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  • Chapter 15New Movements in America (1815-1850)

  • Chapter 15 New Movements in America (1815-1850)Section 1Americas Spiritual Awakening

  • The Second Great AwakeningStarted in mid-1790sSpread through upstate New York and frontier regions of Kentucky, Ohio, Tennessee and South CarolinaIn 1820s and 1830s it spread to New England, the Appalachians, and the SouthCharles Grandison Finney one of the most important leadersChallenged some traditional Protestant beliefsEach individual responsible for own salvation; sin = avoidableAngered some traditional ministersChurch membership grew a great dealMany new members = womenSome African Americans became Baptist, Methodist or Presbyterian ministersAfrican Methodist Episcopal Church (founded by Richard Allen of Philadelphia) spread across mid-Atlantic states

  • Transcendentalism and Utopian CommunitiesTranscendentalism belief that people could transcend, or rise above, the material things in life, such as money and personal belongingsPeople should depend on themselves instead of outside authorityRalph Waldo Emerson wanted people to follow personal beliefs and use own judgment What I must do is all that concerns me, not what the people think (in Self-Reliance)Margaret Fuller said that women had the right to choose their own paths in lifeHenry David Thoreau believed in self-reliance and did not trust institutionsSome transcendentalists experimented with utopian communitiesBrook Farm, Massachusetts (1840s)Tried to form a perfect society on EarthSome formed as places to practice their religious beliefsAnn Lee community of Shakers (named because their bodies would shake during worship)Did not believe in private ownership of property, lived very plain lifestyle

  • The American RomanticsIdeas about spirituality, the simple life, and nature also shaped painters and writersDrew upon the idea that each individual brings a unique perspective to the worldThomas Cole painted American landscapeExample of romantic literature Nathaniel Hawthornes The Scarlet Letter and Herman Melville former sailor, wrote tales of the sea, ex. Moby-DickEdgar Allan Poe best known for his short stories and poetry (ex. The Raven)Gifted American poets Emily Dickinson, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, John Greenleaf Whittier, and Walt WhitmanLongfellow best known American poet of mid-1800sDickinson published only two poems during her lifetime

  • Chapter 15 New Movements in America (1815-1850)Section 2Immigrants and Cities

  • Waves of ImmigrantsMore than 4 million immigrants settled in U.S. between 1840 and 1860More than 3 million of these were Irish or GermanIrish came to U.S. during potato famine approx. 1 million died of starvation and diseaseCatholic, very poorSettled in towns and cities in Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, and PennsylvaniaThose who did not live in cities worked on building canals and railroadsIrish women worked as domestic servants for wealthy families; men could usually only find unskilled workGermans came to U.S. to escape persecution under harsh ruler and for new economic opportunityProtestants, Catholics and JewsMany arrived with moneyMore likely to become farmers and live in rural areasMoved to Midwestern states such as Michigan, Ohio and WisconsinOften had to take low-paying jobs despite their skill

  • The Nativist ResponseAmerican labor force changed by industrialization and waves of people from EuropeIndustrial jobs in northeast drew many immigrants who filled need for cheap laborFueled local economies, led to the creation of new jobs for clerks, merchants, supervisors, and professional workersNativists Americans who opposed immigrationNative-born citizens feared losing jobs to immigrants who might work for lower wagesAlso felt threatened by different cultures and religionsBefore Catholic immigrants arrived, most people in U.S. were ProtestantAmerican Protestants did not always trust Catholic immigrants because of long-standing conflicts between Catholics and Protestants in Europe

  • The Nativist ResponseKnow-Nothing Party founded by nativists in 1849Called this because if asked questions by outsiders, members usually answered I know nothingWanted to keep Catholics and immigrants out of public officeWanted immigrants to live in U.S. 21 years before becoming citizensWon several state elections during 1850s

  • The Growth of CitiesU.S. cities grew rapidly during the mid-1800s Industrial Revolution drew immigrants as well as migrants from rural areasTransportation Revolution connected cities, made it easier for people to move to themRise of industry and growth of cities changed American lifeBusiness owners and skilled workers benefited the mostMiddle class emerged merchants, manufacturers, professionals, and master craftspeoplePeople found entertainment and enriched cultural life in citiesLibraries, clubs, theatersCities = compact and crowdedMost walked to workStreets paved with stones

