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  • ME 6403- Environmental Science and Engineering

    ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    Prepared by

    V.NaveenPrabhu

    Assistant Professor

    Sri Eshwar college of Engineering

    Coimbatore

  • 2

  • PollutionPollution is the introduction of contaminants into an

    environment that causes instability, disorder, harm ordiscomfort to the ecosystem .

    e.g. Industry

    Automobiles

    Nuclear Reactors etc,.

    Types of pollutants

    Biodegradable

    Non-degradable

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecosystemhttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/AlfedPalmersmokestacks.jpghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/AlfedPalmersmokestacks.jpg

  • Types of pollution

    Air pollution

    Marine (Water) pollution

    Land or soil pollution

    Noise pollution

    Thermal pollution

    Nuclear pollution

  • AIR POLLUTION

    Air pollution is the presence of contaminants

    in atmosphere in quantities such that it is

    injurious to human, plant animal life and

    property.

    Sources of air pollution

    Natural sources : Volcanic eruption, forest fires,

    biological decay.

    Manmade sources :thermal power plant ,fuel

    burning, agriculture activities.

  • Classification of Air pollutants

    1.Primary air pollutants.

    Emitted directly in the atmosphere. E.g. CO,NO

    & SO2INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS

    Radon gas emitted from building materials like

    bricks,concrete,tiles etc.,

    It is present in natural gas and ground water.

    burning of fuel in the kitchen, cigaratte,

    smoke.

    2.Secondary air pollutants

    Primary pollutant may react with one

  • Sulphur dioxide:

    The combustion of sulphur containing fuels such as

    coal and oil.

    It can be converted into sulphuric acid.

    Human Sources :

    Coal burning in power plant (88%)

    Industrial processes (10%)

    Environmental effects :

    In humans : it causes eye irritation, cough, lung

    diseases including lung cancer and asthma

    In plants: it causes damage of leaves, bleaching of

    chlorophyll which turns leaves brown, damage to

    crops and to growth of plants.

  • Carbon monoxide

    Sources:

    Cigarette smoking,incomplete burning of fuels.

    Automobile exhaust- carbon monoxide is formed

    during the combustion of fuel such as petrol.(77%)

    Industries: carbon monoxide is released by industries

    such as iron and steel and petroleum .

    CO2 + C ------- 2CO

    2CO2 --------- 2CO + O2

  • Effects:

    In humans:

    When the atmosphere is polluted with carbonmonoxide, on inhalation, CO combines withthe hemoglobin to form car boxy hemoglobinand hence oxygen carrying capacity of theblood decreases.

    This causes, headache, dizziness,unconsciousness.

    When inhaled for a long duration it may causeeven death.

    In environment :

    it increase globe temp.

  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6c/Downtown_Core,_Singapore,_Oct_06.JPGhttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6c/Downtown_Core,_Singapore,_Oct_06.JPG

  • Lead

    Sources

    Paint, metal refineries, storage battteries..

    Effects

    In humans

    Mental retardation, health problems even leads

    to cancer.

    In environment

    Harms wild life

  • Control of air pollution Source Control:

    Use only unleaded petrol.

    Use petroleum products and other fuels that have lowsulphur and ash content.

    Reduce the no. of private vehicles

    Ensure the houses, schools are not located on busystreets.

    Plant trees along busy streets to reduce particulates,CO and noise.

    Industries should be situated outside the city

    Use catalytic converters to control CO&hydrocarbons

  • Control measures in industries

    The emission rates should be restricted to

    permissible levels by industries.

    Air pollution control equipments must be

    made mandatory.

    Continuous monitoring of the atmosphere

    for the pollutants, to know the pollution

    levels.

  • EQUIPMENTS USED TO CONTROL AIR

    POLLUTION

    Use sufficient supply of oxygen in combustion chamber, so that the combustion is complete.

    Use mechanical devices such as

    scrubbers, cyclones, bag houses and electro-static precipitators to reduce particulate pollutants

  • Electrostatic precipitator

  • Bag house filter/cyclone separator

  • Wet scrubber

  • WATER POLLUTION

    The alteration in

    physical, chemical or

    biological properties of

    water, as well as the

    addition of any foreign

    substance makes it unfit

    for health and which

    decreases the utility of

    water is known as water

    pollution.

