environmental pollution, water pollution , air pollution
Post on 22-Jan-2018
ME 6403- Environmental Science and Engineering
Sri Eshwar college of Engineering
PollutionPollution is the introduction of contaminants into an
environment that causes instability, disorder, harm ordiscomfort to the ecosystem .
Nuclear Reactors etc,.
Types of pollutants
Types of pollution
Marine (Water) pollution
Land or soil pollution
Air pollution is the presence of contaminants
in atmosphere in quantities such that it is
injurious to human, plant animal life and
Sources of air pollution
Natural sources : Volcanic eruption, forest fires,
Manmade sources :thermal power plant ,fuel
burning, agriculture activities.
Classification of Air pollutants
1.Primary air pollutants.
Emitted directly in the atmosphere. E.g. CO,NO
& SO2INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS
Radon gas emitted from building materials like
It is present in natural gas and ground water.
burning of fuel in the kitchen, cigaratte,
2.Secondary air pollutants
Primary pollutant may react with one
The combustion of sulphur containing fuels such as
coal and oil.
It can be converted into sulphuric acid.
Human Sources :
Coal burning in power plant (88%)
Industrial processes (10%)
Environmental effects :
In humans : it causes eye irritation, cough, lung
diseases including lung cancer and asthma
In plants: it causes damage of leaves, bleaching of
chlorophyll which turns leaves brown, damage to
crops and to growth of plants.
Cigarette smoking,incomplete burning of fuels.
Automobile exhaust- carbon monoxide is formed
during the combustion of fuel such as petrol.(77%)
Industries: carbon monoxide is released by industries
such as iron and steel and petroleum .
CO2 + C ------- 2CO
2CO2 --------- 2CO + O2
When the atmosphere is polluted with carbonmonoxide, on inhalation, CO combines withthe hemoglobin to form car boxy hemoglobinand hence oxygen carrying capacity of theblood decreases.
This causes, headache, dizziness,unconsciousness.
When inhaled for a long duration it may causeeven death.
In environment :
it increase globe temp.
Paint, metal refineries, storage battteries..
Mental retardation, health problems even leads
Harms wild life
Control of air pollution Source Control:
Use only unleaded petrol.
Use petroleum products and other fuels that have lowsulphur and ash content.
Reduce the no. of private vehicles
Ensure the houses, schools are not located on busystreets.
Plant trees along busy streets to reduce particulates,CO and noise.
Industries should be situated outside the city
Use catalytic converters to control CO&hydrocarbons
Control measures in industries
The emission rates should be restricted to
permissible levels by industries.
Air pollution control equipments must be
Continuous monitoring of the atmosphere
for the pollutants, to know the pollution
EQUIPMENTS USED TO CONTROL AIR
Use sufficient supply of oxygen in combustion chamber, so that the combustion is complete.
Use mechanical devices such as
scrubbers, cyclones, bag houses and electro-static precipitators to reduce particulate pollutants
Bag house filter/cyclone separator
The alteration in
physical, chemical or
biological properties of
water, as well as the
addition of any foreign
substance makes it unfit
for health and which
decreases the utility of
water is known as water
Main sources of water pollution are:
Domestic and municipal sewage
Radioactive materials, etc.,
POINT AND NONPOINT SOURCESTwo types of water pollutants exist;
Point sources of pollution occur when harmfulsubstances are emitted directly into water.
A non-point source delivers pollutants indirectlythrough environmental changes.
e.g., Fertilizer from a field is carried into a stream byrain
Non Point Sources
Types of water pollutant:
1.Infectious agents: Bacteria, viruses, protozoa
source : animal waste.
Effect : variety of diseases
2.Oxygen demanding waste:
Dissolved oxygen (DO) is the amount of oxygendissolved in given quantity of water at a particularP and T. The saturation point 8-15mg/lit.
Sources: Sewage, paper waste, food processingwaste.
Effects: affect the water quality, affect fishsurvival and migration.
3.Inorganic chemicals : Acids, pb, arsenic, selenium,
sodium chloride and fluorides.
Sources : surface runoff, effluents
Effects: Cause skin cancer, damage nervoussystem,harm to fish and aquatic life, lower cropyields.
4.Organic chemicals:Oil, gasoline,plastics,
Sources: Industrial efflents, surface runoff forms.
