Cybersecurity Today and Tomorrow
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Computer Science and Telecommunications Board
Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences
National Research Council
NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESSWashington, D.C.
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Suggested citation: Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, Cyber-security Today and Tomorrow: Pay Now or Pay Later, National Academy Press, Wash-ington, D.C., 2002.
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COMPUTER SCIENCE AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BOARD
DAVID D. CLARK, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, ChairDAVID BORTH, Motorola LabsJAMES CHIDDIX, AOL Time WarnerJOHN M. CIOFFI, Stanford UniversityELAINE COHEN, University of UtahW. BRUCE CROFT, University of Massachusetts at AmherstTHOMAS E. DARCIE, AT&T Labs ResearchJOSEPH FARRELL, University of California at BerkeleyJEFFREY M. JAFFE, Bell Laboratories, Lucent TechnologiesANNA KARLIN, University of WashingtonBUTLER W. LAMPSON, Microsoft CorporationEDWARD D. LAZOWSKA, University of WashingtonDAVID LIDDLE, U.S. Venture PartnersTOM M. MITCHELL, Carnegie Mellon UniversityDONALD NORMAN, Nielsen Norman GroupDAVID A. PATTERSON, University of California at BerkeleyHENRY (HANK) PERRITT, Chicago-Kent College of LawBURTON SMITH, Cray Inc.TERRY SMITH, University of California at Santa BarbaraLEE SPROULL, New York UniversityJEANNETTE M. WING, Carnegie Mellon University
MARJORY S. BLUMENTHAL, DirectorHERBERT S. LIN, Senior ScientistALAN S. INOUYE, Senior Program OfficerJON EISENBERG, Senior Program OfficerLYNETTE I. MILLETT, Program OfficerCYNTHIA PATTERSON, Program OfficerSTEVEN WOO, Program OfficerDAVID PADGHAM, Research AssociateJANET BRISCOE, Administrative OfficerMARGARET HUYNH, Senior Project AssistantDAVID DRAKE, Senior Project AssistantJANICE SABUDA, Senior Project AssistantJENNIFER BISHOP, Senior Project AssistantBRANDYE WILLIAMS, Staff Assistant
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Starting with the publication of the report Computers at Risk: Safe Com-puting in the Information Age in 1991 (National Academy Press, Washing-ton, D.C.), the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB)has examined the issue of computer and communications security a num-ber of times, from a number of perspectives. While there has beenprogress in security, it is a sad commentary on the state of the world thatwhat CSTB wrote more than 10 years ago is still timely and relevant. Forthose who work in computer security, there is a deep frustration thatresearch and recommendations do not seem to translate easily into de-ployment and utilization.
The events of September 11, 2001, suggestindeed demandthat wetake a renewed look at the security and robustness of our nations infra-structure. Now, if ever, we see the importance of having critical systemsresistant to attack and serviceable in times of crisis. From our telephonesystem to air traffic control to the Internet, we will be greatly harmed ifthese systems fail us just when we need them most.
The vulnerabilities are not new, only freshly brought into focus. Andthe approaches that will mitigate these threats are not unknown, onlyunderutilized. So CSTB has taken the approach of drawing on its pastwork to point out that much of what we need to do is available to us now,if only we choose to act.
The staff of the CSTB have assembled this report from the broad baseof its existing reports. Herb Lin deserves special thanks for the effortnecessary to produce this report quickly.
David D. Clark, ChairComputer Science andTelecommunications Board
Acknowledgment of Reviewers
This report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen fortheir diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with pro-cedures approved by the National Research Councils (NRCs) ReportReview Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to pro-vide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in mak-ing the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the reportmeets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsive-ness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscriptremain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in thereview of this report:
Steven Bellovin, AT&T Labs Research,Thomas Berson, Anagram Laboratories,John Davis, Mitretek Systems Inc.,Carl Landwehr, National Science Foundation,Fred Schneider, Cornell University, andWillis Ware, RAND Corporation.
Although the reviewers listed above have provided many construc-tive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the con-clusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the reportbefore