Contribution of Post-Anthesis Growth and Manganese Dynamics to Differential Grain Yield in Different Wheat Species

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  • This article was downloaded by: [McMaster University]On: 18 December 2014, At: 09:08Publisher: Taylor & FrancisInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registeredoffice: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK

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    Contribution of Post-Anthesis Growthand Manganese Dynamics to DifferentialGrain Yield in Different Wheat SpeciesArun Shankara, Upkar S. Sadanaa & Nirmal K. Sekhonaa Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University,Ludhiana, IndiaAccepted author version posted online: 28 Feb 2014.Publishedonline: 27 Jun 2014.

    To cite this article: Arun Shankar, Upkar S. Sadana & Nirmal K. Sekhon (2014) Contribution of Post-Anthesis Growth and Manganese Dynamics to Differential Grain Yield in Different Wheat Species,Journal of Plant Nutrition, 37:11, 1770-1781, DOI: 10.1080/01904167.2014.889151

    To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2014.889151

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    http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditionshttp://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions

  • Journal of Plant Nutrition, 37:17701781, 2014Copyright C Taylor & Francis Group, LLCISSN: 0190-4167 print / 1532-4087 onlineDOI: 10.1080/01904167.2014.889151

    CONTRIBUTION OF POST-ANTHESIS GROWTH AND MANGANESEDYNAMICS TO DIFFERENTIAL GRAIN YIELD IN DIFFERENTWHEAT SPECIES

    Arun Shankar, Upkar S. Sadana,and Nirmal K. SekhonDepartment of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India

    Manganese (Mn) deficiency has become a serious nutritional problem for wheat grown in alka-line coarse textured soil. The study aimed to investigate post-anthesis Mn partitioning in differentwheat species. Cultivars of bread wheat (PBW509, DBW17, PBW550 and PBW636); durumwheat (PDW291) and triticale (TL2908) were grown in 6.5 L pots with two treatments of Mn(0 and 50 mg Mn kg1 soil) in screen house and harvested at anthesis, 18- days post-anthesis, andmaturity to record Mn uptake. Durum cv. PDW291 retained highest proportion of Mn in its vege-tative parts under Mn deficiency resulting into lowest partitioning to the grain and had the lowestgrain yield. All bread wheat cv. facilitated superior Mn partitioning to the grain, lesser retentionin vegetative organs and higher Mn utilization efficiency, than triticale and durum wheat species.Cultivars producing higher yield on Mn deficit soils are viable alternative to foliar application ofMn.

    Keywords: manganese efficiency, Mn dynamics, Mn partitioning, wheat cultivars

    INTRODUCTION

    Wheat is highly susceptible to manganese (Mn) deficiency (Lucas andKnezek, 1972; Krahmer and Sattelmacher, 2001). A lot of attention has beenmade to study the mechanism of tolerance to low Mn status in terms ofroot geometry (Sadana et al., 2002); uptake kinetics (Pedas et al., 2005;Sadana et al., 2005); chemical mobilization (Gherardi and Rengel, 2004;Fang et al., 2008); superior internal utilization (Jiang and Ireland, 2005);seed Mn content (Khabaz-Saberi et al., 2000); rhizosphere microorganisms(Huang et al., 1994; Posta et al., 1994; Nogueira et al., 2007), and post-anthesis Mn dynamics (Pearson and Rengel, 1994). However, exhaustive

    Received 17 November 2011; accepted 29 April 2012.Address correspondence to A. Shankar, Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University,

    Ludhiana-141004, India. E-mail: aspauldh@gmail.com

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  • Manganese Partitioning in Different Wheat Species 1771

    study on differential Mn dynamics in wheat during the generative phase andits impact on plant growth is still lacking. Keeping this lacuna in mind, thepostanthesis Mn dynamics in six wheat cultivars from three wheat species(triticale, bread, and durum wheat) and its impact on plant growth wereinvestigated. The current paper represents the first exclusive study on post-anthesis Mn dynamics and its impact on plant growth in bread, durum, andtriticale wheat species.

    To understand plant Mn dynamics, we need to focus on the behavior ofMn in terms of its mobility within different organs leading to its better distri-bution and partitioning in plant. The uptake and/ or mobility of Mn withinshoot and to the grain are mainly affected by Mn application and growthstages (Pearson and Rengel, 1994); sucrose status and humidity (Pearsonet al., 1996); heat stress which generally increases Mn uptake (Dias et al.,2009), and plant genotypes (Hocking et al., 1977). Manganese accumulatesin plant organs where intensive chemical reactions take place and whichare in active vegetation. Manganese is primarily present as a divalent ionin equilibrium with unstable organic acid complexes in xylem sap and itmoves freely in the transpiration stream and, when supplied in adequateamounts, accumulates in roots, stems, and leaves in a pattern traditionallydescribed as phloem immobile. However, phloem sap of plants may alsocontain high concentrations of Mn and supply adequate amounts to devel-oping seeds (Loneragan, 1988). Phloem mobility of Mn is very low and itcan reach glumes directly via xylem in mature wheat plants or can be firsttransferred from xylem to phloem and then reach the glumes via phloem inyoung plants (Riesen and Feller, 2005) though the extent of Mn mobility inphloem varies with plant species (Epstein, 1971).