Effects: Causing effect nervous system ,cancer,harm fish and wild life.
Nitrate, phosphate and ammonium ions
Sources: sewage, runoff water from agriculture, fertillizer.
Effects: Excessive growth of algae, lower the oxygen carrying capacity.
Source: Land erosion.
Effects: Can reduce photosynthesis, Affect aquatic food webs.
Testing of water
Dissolved oxygen (DO)
Amount of oxygen dissolved in water at a
particular pressure and temp.
Bio chemical oxygen demand (BOD)
Oxygen required for biological decomposition
of organic matters.
Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
Oxygen required for chemical oxidation of
Control measures of water pollution:
Avoid Pesticides and fertilizers on sloped land areas.
The nutrient rich water can be used as fertilizer in the
Separate drainage of sewage and rain water should be
provided to prevent overflow of sewage with rain water.
Planting more trees.
Use nitrogen fixing plants to supplement the use of
Main objective is to convert harmfulcompounds into harmless compounds.
In primary treatment, the suspended solidsand floating objects are removed using coarsescreens and sieves.
In secondary treatment, the maximumproportions of the suspended inorganic/ organicsolids are removed from the liquid sewage. Theliquid material passes into the sedimentationtank and finely suspended particles are allowedto settle by adding coagulants like Alum.
Remove detergents, metal ions, nitrates andpesticides, as these are not removed in theearlier treatments.
The phosphates are removed as calciumphosphates by adding calcium hydroxide at pH10-11. At this pH, ammonium salts are alsoconverted into ammonia.
The effluent is chlorinated to removepathogenic bacteria's and finally passedthrough activated charcoal to absorb gases.
SOIL POLLUTIONSoil pollution is caused by the presence of human-
made chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil
This type of contamination typically arises
Application of pesticides and fertilizers
Percolation of contaminated surface water to
subsurface strata, oil and fuel dumping.
Discharge of industrial wastes to the soil. The
most common chemicals involved are
petroleum hydrocarbons, solvents, pesticides,
lead and other heavy metals.
Effects of soil pollution:
Chronic exposure to chromium, lead and other
metals, petroleum, solvents, and many pesticide
and herbicide formulations can be carcinogenic.
Chronic exposure to benzene leads to
Mercury and cyclodienes are known to induce
higher incidences of kidney damage.
Sewage sludge has many types of bacteria, viruses
and worms which cause types of diseases and also
emits toxic vapours.
Radioactive fallout cause abnormalities .eg.,
Strontium-90 instead of calcium gets deposited
in the bones.
Effects occur to agricultural lands which have
certain types of soil contamination.
Alteration of metabolism of endemic
N & P from fertilizer in soil reach water bodies
with agricultural runoff cause Eutrophication.
Chemicals contaminates ground water
Acids, alkalis, heavy metals affect soil fertility.
Inhibit non target organism like flora, fauna
and soil productivity.
Control of soil pollution :
Effluents should be properly treated beforedischarging on the soil.
Solid waste should be properly collected anddisposed off by appropriate method.
From the waste, recovery of useful productsshould be done.
Cattle dung should be used for methanegeneration.
Microbial degradation of biodegradablesubstance for reducing soil pollution.
NOISE POLLUTIONDefinition: Noise Pollution can be defied as unwanted or
unpleasant sounds that causes discomfort for all living
The various sources of noises are associated with urban
development; road-air and rail transport; Industrial noise.
In our country, indiscriminate use of loud speakers,
generator sets and firecrackers has given new dimensions
to the noise pollution problem.
The commonly used parameter for noise is the sound
level in decibel(dB). Human ears are sensitive in the
frequency range of 20Hz to 20000Hz
Major Noise Sources:
1. Road Traffic:
Road traffic noise is one of the most
widespread and growing environmental problems in
urban area. The impact of road traffic noise on the
community depends an various factors such as road
location and design, land use planning measures,
building design, Vehicle standards and deriver
behavior. Motor vehicle ownership in India has
increased substantially over the last 30 years and
general levels of road traffic noise throughout India
have increased through out the period.
2. Air Traffic:
The extend of aircraft noise impact dependson the type of aircraft flown, the number of flightsand flight paths. The increase in number of flights, animportant factor is overall noise levels, the led to anincrease in general noise levels associated with airtraffic.