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8a/Nrborderborderentrythreecolorsmay05-1-.JPGhttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8a/Nrborderborderentrythreecolorsmay05-1-.JPG

  • Main sources of water pollution are:

    Domestic and municipal sewage

    Industrial waste

    Agricultural waste

    Radioactive materials, etc.,

    POINT AND NONPOINT SOURCESTwo types of water pollutants exist;

    Point source

    Point sources of pollution occur when harmfulsubstances are emitted directly into water.

    e.g.,Oil spill

    Nonpoint source.

    A non-point source delivers pollutants indirectlythrough environmental changes.

    e.g., Fertilizer from a field is carried into a stream byrain

  • Point Sources

  • Non Point Sources

  • Types of water pollutant:

    1.Infectious agents: Bacteria, viruses, protozoa

    source : animal waste.

    Effect : variety of diseases

    2.Oxygen demanding waste:

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is the amount of oxygendissolved in given quantity of water at a particularP and T. The saturation point 8-15mg/lit.

    Sources: Sewage, paper waste, food processingwaste.

    Effects: affect the water quality, affect fishsurvival and migration.

  • 3.Inorganic chemicals : Acids, pb, arsenic, selenium,

    sodium chloride and fluorides.

    Sources : surface runoff, effluents

    Effects: Cause skin cancer, damage nervoussystem,harm to fish and aquatic life, lower cropyields.

    4.Organic chemicals:Oil, gasoline,plastics,

    solvents ,detergents.

    Sources: Industrial efflents, surface runoff forms.

    Effects: Causing effect nervous system ,cancer,harm fish and wild life.

  • 5.Plant nutrients:

    Nitrate, phosphate and ammonium ions

    Sources: sewage, runoff water from agriculture, fertillizer.

    Effects: Excessive growth of algae, lower the oxygen carrying capacity.

    6.Sediment: Soil

    Source: Land erosion.

    Effects: Can reduce photosynthesis, Affect aquatic food webs.

  • Testing of water

    Dissolved oxygen (DO)

    Amount of oxygen dissolved in water at a

    particular pressure and temp.

    Bio chemical oxygen demand (BOD)

    Oxygen required for biological decomposition

    of organic matters.

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD)

    Oxygen required for chemical oxidation of

    organic matters

  • Control measures of water pollution:

    Avoid Pesticides and fertilizers on sloped land areas.

    The nutrient rich water can be used as fertilizer in the

    fields.

    Separate drainage of sewage and rain water should be

    provided to prevent overflow of sewage with rain water.

    Planting more trees.

    Use nitrogen fixing plants to supplement the use of

    fertilizers.

  • Sewage treatment

    Main objective is to convert harmfulcompounds into harmless compounds.

    In primary treatment, the suspended solidsand floating objects are removed using coarsescreens and sieves.

    In secondary treatment, the maximumproportions of the suspended inorganic/ organicsolids are removed from the liquid sewage. Theliquid material passes into the sedimentationtank and finely suspended particles are allowedto settle by adding coagulants like Alum.

  • Tertiary treatment

    Remove detergents, metal ions, nitrates andpesticides, as these are not removed in theearlier treatments.

    The phosphates are removed as calciumphosphates by adding calcium hydroxide at pH10-11. At this pH, ammonium salts are alsoconverted into ammonia.

    The effluent is chlorinated to removepathogenic bacteria's and finally passedthrough activated charcoal to absorb gases.

  • SOIL POLLUTIONSoil pollution is caused by the presence of human-

    made chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil

    environment.

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9e/Soilcontam.JPGhttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9e/Soilcontam.JPG

  • This type of contamination typically arises

    from,

    Application of pesticides and fertilizers

    Percolation of contaminated surface water to

    subsurface strata, oil and fuel dumping.

    Discharge of industrial wastes to the soil. The

    most common chemicals involved are

    petroleum hydrocarbons, solvents, pesticides,

    lead and other heavy metals.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pesticidehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrocarbonshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solventshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heavy_metals

  • Effects of soil pollution:

    Chronic exposure to chromium, lead and other

    metals, petroleum, solvents, and many pesticide

    and herbicide formulations can be carcinogenic.

    Chronic exposure to benzene leads to

    leukemia.(blood cancer)

    Mercury and cyclodienes are known to induce

    higher incidences of kidney damage.

    Sewage sludge has many types of bacteria, viruses

    and worms which cause types of diseases and also

    emits toxic vapours.

  • Radioactive fallout cause abnormalities .eg.,

    Strontium-90 instead of calcium gets deposited

    in the bones.

