Air Pollution, Water Pollution

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    Group Members

    Rohan Kanhai (091242)

    Saadat Pasha (091243)

    Sandeep Panchal (091244)

    Sanjog Rai (091245)

    Satyakam Padhee (091246)

    Varun Singh (091258)

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    Air Pollution

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    Major primary pollutants :

    Sulphur oxides(SOx)- especially sulphur dioxide, is produced byvolcanoes and in various industrial processes which furtheroxidizes and results in acid rain.

    Nitrogen oxides(NOx) - especially nitrogen dioxide are emittedfrom high temperature combustion.

    Carbon monoxide- is a very poisonous gas. It is produced byincomplete combustion of fuel such as natural gas, coal or wood.

    Carbon dioxide(CO2) is a greenhouse gas emitted from sources

    such as combustion, cement production, and respiration.

    Volatile Organic Compounds- They are the solvents and othercompounds that evaporate into the air and contribute to the formationof smog. Typical VOCs include the solvents in paints, adhesivesand inks. Gasoline is 100% VOC.

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    Cont.

    Particulate Matter- Are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in

    a gas.

    Toxic metals, such as lead, cadmium and copper.

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - harmful to the ozone layer emitted

    from products such as perfume, AC and refrigerator.

    Ammonia (NH3) - emitted from agricultural processes.

    Radioactive pollutants - produced by nuclear explosions, warexplosives and natural processes such as the radioactive decay of

    radon.

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    SOURCESOF AIR POLLUTION

    Anthropogenic sources (human activity)

    Power plants

    Mobile Sources

    Chemicals dust and controlled burn practices in agriculture andforestry management.

    Fumes from paint, hair spray , varnish, aerosols sprays and other

    solvents

    Waste deposition in landfills, which generate methane.

    Military, such as nuclear weapons, toxic gases, germ warfare and

    rocketry.

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    Cont.

    Natural sources

    Dust from natural sources, usually large areas of land with little or

    no vegetation.

    Methane , emitted by the digestion of food by animals, for example

    cattle.

    Radon gas from radioactive decay within the Earths crust.

    Smoke and carbon monoxide from wildfires.

    Volcanic activity, which produce sulphur, chlorine and ash particles.

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    CONTROL AND PREVENTIONS

    The Clean Air Act is a representation of the governments role in airpollution prevention. This act helps to regulate and enforce laws thatseek to eliminate or reduce the causes of air pollution.

    The Environmental Protection Agency also plays a large role in airpollution prevention. The EP A is working hard to regulate theemissions of vehicles.

    1. Afforestation

    2. Car Pool

    3. VehicleC

    are

    4. Public Transport

    5. Alternative energy sources

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    Cont..

    6. Activated Carbon - This method sees the use of dry chemicalscrubbing media such as carbon filters for the adsorption of fumesfrom the air.

    7. Biofilters: Clearing the AirBiofilteration is a method of pollution control in which processpollutants are biologically degraded using microorganisms.Biofilters use living materials to degrade pollutants whenimmobilized in the biofilm.

    8. Driving Towards Cleaner Emission

    Catalytic oxidizers are placed in the exhaust system of cars toreduce emissions from the exhaust pipe.

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    9. Wet or Dry Scrubbers

    DSIs are mainly used in medical waste applications and involvethe injection of an alkaline into a gas stream. Dry scrubbers areideal for air pollution reduction applications in which the lowestlevel of water involvement is vital.

    SPAs remove the presence of acid gases from the environmentthrough absorption in the dryer.

    10. Electrostatic precipitators- An electrostatic precipitator (ESP), orelectrostatic air cleaner is a particulate collection device thatremoves particles from a flowing gas (such as air) using the forceof an induced electrostatic charge.

    11. Baghouses - designed to handle heavy dust loads, a dustcollector consists of a blower, dust filter, a filter-cleaning system,and a dust receptacle or dust removal system

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    At Home

    Conserve energy - turn off appliances and lights when you leave the room.

    Recycle paper, plastic, glass bottles, cardboard, and aluminum cans. (Thisconserves energy and reduces production emissions.)

    Keep woodstoves and fireplaces well maintained. You should also consider

    replacing old wood stoves.

    Plant deciduous trees in locations around your home to provide shade in

    the summer, but to allow light in the winter.

    Buy green electricity-produced by low-or even zero-pollution facilities.

    Connect your outdoor lights to a timer or use solar lighting.

    Wash clothes with warm or cold water instead of hot.

    Lower the thermostat on your water heater to 120F.

    Use low-VOC or water-based paints, stains, finishes, and paint strippers.

    Test your home for radon-a dangerous, radioactive gas that is odorless andtasteless. If the test shows elevated levels of radon, the problem can be

    fixed cost effectively.

    Choose not to smoke in your home, especially if you have children. If you

    or your visitors must smoke, then smoke outside.

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    WATER POLLUTION

    Water pollution is an undesirable change in the state of water,contaminated with harmful substances.