3. Rail Traffic:
The two main sources of noise and vibrationrelating to the operation of the rail network is
1. The operation of trains and the maintenance
2. Construction of rail infrastructure.
4.Neighborhood & Domestic Noise:
Other significant source of noise
annoyance is car alarms, building construction
and household noise,Celebrations- religious
function,social and elections.
5.Noise generated by noise levels of 125dB as
per Environmental rules 1999.
1. Noise can disturb out work, rest, sleep and
2. It can damage our hearing and evoke other
psychological, physiological and possibly
3.It effects health efficiency and behaviour. It
may cause damage to heart, brain,kidneys and
4.It causes muscles to contract leading to
nervous breakdown, tension.
5.Change in hormone content of blood, whichturn increase the rate of heart beat.
6.Recently it has been reported that blood is alsothickened by excessive noise.
7. Hearing damage : it can cause permanenthearing loss.
8.Interferences with mans communication :Innoise area communication is affected.
Sound Source Sound Level
of Human Beings
Rockets and missiles,
Jet Planes and cannons,
Aircraft Propeller and
Diesel, steam engine and
ball mills, crackers
Electric saws and looms,
The CPCB-The central pollution control board recommended noise
CONTROL MEASURES OF NOISE POLLUTION:
1.REDUCTION IN SOURCE OF NOISE : Heavy vehicles and oldvehicles may not be allowed in populated areas.
2. Noise making machines should be kept in containers withsound absorbing media.
3. Proper oiling will reduce the noise from the machinery.
4. Use sound absorbing silencers: Silencers can reducenoise by absorbing sound.
5. Planting more trees having broad leaves.
6. Through law:
sound production is minimized at various
7. The use of fireworks or fire crackers shall not be
permitted except between 6.00a.m and
10.00p.m.No fireworks or fire crackers shall be
used between 10.00p.m and 6.00a.m.
8. Silence zone in area comprising not less than
100meters around hospitals, educational
institutions ,courts and religious places.
Thermal pollution is the degradation of water quality byany process that changes ambient water temperature.
A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of wateras a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers.
Energy is the basic necessity for the economicdevelopment of a country.
The electrical energy is produced in power plants orgenerating stations. The conventional power plants are:
- Steam or Thermal Power station,
- Hydro-electric Power station,
- Nuclear Power station
Steam or Thermal Power station
In the thermal power station, the steam is
produced in the boiler, using the heat released
by the combustion of coal, oil or natural gas.
The steam is used to rotate the steam turbine
The steam turbine drives the alternator, which
converts mechanical energy into electrical
energy.10-16oC higher than initial temp.
Hydro-electric Power station
Hydroelectricity is the term referring to
electricity generated by hydropower.
The production of electrical power through the
use of the gravitational force of falling or
It is the most widely used form of renewable
Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, theproject produces no direct waste, and has a considerablylower output level of the greenhouse gas & carbondioxide (CO2).
Nuclear Power station
Nuclear power is produced by controlled
(i.e., non-explosive) nuclear reactions.
Commercial and utility plants currently
use nuclear fission reactions to heat water to
produce steam, which is then used to generate
Effects of thermal pollution
Elevated temperature typically decreases the levelof dissolved oxygen (DO) in water.
Thermal pollution may also increase themetabolic rate of aquatic animals.
Fish migration is affected due to formation ofvarious thermal zones.
Discharge of hot water near the shores coulddisturb and even kill young fishes.
Toxicity of pesticides ,detergents and chemicalsinto the effluent increases with increase in temp.
The composition of flora and fauna changes.
Control of thermal pollution
Thermal pollution from industrial sources is generated
mostly by power plants, petroleum refineries, pulp and
paper mills, chemical plants, steel mills and smelters.
Cooling ponds, man-made bodies of water designed for
cooling by evaporation, convection, and radiation.
Cooling towers, which transfer waste heat to the
atmosphere through evaporation and/or heat transfer.
Cogeneration, a process where waste heat is recycled
for domestic and/or industrial heating purposes.
RADIO ACTIVE OR NUCLEAR POLLUTION
The uncontrolled distribution of radioactivematerial in a given environment.
Radioactive contamination is typically theresult of a spill or accident during theproduction or use of radionuclide(radioisotopes), an unstable nucleus which hasexcessive energy.
