holt call to freedom chapter 15: new movements in america 1815-1850

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  • Holt Call to FreedomChapter 15: New Movements in America1815-1850

  • 15.1 Americas Spiritual AwakeningObjectivesExamine how religion affected Americans during the second great awakeningDescribe the transcendentalists views of American society Identify some ideas of the Romantic Movement

    Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • I. The Second Great Awakening Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • A. A Christian RenewalThe Second Great Awakening, a movement of Christian renewal, began in the 1790s.It swept through New York and the frontier regions of Kentucky, Ohio, Tennessee, and South Carolina, and later spread to New England, the Appalachian region and the South. Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • B. Charles Grandison FinneyCharles Grandison Finney was a leading minister of the movement.Experienced a religious conversion in 1821.Preached that sin could be avoided and that Christians should perform good works. Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • Charles Grandison Finney1792-1875Source: http://www.newgenevacenter.org/portrait/finney.jpg

  • C. ReactionsSome traditional ministers opposed Finneys message.First Amendment guarantee of freedom of religion enabled Finney and others to continue preaching despite opposition.Church membership grew.Women and African Americans were drawn to the religious movement. Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • http://www.norulak.com/1stamend.gifFirst Amendment

  • II. Transcendentalism and Utopian Communities

  • A. TranscendentalismBelief that people can transcend, or rise above, material things in life, such as money, and that people depend upon themselves Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • B. Leading FiguresRalph Waldo Emerson thought people should follow their own beliefs and judgments rather than relying on traditions and institutions.Margaret Fuller argued in her 1845 book Woman in the Nineteenth Century that women had the right to choose their own paths in life. Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • Ralph Waldo Emerson1803-1882http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/transcendentalism/images/emerson1.gif

  • Margaret Fullerhttp://www.gutenberg.org/files/12081/12081-h/images/c5fuller.jpg

  • B. Leading FiguresHenry David Thoreau explained his belief in self-reliance in Walden, or Life in the Woods, his 1854 book about two years he spent living alone in a cabin. Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • Henry David Thoreauhttp://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/history/virtual/portrait/thoreau.jpg

  • C. Utopian CommunitiesSome transcendentalists formed utopian communities, which tried to create perfect societies on Earth.Religious groups such as the Shakers also established utopian communities. Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • Shaker Dance & Worshiphttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shakers

  • Utopiahttp://www.londonstimes.us/toons/cartoons/utopia.jpg

  • III. The American Romantics Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • A. The Romantic MovementThe Romantic Movement, which began in Europe, drew upon the idea that each person brought a unique view to the world. Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • B. Thomas ColeRomantic artist Thomas Cole painted American landscapes. Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • Thomas Colehttp://www.thomascole.org/colepic.gif

  • C. LiteratureNathaniel Hawthorne described Puritan life in the 1600s in The Scarlet Letter.Edgar Allan Poe wrote short stories and poems.Emily Dickinson wrote poetry, most of which was not published until after her death in 1886. Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • Nathanial HawthorneSource: http://www2.english.uiuc.edu/baym/255/hawthorne.jpg

  • Emily DickensonSource: http://www.unc.edu/~gura/dickinson/ed1.jpg

  • Edgar Allan PoeSource: http://files.db3nf.com/pictures/authors/poe.jpg

  • C. LiteratureWalt Whitman wrote poetry that praised individualism and democracy.Other writers include Herman Melville (Moby-Dick) and poets Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (Hiawatha) and John Greenleaf Whittier. Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • Walt WhitmanSource: http://www.josephhaworth.com/images/Poets/Walt%20Whitman-Photo-B&W-Resized.jpg

  • 15.2 Immigrants and CitiesObjectivesExamine why so many Irish and German immigrants came to the U.S. in the 1840s and 1850sDescribe how some Americans reacted to the immigrants Identify what caused U.S. cities to grow, and what benefits and problems this growth created

    Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • I. Waves of Immigrants Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • A. New AmericansMore than 4 million immigrants, mostly from Europe, arrived in the U.S. between 1840 & 1850Some 3 million were German or Irish Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • Irish immigrants arriving in the United States in 1902http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAEireland2.jpg

  • B. Irish ImmigrantsFleeing a potato famine, which killed over 1 million people in IrelandMost were poor Most were CatholicMost settled in towns and cities in Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania

    Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • Irish Potato Faminehttp://www.apsnet.org/online/feature/lateblit/chapter1/1-13.jpgFig. 1-13. Potato tubers infected by Phytophthora infestans. Top, tuber in the early stages of infection; bottom, tuber showing sporulation of the fungus after storage under moist conditions.

  • B. Irish ImmigrantsWomen often worked as domestic servants for wealthy familiesMen could usually find only unskilled work

    Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • C. German ImmigrantsCame because of political or economic reasonsOften arrived with some moneyIncluded Catholics, Jews, and ProtestantsOften settled in rural areas in Midwestern states to farm

    Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • German immigrants arriving in Qubec City, 1911http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/legacy/images/ph-210ht.jpg

  • II. The Nativist Response

    Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • A. Native-born AmericansMany feared losing jobs to immigrants willing to work for lower wagesTypically Protestant and did not trust CatholicsNativistsAmericans who held such views and who opposed immigration

    Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • B. Know-Nothing PartyIn 1849, nativists founded a secret society that became known as the Know-Nothing PartyMembers wanted to keep immigrants and Catholics from holding public officeWanted to require a 21-year residency form immigrants to become citizens

    Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/nativism.htmKnow-Nothing Party Flag

  • B. Know-Nothing PartyThe party had some political success in the 1850s Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • III. The Growth of Cities

    Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • A. GrowthIndustrial Revolution created many new jobs in citiesRural Americans and immigrants came to cities in search of workThe Transportation Revolution made it easier for people to move to cities Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • B. Social ClassesBusiness owners and skilled workers benefited from changes in American lifeFormed a Middle Class - social and economic level between the wealthy and poor Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • C. City LifeCities offered entertainment and cultural activities Cities were noisy and crowded Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • IV. Urban ProblemsRapid growth led to crowded cities Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • B. Living ConditionsSome lived in Tenementsdirty, overcrowded buildingsCrowded, unsanitary conditions led to the spread of diseaseCities often the center of criminal activity Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • TenementsBasement bedroom, 1225 Pine Street. Photograph, 4 September 1914. Philadelphia City Archives (1220/ #9243). http://www.brynmawr.edu/iconog/washw/images/E/E14.jpg

  • 15.3 Reforming SocietyObjectivesExamine how reformers improved prisons in the early to mid-1800sExplain why reformers began the Temperance MovementIdentify what caused American educational opportunities to change during the early to mid-1800s

    Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • I. Prison ReformSecond Great Awakening inspired many Americans to improve societyWomen often led these reform efforts Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • C. Dorothea DixLed the prison reform movementReported that the mentally ill were confined with criminalsPrompted Massachusetts Legislature to create institutions for the mentally illInfluenced penal reform throughout the U.S. Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • Dorothea Dixhttp://www.uua.org/uuhs/duub/images/dorotheadix.jpg

  • D. Reform SchoolsCreated by some states for young offenders Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *

  • II. Campaigning Against Alcohol AbuseAverage alcohol consumption per person in the 1830s was seven gallons/year Holt Call to Freedom Lecture Notes - Slide *1 Gallon Jug

  • B. Temperance MovementUrged people to abandon hard liquor for beer/wine in small amountsLyman Beecher preached against the evils of alcoholMany A

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