    Sources ofWater Pollution :

    Dumping of industrial wastes, containing heavy metals, harmful

    chemicals, by-products, organic toxins and oils, into the nearby

    source of water.

    Improper disposal of human and animal wastes..

    A number of pollutants, both harmful and poisonous, enter the

    groundwater systems through rain water.

    The residue of agricultural practices, including fertilizers and

    pesticides.

    Untreated pollutants are drained into the nearest water body, such

    as stream, lake or harbor, causing water pollution.

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    Pathogens, sediments and chemical pollutants are other sources of

    water pollution.

    The corporeal wastes produced by humans and farmed organismspollute rivers, lakes, oceans and other surface waters.

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    HARMFULEFFECTSOFWATER POLLUTION

    Affects animals and plants.

    Alter the acidity, conductivity and temperature of water.

    Marine life becomes deteriorated. Results in lethal killing

    of fish and aquatic plants in rivers.

    Affects the heart, poor circulation of blood and the

    nervous system.

    Carcinogenic pollutants might cause cancer.

    Alteration in the chromosomal makeup of the future

    generation is foreseen.

    Reduce the availability of oxygen in the water.

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    Methods to ControlWater Pollution

    Waste can be converted into wealth. E.g. The sludge from pulp andpaper industry may be used for manufacturing boards used inpacking.

    Waste water can be reused for industrial processes.

    Paper mills, sugar industries and distilleries that let out moreeffluents can be used for irrigation or as fertilizers after propertreatment.

    To reduce the quantity of effluents, the waste water that is lesspolluted is used in rinsing.

    Apply the pesticide at the appropriate time.

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    Methods to ControlWater Pollution

    Monitoring water pollution involves setting up laws

    regarding dumping and other polluting activities.

    Trickling filters have been used to filter water for variousend uses for almost two centuries.

    For drinking water, biological water treatment involves

    the use of naturally occurring micro-organisms in thesurface water to improve water quality.

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    Sludge

    Sludge refers to the residual, semi-solid material left fromindustrial wastewater, or sewage treatment processes.

    For eg: Sewage sludge which is produced from the treatment of

    wastewater, consists of two basic forms raw primary sludge

    (basically faecal material) and secondary sludge (a living culture

    of organisms that help remove contaminants from wastewater).

    Disposal of the treated waste is problematic.

    Transporting sludge from wastewater treatment plants to landfills,

    and burying the sludge, are expensive, time-consuming

    processes that often have negative environment impact.

    Sludge buried in landfills can release methane gas into the

    atmosphere.

    Effluent released into rivers and oceans often contains high levels

    of ammonia and other deleterious substances which can be

    harmful to the environment.

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    Treatment ofSludge

    1) Incineration method

    Incineration is a disposal method in which solid

    organic wastes are subjected to combustion so as

    to convert them into residue and gaseous

    products.This process reduces the volumes of solid waste

    to 20 to 30 percent of the original volume. It

    convert waste materials into heat, gas, steam and

    ash. It is a controversial method of wastedisposal, due to issues such as emission of

    gaseous pollutants.

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    2) Sewage is subjected in sequence to primary and secondary

    treatment to derive separately there from a primary sludge

    formed of heavier solids and a secondary sludge formed of

    relatively lighter solids. The primary sludge is concentrated

    by filtering to form a comparatively dry filter cake, and thesecondary sludge is delivered into a flotation tank, together

    with a pressurized solution of air and water, so that air

    bubbles released incident to the reduction of pressure attach

    to the agglomerated sludge particles and float them to the

    surface of the body of liquid within the tank. The floating

    blanket of sludge is removed from the tank and blended withthe filter cake to form a substantially homogeneous liquid

    slurry which is then spray-dried and incinerated.

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    3) Anaerobic digestion to produce biogas Anaerobic digestion is

    a bacterial process that is carried out in the absence ofoxygen. Sludge is fermented in tanks at a temperature of55C. Anaerobic digestion generates biogas.

    4) Aerobic digestion - Aerobic digestion is a bacterial processoccurring in the presence of oxygen. Under aerobicconditions, bacteria rapidly consume organic matter. Oncethere is a lack of organic matter, bacteria die. Solids reductionoccurs in this phase. Because the aerobic digestion occursmuch faster than anaerobic digestion, the capital costs ofaerobic digestion are lower.

    5) Pyrolysis of the sludge - to convert reduced complex organics

    to oil. The oil is usually treated further to make a refined usefullight grade of oil, such as no. 2 diesel and no. 4 heating oil,and then sold.

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    6) Composting is also an aerobic process that involves mixing

    the wastewater solids with sources of carbon such as

    sawdust, straw or wood chips. In the presence of oxygen,

    bacteria digest both the wastewater solids and the added

    carbon source.Both anaerobic and aerobic digestion processes can result in

    the destruction of disease-causing microorganisms and

    parasites to a sufficient level to allow the resulting digested

    solids to be safely applied to land and can be used for

    agriculture as a fertilizer.

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    Thank You