates will be very high in significant areas

    Often will require robotic characterisation

    Actual work best addressed via remotely operated tools rather than robotics

  • 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 11

    Major Ongoing NEA Efforts: EGFWMD

    Purpose: Evaluating the management of post-accident waste

    Provides a strategic approach to the Japanese government to manage waste characterization process (sampling and analysis plan)

    Members: France, Korea, Norway, Russia, United Kingdom, Ukraine, United States, and Japan (NRA, JAEA, TEPCO)

    Report to be issued 2Q of 2016

    Expert Group on Fukushima Waste

    Management and Decommissioning R&D Structure of Work for EGFWMD

    1. International Case Studies

    2. Regulator / Implementer Interaction

    3. Stakeholder Involvement

    4. Physical and Chemical Nature of the Waste

    5. Radiological Characterisation

    6. Waste Classification and Categorization

    7. Waste Conditioning, Decontamination, and Reduction

    8. Destination (storage / disposal)

  • 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 12

    Major Conclusions from EGFWMD

    A holistic waste management strategy must be established, based on a

    sufficient number of material contamination measurements and meaningful

    waste classification.

    Optimization is an important aspect of radiological protection and should

    include not only radiological factors, but also social and economic factors.

    Radioactive waste exceeding the limits for near-surface or intermediate-

    depth disposal is generated by post-accident decommissioning activities;

    appropriate storage and stabilization is required until a final disposal

    approach is developed.

    EGFWMD Tokyo Workshop 6-7 July 2016

    Iino Hall and Conference Center, Tokyo, Japan

    Organized by the NEA and hosted by METI, IRID, others TBD

  • 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 13

    Major Ongoing NEA Efforts: BSAF

    Purpose: Drawing from actual experience at Fukushima Daiichi to verify severe accident codes

    Members: France, Germany, Korea, Russia, Spain, Switzerland, United States, and Japan (JAEA, IAE, NRA, CRIEPI)

    Phase 1 completed 2015

    Phase 2 approved and soon to begin

    Benchmark Study of the Accident at the

    Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    Phase 1: Codes show similar results in

    predicting Unit 1 water levels and RPV pressure

  • 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 14

    Major Results from BSAF and Next Steps

    Phase 1 Completed 2015

    A total of 13 different severe accident codes from around the world were

    used to analyse the first six-days of thermal-hydraulics in 1F reactor vessels

    BSAF phase 1 results showed that when the boundary conditions are well

    known and fixed, the codes provide comparable agreement of the

    thermal-hydraulics phase, as well as the fuel temperature excursion

    phase.

    Phase 2 Agreement Recently Adopted

    BSAF phase 2 will build upon the phase 1 results to assess severe accident

    code comparisons out to three-weeks after accident initiation as well as

    further information on fuel debris location. These results can be used to

    support Japans planning efforts aimed at addressing the damaged

    cores.

  • 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 15

    Major Ongoing NEA Efforts: SAREF

    Purpose: Identifying research opportunities from Fukushima Daiichi to advance safety knowledge and to support safe decommissioning.

    Members: Canada, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom and the United States

    Report expected to be issued 3Q of 2016

    Senior Expert Group on Safety Research

    Opportunities Post-Fukushima Status of SAREF Effort To Date

    Many research areas of common interest were identified.

    Potential long-term and near-term projects will be included in final report to NEAs CSNI in June 2016.

    Near term project recommendations include:

    Fuel debris characterisation and simulation

    Reactor and containment building examinations and water sampling

  • 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2015 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 16

    Concluding Thoughts A complete and sustainable waste management strategy is

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