Contamination may occur from radioactivegases, liquids or particles
Radioactive contamination can enter the bodythrough ingestion, inhalation, absorption, orinjection that causes discomfort, diarrhea,nausea or vomiting, and burns skin and hairloss.
The cumulative damage can cause serioushealth problems long term, such as cancer,especially leukemia and Thyroid Cancer.
For this reason, it is important to use personalprotective equipment when working withradioactive materials.
It includes the stoppage of leakage from the
radioactive materials including the nuclear
reactors, industries and laboratories.
The disposal of radioactive material must be
safe and secure.
The protective garments must be worn by the
workers who work in the nuclear plants.
The natural radiation must be at the permissible
limits and they must not cross it.
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT:
Each household generates garbage or wasteday in and day out. There are different types ofsolid waste depending on their source
Types of solid waste: Solid waste can beclassified into different types depending ontheir source: Household waste is generallyclassified as,
Industrial waste as hazardous waste
Biomedical waste or hospital waste
E waste-Electronic waste
SOURCES OF URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL
Waste from homes: polyethylene bags, cans,
glass bottles, waste paper, cloth, food waste,
Waste from shops: Cans, bottles, waste paper,
tea leaves, packaging material.
Biomedical waste : discarded medicines,
chemical wastes, disposable syringes, swabs,
bandages and body fluids.
Construction waste :wood, concrete, cement .,
Industrial waste :Packaging meterial,organicwaste, acid,alkali and metals.
Solid waste: Rubber,plastic,paper,glass,wood,oils,paints, dyes,heavy metals, asbestos.
Effects of solid waste :Physicochemical and chemical characteristics
affecting productivity of soils.Toxic substance contaminate the ground water.Burning of materials produce dioxins, furans
TYPES INVOLVED SOLID WASTE
a.Reduce the usage of raw materials:
If usage is reduced,generation of waste also
b.Reuse of waste materials:
1.Refillable containers can be reused
2.Discarded cycle tubes can be made into rubber
c.Recycling of materials:
1.Old Al cans and bottles are melted and recast
into new cans and bottles.
2.Preparation of cellulose insulation from paper
3.Preparation fuel pellets from kitchen waste.
Methods of disposal of solid waste:
a. Landfill :
The bottom is covered with several layers of
clay,plastic & sand protects ground water
Landfill is covered with clay, sand & gravel.
Methane gas is collected and used to produceelectricity.
The biodegradable waste is allowed todecomposed into oxygen rich medium andquality rich environment is formed whichimproves soil fertility rate.
c. Incineration :Burning of waste at hightemp(2800-3200 F) in combustion chamberand used to produce electricity andincinerate100-150tonnes per hour.
Role of individual in prevention of
Individuals can, however, play an important role inabatement of air, water, soil or noise pollution in thefollowing simple manners:
Use low-phosphate, phosphate-free orbiodegradable dishwashing liquid, laundrydetergent, and shampoo.
Use manure or compost instead of commercial
inorganic fertilizers to fertilize gardens and yard
Use biological methods or integrated pest
management to control garden, yard, and household
Don't pour pesticides, paints, solvents, oils, or otherproducts containing harmful chemicals down drainor on the ground.
Recycle old motor oil and antifreeze at an autoservice center that has an oil recycling program.Test water for lead, nitrates, trihalomethanes, radon,volatile, organic compounds and pesticides.
Support ecological land-use planning in yourcommunity.
Get to know your local water bodies and formwatchdog groups to help monitor and protect.
THINK GLOBALLY ACT LOCALLY
Definition: Whenever the magnitude of waterflow exceeds the carrying capacity of thechannel within its bank, the excess of water overflows on the surroundings causes floods.
Causes of flood
1.Slow kinds: Runoff from sustained rainfall2.Rapid kinds: snow melt exceeding the capacityof a river's channel.
3.Fast kinds: sudden release of water from dam,landslide, or glacier.
Effects of flood
Physical damage Can damage any type of
structure, including bridges, cars, buildings,
sewerage systems, roadways, and canals.
Water supplies Contamination of water. Clean
drinking water becomes scarce.
Diseases Unhygienic conditions. Spread of water-
Crops and food supplies Shortage of food crops can
be caused due to loss of entire harvest.
Trees Non-tolerant species can die from suffocation.
Transport - Transport links destroyed.
1.Diverting excess water through channel or canals
like river ,lake.