    Good reproductive phase mobilization of Mn to barley grains at harveststage with an increased spikeMn concentration (along with flag leaf) accom-panied by decreased Mn concentration in the other plant parts includingolder leaves has been reported recently by Birsin et al. (2010). Manganesemoves readily from roots, stems, and petioles to developing sinks, includingseeds in lupin (Hannam et al., 1985). Under Mn deficiency, Mn content ofstem, peduncle and flag leaf decreases and that of glumes increases towardsmaturity (Pearson and Rengel, 1994). Sharp decline of mineral nutrientcontent from vegetative organs during reproductive growth stage occurs be-cause nutrient uptake generally decreases, mainly as a result of decreasingcarbohydrate supply to the roots (Marschner, 1995). So the literature sug-gests evidences of Mn mobilization as well as Mn being relatively immobile.The present study aimed to investigate the post-anthesis growth and Mndynamics in different plant parts of three wheat species during the repro-ductive phase. It was expected that cultivars producing higher yield shouldfacilitate superior Mn partitioning to grain and lesser retention of Mn in thevegetative parts especially under Mn deficiency.

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  • 1772 A. Shankar et al.

    TABLE 1 Physico-chemical characteristics of the used soil for pot experiment

    Physico-chemical characteristics Amount

    Particle density (g cm3) Prihar and Sandhu (1968) 2.64Bulk density (g cm3) (Blake and Hartge, 1986) 1.53Saturation percentage 24Sand (%) 85Silt (%) 6Clay (%) 9Textural class Loamy sandpH (1:2 soil water) 8.3EC (dS m1) (1:2 supernatant) 0.35CaCO3 (%) 0.60Organic Carbon (g kg1 soil) (Walkley and Black, 1932) 6.0Extractable NPK (mg kg1 soil)

    N(Subbiah and Asija, 1956) 60P (Olsen et al., 1954) 15K(Merwin and Peech, 1951) 126

    DTPA- extractable micronutrients (mg kg1 soil) (Lindsay and Norwell, 1978)Zn 1.9Fe 6.2Mn 1.54Cu 0.35

    MATERIALS AND METHODS

    Six cultivars of three wheat species bread wheat (PBW 509, DBW17, PBW 550, and PBW 636); durum wheat (PDW 291), and triticale(TL2908) were grown with two treatments of Mn (0 and 50 mg Mn kg1

    soil) in pot culture experiment (volume of used pots was 6500 cc) in a screenhouse under natural sunlight at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana(3056 N, 7532 E and 247 m above mean sea level). Surface soil (015 cm)was collected from Mn-deficient field from village Batha Dhuha near Lud-hiana, Punjab, India. The physico-chemical characteristics of the soil aregiven in the Table 1. A basal dose of 125 mg N kg1 soil through Urea[CO(NH2)2] and 13 mg P kg1 soil through potassium dihydrogen phos-phate (KH2PO4) was applied. 50 mg Mn kg1 soil treatment was given toensure growth differences compared to Mn unfertilized pots (Sadana et al.,2002, 2005). Seeds were sown in polythene lined plastic pots containing 9 kgsoil during winter and final harvest was done in the following summer. Tenseeds of both cultivars were sown and later thinned to five plants per pot.Soil moisture was maintained at field capacity. Growth conditions were keptsimilar.

    Initial soil solution Mn concentration (CLi) was measured by inductivelycoupled argon plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer. Soil solution wascollected by displacement technique of Adams (1974) at soil water content

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  • Manganese Partitioning in Different Wheat Species 1773

    equivalent to 60 per cent of the maximum water holding capacity of thesoil. The treated soil was incubated for 24 hours before the collection of soilsolution samples. Plants were grown with nine replicates (three replicatesfor three harvest stages i.e. harvested at anthesis, 18-days post-anthesis andat grain maturity.

