Bao Cao Dien Tu Tuong Tu Dien Tu So

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  • MC LC LI NI U ............................................................................................................ 2

    Phn 1 XC NH YU CU TI BI TP LN ................................ 3

    1.1. tng ................................................................................................... 3

    1.2. Hng dn s dng ................................................................................ 3

    1.3. Khuyn co & Ch .............................................................................. 3

    Phn 2 PHN TCH YU CU ........................................................................ 4

    2.1. Yu cu bi tp ln ................................................................................. 4

    2.2. C s l thuyt ........................................................................................ 4

    2.3. Cc bc thc hin ................................................................................. 4

    Phn 3 THIT K V LA CHN LINH KIN ........................................... 6

    3.1. Thit k.................................................................................................... 6

    3.2. La chn linh kin .................................................................................. 6

    3.3. Nguyn l hot ng l thuyt.............................................................19

    3.4. Nguyn l hot ng thc t ................................................................24

    3.5. Tin hnh lm mch .............................................................................25

    3.6. Thng s cc linh kin c s dng ..................................................29

    3.7. Hnh nh tht v sn phm ...................................................................29

    Phn 4 KT LUN ..........................................................................................32

    4.1. Kt qu ..................................................................................................32

    4.2. u im .................................................................................................32

    4.3. Hn ch..................................................................................................32

    4.4. Hng pht trin ...................................................................................32

    PH LC .................................................................................................................33

  • Bi tp ln in t tng t v in t s

    2

    LI NI U Nhng nm gn y cng ngh vi in t pht trin rt mnh m. S ra i ca

    cc vi mch c ln, c nh vi gi thnh ngy cng h, kh nng ng dng cao. iu ny mang li sc thi mi m trong ngnh k thut in t.

    Vit Nam, khng nm ngoi xu th ca thi i, cc nh nghin cu, cc k s c bit l th h tr, cc bn sinh vin vn tch cc, say m nghin cu khoa hc tm ra nhng k thut mi, trao i, hc hi v tip thu nhng cng ngh mi trn th gii phc v cho cng cuc hin i ha- cng nghip ha t nc. Du bit rng trnh khoa hc - k thut Vit Nam nhiu lnh vc vn c khong cch kh xa so vi cc nc tin tin nhng vi lng say m tm ti, c tnh cn c chu kh v thng minh ca ngi Vit Nam, tin rng mt ngy khng xa, chng ta s bt kp v ha nhp vo dng chy cng ngh trn th gii.

    Chng ta c th d dng nhn thy, thit b cng ngh hin din mi ni, trong mi lnh vc. Nh vy, con ngi ngy cng tn hng c cuc sng mt cch tin nghi v thoi mi hn. V bn cnh nhng li ch trc tip t cng ngh th cn rt nhiu li ch gin tip m n mang li cho chng ta.

    V i khi con ngi ta khng th lng trc c nhng hnh ng ca k xu. gip cho cng s lun c m bo an ton, ngi nh lun c tn ti s yn tm v chnh cc bn c c mt gic ng ngon....nhm quyt nh nghin cu v tm ti cch bo m cho s bnh yn . V cui cng i n thng nht chn Mch bo chng trm bng tia laser lm ti nghin cu v thi cng v nhng tnh nng ni bt ca n l d s dng, d lp t v gi thnh va phi mi ngi ai cng c th s dng, yn tm hn tip tc vi cng vic ca mnh.

    Do kh nng cn hn ch nn trong ti hay sn phm thit k cn rt nhiu li, v vy nhm em mong nhn c s ng gp kin t thy gio L Cng Cng v cc bn. tip thu kin d dng v nhanh chng hn, mi kin v thc mc c th gi v theo a ch email sau trungdai.hust.edu@gmail.com.

    Xin chn thnh cm n thy v cc bn!

  • Bi tp ln in t tng t v in t s

    3

    Phn 1 XC NH YU CU TI BI TP LN

    1.1. tng Hin nay ng dng cng ngh vo i sng v cng nhiu v quan trng.

    Nhng mi ngi li s dng vi mc ch khc nhau, c tt c xu V nhiu khu vc by gi, c bit l cc thnh ph ln nh H Ni, Tp. H Ch Minh, Nngt nn x hi ngy cng gia tng vi quy m v nhiu nguy him hn. V vy tng ca nhm em l lm 01 mch bo chng trm n gin c th lp t nhanh chng v thun tin vo mi v tr. ng ngha vi vic l c th to ra mt sn phm vi gi thnh thp. 1.2. Hng dn s dng

    Khi ng h thng cnh bo bng cch lp ngun, cp ngun cho thit b. Khi c ngi ri vo vng cnh bo c chm th thit b hot ng (n sng, loa ku trong thi gian nht nh). Khi bt c trm hay tm c nguyn nhn th bn c th khi ng li thit b v lm vic li t u. 1.3. Khuyn co & Ch - Hy ngt ngun trnh trng hp bn tr thnh k trm! - Thit b cn trnh tc ng mnh khng lm h chi tit trong mch. - Hu ht cc thit b ny khng c bn trc tip v rng ri trn th trng v

    trnh b b kha, do nhm em c gng hon thnh v lp t thit b trn. Song, thit b c th cha hot ng nh mong mun.