2.Satelite pictures of pre-flood, flood and post
flood with other information.
3.River networking .
4.Flood warning given by central water
A cyclone is an area of closed, circular
fluid motion rotating in the same direction as the
Most large-scale cyclonic circulations are centered on
areas of low atmospheric pressure.
Cyclones are powerful destructive and active from days
to weak and speed varies 180-500km/hr.
A broad area of low pressure rotating "counter-
clockwise" (cyclonically) is also a cyclone.
Different names of cyclone
Hurricanes - Atlantic, USA
Typhoons western pacific, Japan
Cyclones Bangladesh, India
Willy willies - Australia
1.Tropical cyclone in the warm oceans are formed,
because of heat and moisture.
2. Sea surface temperature must below 25Oc .
3.It move like spinning top at the speed of 10-
4.Indian cyclone occurs during oct-dec or April
Tropical cyclones are responsible for large
amounts of damage to human life, crop, roads,
transport, tanks wherever they strike.
Slow down the developmental activities.
Boarding up homes and businesses, strategically
placing sand bags, and building more wind
Satellite images are used by meteorological
Radar system is used to detect the cyclone and
for cyclone warning.
For observing exact location of cyclone ,every
half an hour satellite picture are analyzed.
Its difficult to stop the formation of cyclone,
but the effect could be minimized by planting
An earthquake is a sudden vibration caused on
the earths surface due to the sudden release of
tremendous amount of energy stored in the rocks
under the earths crust.
Volcanic eruptions, rock falls, landslides, and
explosions ,hydrostatic pressure of manmade water
Under ground nuclear testing.
Decrease under ground water level.
Its measures by Richter scale.
less than 4 insignificant,4-4.9 minor,5-5.9-
damaging,6-6.9 destructive,7-7.9 major, more
than 8 severe damage.
Earthquakes produce deformation of ground
This includes damage to buildings and in worst
cases the loss of human life.
The effects of the rumbling produced by
earthquakes usually leads to the destruction of
structures such as buildings, bridges, and dams.
They can also trigger landslides.
To prevent an earthquake hazard the building
should be properly designed.
Do not construct houses on high risk prone areas.
In case of an earthquake move out of the
building and came in the open but not panic.
Do not use lifts in case of an earthquake.
Tsunami is a series of water waves caused bythe displacement of a large volume of a body ofwater, usually an ocean.
Earth quake ,landslide
Deformatiaon of the sea floor due to themovement of plates.
Ordinary wave 100,tsunami 500km.
It travels across the deep sea at very high velocity of at around 800-900km/hr.
Velocity decreases ,the height and energy of wave increases.
Its height near the sea shore ranges from 15-65m
The effects of the tsunami on the country during
this period range from destruction damage, death,
injury, millions of dollars in financial loss, and long
lasting psychological problems for the inhabitants of the
Tsunami management :
Under the water, the bottom of sea is monitored by sensors.
If any changes, sensor send information.
The information will be passed through earth stations.
Warning system are warned of the danger approaching.
Land slidesLand slides are the process of large
differential movement of two land portion.
A landslide or landslip is a geological
phenomenon which includes a wide range of
Down hill movement of earth caused by rain,
forces either increasing top materials.
Movement of heavy vehicles.
Earthquake ,shocks, vibrations, cyclone creates
Erosion in the hilly tract due to runoff water.
Underground caves, underground mining
adversely affect a variety of water supplies,
sewage disposal systems,
forests, dams, and roadways
Soil Conservation: Ways to reduce soil erosion:
Terracing: Terracing reduces soil erosion on steep slopesby concerting the land into a series of broad, levelterraces. This retains water for crops at each level andreduces soil erosion by water run off.
Contour Farming: This method is adopted for gentlysloped land. This involves planting crops in rows acrossthe contour of gently sloped land.
Agro forestry: In this method crops are planted togetherin strips or alleys between trees and shrubs that canprovide fruits and fuel wood. The trees and shrubsprovide shade which reduce water loss by evaporationand preserve soil moisture.
Wind Breaks : Wind breaks and shelter belts or trees areestablished to reduce wind erosion and also for retainingsoil moisture
Unloading the upper parts of the slope.
Draining the surface and subsurface water fromsloppy region.
Soil stabilization by using quick lime in weakareas.