    Plants harvested at anthesis were separated into lower leaves (includingall leaves and their leaf sheaths), stem, flag leaf (including the leaf sheath),peduncle, and spikes. Plants harvested at 18- days post-anthesis were sepa-rated into lower leaves (including all leaves and their leaf sheaths), stem,flag leaf (including the leaf sheath), peduncle, and spikes. For maturitythe plants harvested were separated into lower leaves (including all leavesand their leaf sheaths), stem, flag leaf (including the leaf sheath), pedun-cle, chaff and grains. Samples were washed with distilled water and driedat 70C to a constant weight to record dry weight. The dried samples wereground in a stainless steel willey mill, digested in diacid mixture [nitricacid (HNO3) and perchloric acid (HClO4) in 3:1 ratio] and aqueous ex-tracts were prepared. These extracts were analyzed for Mn concentrationusing Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometery (Varian Spectra AA 20 plus;Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA) and to calculate uptake [con-centration (mg plant1) x dry matter (mg plant1) x .001]. Manganesepartitioning of individual organs was calculated as the percent uptake ofthese organs. Statistical procedure of a completely randomized design in-volving factorial treatment combinations was used for analysis of variance(ANOVA).

    RESULTS

    In the zero Mn treatment, CLi was 2.01010 mol cm3, which increasedto 3.2 1010 mol cm3 with application of 50 mg Mn kg1 soil. Althoughthe amount of Mn applied seems large, the corresponding increase the soilsolution Mn concentration is comparatively lower and researchers can easilystudy the Mn dynamics at various growth stages. All the cultivars producedlower shoot dry matter yield under Mn deficiency and recorded reducedgrain yield at maturity (Tables 2, 3, 4). Wheat cultivars PBW 550 and PBW509 recorded highest grain weight under Mn deficiency and sufficiency,respectively. Under Mn deficiency, highest retention of dry matter in vege-tative organs was observed for cultivar PDW 291. In Mn deficient plants, atanthesis (Table 2), the spike weight relative to whole plant dry weight was30.8%, 28.2, 23.1, 18.8, 18.7, and 14.8% recorded for wheat cultivars PBW550, DBW 17, PBW 509, PBW 636, TL 2908, and PDW 291, respec-tively. At 18 days post-anthesis (Table 3), it raised to 42.5%, 40.6, 36.9, 34.2,33.2, and 19.4% for cultivars PBW 550, PBW 509, PBW 636, DBW 17,TL2908, and PDW 291, respectively.

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    TABLE 2 Dry matter yield (g pot1) of six wheat cultivars at anthesis as influenced by Mn application

    0 mg Mn kg1 soil 50 mg Mn kg1 soil

    CultivarLowerleaves Stem

    Flagleaf Peduncle Spike Total

    Lowerleaves Stem

    Flagleaf Peduncle Spike Total

    PBW509

    2.18 1.10 1.27 0.80 1.62 6.97 3.00 3.13 2.57 1.88 7.50 18.08

    DBW 17 1.11 1.10 0.77 0.43 1.33 4.74 3.00 2.70 1.90 1.30 6.20 15.10PDW

    2912.00 1.50 1.07 0.60 0.90 6.07 4.80 4.20 2.77 0.86 2.30 14.93

    PBW550

    2.20 1.70 1.53 0.90 2.84 9.17 3.53 3.13 2.67 2.07 4.90 16.30

    TL 2908 2.71 1.80 0.93 0.68 1.40 7.52 5.07 4.33 2.60 1.80 4.07 17.87PBW

    6362.24 1.41 1.11 0.4 1.20 6.36 4.20 3.40 1.60 1.37 2.50 13.07

    CD(5%)

    Mn application = 0.05, cultivars = 0.08, Mn application x cultivars = 0.12

    At maturity (Table 4), the relative grain yield corresponding to its max-imum yield was 76.6%, 65.9, 62.7, 56.4, 54.1, and 30.5% for cultivars PBW550, TL2908, DBW 17, PBW 636, PBW 509, and PDW 291, respec-tively. The grain weight relative to chaff ranged from 1.23 (TL 2908) to1.64 (DBW 17) under Mn deficiency and from 1.29 (TL 2908) to 1.77(DBW 17) in Mn applied plants. Wheat cultivar TL 2908 recorded highernon-grain dry matter yield and lower grain weight relative to chaff in bothtreatments. Under Mn deficiency, maximum weight of lower leaves, stemand peduncle in both cultivars was attained at 18 days post-anthesis.

    TABLE 3 Dry matter yield (g pot1) of six wheat cultivars at 18- days post anthesis as influenced by Mnapplication

    0 mg Mn kg1 soil 50 mg Mn kg1 soil

    CultivarLowerleaves Stem

    Flagleaf Peduncle Spike Total

    Lowerleaves Stem

    Flagleaf Peduncle Spike Total

    PBW50...

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