  • Bi tp ln in t tng t v in t s

    4

    Phn 2 PHN TCH YU CU 2.1. Yu cu bi tp ln

    - Thit k mch bo chng trm bng tia laser - Lm mch in, m phng ca ti thit k - Tin hnh lm mch tht, chy thit b - Lm bo co

    2.2. C s l thuyt - Nm chc cc kin thc c hc trn lp - Lm theo s hng dn ca thy gio - S dng IC s v cc linh kin, bin cm thng dng - Nguyn l hot ng ca tng thit b

    2.3. Cc bc thc hin a) Xy dng tng khi

    b) S nguyn l hot ng Nhm em s dng phn mm Protues m phng v xy dng s nguyn l

    KHI NGUN

    KHI THU

    (Quang tr)

    KHI X L

    (NE555 v mt s linh kin)

    KHI PHT

    (LED v Loa)

  • Bi tp ln in t tng t v in t s

    5

    Hnh 2.1. S nguyn l mch chng trm bng tia laser

    c) Cm mch th trn board a nng kim tra s hot ng ca mch.

    Hnh 2.2. Linh kin cm trn board mch chy th

    d) V, in mch v hn linh kin ln mch. e) Khi ng ngun v chy thit b.

  • Bi tp ln in t tng t v in t s

    6

    Phn 3 THIT K V LA CHN LINH KIN 3.1. Thit k

    - lp rp mch ta c th dng IC NE555. IC ny rt thng dng trn th trng v c ng dng nhiu trong cc mch in.

    - Phn cm bin hay phn thu, nhm s dng quang tr LDR: d dng mua, gi r v d s dng tng t nh in tr bnh thng.

    - Phn pht, khi pht c th hin qua n LED v loa tng trng cho vic bo ng.

    - Khi ngun s dng sc in thoi. 3.2. La chn linh kin

    Cc linh kin v chc nng trong mch, bao gm:

    Quang tr LDR LDR - Light Dependent Resistors (quang in tr) l 1 loi cm

    bin nh sng n gin, nguyn tc hot ng da vo hin tng quang in trong.

    Hnh 3.1. Quang in tr

  • Bi tp ln in t tng t v in t s

    7

    Nguyn l lm vic ca quang in tr l khi nh sng chiu vo cht bn dn (c th l Cadmium sulfide CdS, Cadmium selenide CdSe) lm pht sinh cc in t t do, tc s dn in tng ln v lm gim in tr ca cht bn dn. Cc c tnh in v nhy ca quang in tr d nhin ty thuc vo vt liu dng trong ch to.

    Khi nh sng kch thch chiu vo LDR th ni tr ca LDR s gim xung, tin v 0 () (mch kn). Nhng khi nh sng kch thch ngng th ni tr tng n v cng (h mch). ng dng trong mch in: Chuyn mch (switch sytems), cm bin nh sng/ti ca mi trng.

    n chiu laser

    Laser - Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation c ngha l khuch i nh sng bng pht x kch thch.

    Hnh 3.2. n laser cm tay

    Nguyn l cu to chung ca mt my laser gm c: bung cng hng cha hot cht laser, ngun nui v h thng dn quang. Trong bung cng hng vi hot cht laser l b phn ch yu.

    Bung cng hng cha hot cht laser, l mt cht c bit c kh nng khuych i nh sng bng pht x cng bc to ra laser. Khi 1 photon ti va chm vo hot cht ny th ko theo l 1 photon khc bt ra bay theo cng hng vi photon ti. Mt khc bung cng hng c 2 mt chn hai u, mt mt phn x ton phn cc photon khi bay ti, mt kia cho mt phn photon qua

  • Bi tp ln in t tng t v in t s

    8

    mt phn phn x li lm cho cc ht photon va chm lin tc vo hot cht laser nhiu ln to mt photon ln. V th cng chm laser c khuc i ln nhiu ln.

    Nhm em s dng n cng sut va , gn nh chic bt laser. n s dng n gin, cng sut nh khng nguy him ti ngi s dng, tm mua trn th trng khng kh.

    IC s NE555 - Thng s k thut:

    + in p u vo: 2 - 18V (Ty tng loi ca 555 : LM555, NE555, NE7555..) + Dng in cung cp: 6mA - 15mA + in p logic mc cao: 0,5 - 15V + in p logic mc thp: 0,03 0,06V + Cng sut ln nht l: 600mW

    - Cc chc nng ca 555:

    + L thit b to xung chnh xc. + My pht xung. + iu ch c rng xung (PWM). + iu ch v tr xung (PPM) (Hay dng trong thu pht hng ngoi).

    Hnh 3.3. IC NE555

    - Chc nng ca tng chn ca NE555

  • Bi tp ln in t tng t v in t s

    9

    Hnh 3.4. S chn ca NE555

    IC NE555P gm c 8 chn.

    + Chn s 1(GND): Cho ni GND ly dng cp cho IC hay chn cn gi l chn chung.

    + Chn s 2 (TRIGGER): y l chn u vo thp hn in p so snh v c dng nh 1 chn cht hay ng vo ca 1 tn so p. Mch so snh y dng cc transitor PNP vi mc in p chun l 2/3Vcc.

    + Chn s 3 (OUTPUT): Chn ny l chn dng ly tn hiu ra logic. Trng thi ca tn hiu ra c xc nh theo mc 0 v 1. 1 y l mc cao n tng ng vi gn bng Vcc nu (PWM=100%) v mc 0 tng ng vi 0V nhng m trong thc t mc 0 ny khng c 0V m n trong khong t (0,35 0,75V) .

    + Chn s 4 (RESET): Dng lp nh mc trng thi ra. Khi chn s 4 ni masse th ng ra mc thp. Cn khi chn 4 ni vo mc p cao th trng thi ng ra ty theo mc p trn chn 2 v 6. Nhng m trong mch to c dao ng thng hay ni chn ny ln VCC.

    + Chn s 5 (CONTROL VOLTAGE): Dng lm thay i mc p chun trong IC 555 theo cc mc bin p ngoi hay dng cc in tr ngoi cho ni GND. Chn ny c th khng ni cng c nhng m gim tr nhiu ngi ta thng ni chn s 5 xung GND thng qua t in t 0,01F n 0,1F cc t ny lc