  • Urban ProblemsPublic and private transportation was limited, most people lived a short distance from workplacePoor wage workers, rising middle class, and wealthy often lived near each otherDisagreements between social classes often led to conflict, sometimes riotsLack of safe housing and public servicesTenements dirty, overcrowded buildings where many (especially immigrants) livedNo clean water, public health regulations, or clean ways to get rid of garbage and human waste, diseases spread rapidlyCenters of criminal activityNo permanent police force to fight crime, used volunteer night watchesFire protection often poor as well

  • Chapter 15 New Movements in America (1815-1850)Section 3Reforming Society

  • IntroductionTeachings of 2nd Great Awakening inspired many to improve societyGrowth of cities caused problems that many wanted to correctGrowing middle class, especially women led reform movements they had free time

  • Prison ReformDorothea Dix visited prisons throughout Massachusetts and reported terrible conditionsGave speech to legislature about how mentally ill often jailed with criminalsGovernment of Massachusetts created special, separate facilities for mentally ill peopleInfluence spread around country, more than 100 state hospitals were built for mentally ill people to receive professional careSome reformers protested treatment of young offendersChildren arrested for begging or stealing often treated as adults1820s, several state and local governments founded reform schools for children who were once housed in prisonEfforts to end overcrowding and cruel conditions in prisons resulted in houses of correction used punishment and tried to change prisoners behavior through education

  • Campaigning Against Alcohol AbuseMany believed Americans were drinking liquor at an alarming rateDuring 1830s, average alcohol consumption per person was seven gallons a yearBelieved alcohol abuse caused social problems such as family violence, poverty and criminal behaviorTemperance movement social reform effort urging people to stop drinking hard liquor and limit drinking of beer and wine to small amountsAmerican Temperance Society and American Temperance UnionSome did not believe temperance was sufficient wanted to see ban of the sale of alcohol

  • Education in AmericaPoor public educationReformers believed that education would help Americans become good workers and citizens (fueled by immigration)Many families believed education was important but did not expect children to receive a lot of formal educationGenerally wanted children to be able to read Bible, write and do simple mathAvailability of education varied a great deal throughout the U.S.New England had the most schoolhousesSouth and West had fewestSchool-teachers untrained young men

  • Education in America (continued)Textbooks most often used = McGuffeys Readers put together by William McGuffey an educator and Presbyterian ministerMade up mostly of British and American literatureTeach students about moral and social values as well as literature and readingPeople of different backgrounds received different educationsRich could send their children to private schools or hire private tutorsPoor children could only attend public school

  • The Common-School MovementCommon-school movement wanted all children educated in a common place, regardless of class or backgroundHorace Mann = leading voice for education reformBecame first Secretary of Education for Massachusetts in 1837Doubled the state school budget and helped teachers earn better salariesMade the school year longer and founded first school for teacher trainingHis work set the standard for education reform throughout the country

  • Womens EducationCatherine Beecher became one of the most effective reformers of womens education in the early 1800sBelieved women were better at teaching moral lessons that made good citizensStarted an all-female academy in Hartford, ConnecticutEmma Willard founded college-level institution for women in New YorkTroy Female Seminary = first school of its kind in U.S.Studied subjects ranging from math to philosophySeveral womens colleges opened in the 1830sMount Holyoke Seminary in Massachusetts founded by Mary LyonOberlin College in Ohio was the first co-ed college in the U.S. (both women and men)

  • African American SchoolsFree African Americans also enjoyed some benefits of education reformAlmost always went to separate schools from white studentsNew York African Free School opened in NYC in 1787Philadelphia supported development of African American educationBy 1800, 7 schools for black studentsIn Boston (1855) African Americans were allowed to attend white schoolsAfrican Americans rarely attended college because only a few institutions of higher education would accept themOberlin the first to do so in 1835; Harvard late


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