    Effects occur to agricultural lands which have

    certain types of soil contamination.

    Alteration of metabolism of endemic

    microorganisms.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agriculturalhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metabolismhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microorganism

  • N & P from fertilizer in soil reach water bodies

    with agricultural runoff cause Eutrophication.

    Chemicals contaminates ground water

    resources.

    Acids, alkalis, heavy metals affect soil fertility.

    Inhibit non target organism like flora, fauna

    and soil productivity.

  • Control of soil pollution :

    Effluents should be properly treated beforedischarging on the soil.

    Solid waste should be properly collected anddisposed off by appropriate method.

    From the waste, recovery of useful productsshould be done.

    Cattle dung should be used for methanegeneration.

    Microbial degradation of biodegradablesubstance for reducing soil pollution.

  • NOISE POLLUTIONDefinition: Noise Pollution can be defied as unwanted or

    unpleasant sounds that causes discomfort for all living

    things.

    The various sources of noises are associated with urban

    development; road-air and rail transport; Industrial noise.

    In our country, indiscriminate use of loud speakers,

    generator sets and firecrackers has given new dimensions

    to the noise pollution problem.

    The commonly used parameter for noise is the sound

    level in decibel(dB). Human ears are sensitive in the

    frequency range of 20Hz to 20000Hz

  • Major Noise Sources:

    1. Road Traffic:

    Road traffic noise is one of the most

    widespread and growing environmental problems in

    urban area. The impact of road traffic noise on the

    community depends an various factors such as road

    location and design, land use planning measures,

    building design, Vehicle standards and deriver

    behavior. Motor vehicle ownership in India has

    increased substantially over the last 30 years and

    general levels of road traffic noise throughout India

    have increased through out the period.

  • 2. Air Traffic:

    The extend of aircraft noise impact dependson the type of aircraft flown, the number of flightsand flight paths. The increase in number of flights, animportant factor is overall noise levels, the led to anincrease in general noise levels associated with airtraffic.

    3. Rail Traffic:

    The two main sources of noise and vibrationrelating to the operation of the rail network is

    1. The operation of trains and the maintenance

    2. Construction of rail infrastructure.

  • 4.Neighborhood & Domestic Noise:

    Other significant source of noise

    annoyance is car alarms, building construction

    and household noise,Celebrations- religious

    function,social and elections.

    5.Noise generated by noise levels of 125dB as

    per Environmental rules 1999.

  • Effects:

    1. Noise can disturb out work, rest, sleep and

    communication.

    2. It can damage our hearing and evoke other

    psychological, physiological and possibly

    pathological reactions.

    3.It effects health efficiency and behaviour. It

    may cause damage to heart, brain,kidneys and

    liver.

    4.It causes muscles to contract leading to

    nervous breakdown, tension.

  • 5.Change in hormone content of blood, whichturn increase the rate of heart beat.

    6.Recently it has been reported that blood is alsothickened by excessive noise.

    7. Hearing damage : it can cause permanenthearing loss.

    8.Interferences with mans communication :Innoise area communication is affected.

  • Sound Source Sound Level

    dB

    Subjective Feeling

    of Human Beings

    Rockets and missiles,

    heavy explosives

    160 Unbearable

    Jet Planes and cannons,

    explosives

    140 Unbearable

    Aircraft Propeller and

    Machine Guns

    130 Unbearable

    Diesel, steam engine and

    ball mills, crackers

    120 Unbearable

    Electric saws and looms,

    heavy trucks

    110 Unbearable

    The CPCB-The central pollution control board recommended noise

    levels.

  • CONTROL MEASURES OF NOISE POLLUTION:

    1.REDUCTION IN SOURCE OF NOISE : Heavy vehicles and oldvehicles may not be allowed in populated areas.

    2. Noise making machines should be kept in containers withsound absorbing media.

    3. Proper oiling will reduce the noise from the machinery.

    4. Use sound absorbing silencers: Silencers can reducenoise by absorbing sound.

    5. Planting more trees having broad leaves.

  • 6. Through law:

    sound production is minimized at various

    social function.

    7. The use of fireworks or fire crackers shall not be

    permitted except between 6.00a.m and

    10.00p.m.No fireworks or fire crackers shall be

    used between 10.00p.m and 6.00a.m.

    8. Silence zone in area comprising not less than

    100meters around hospitals, educational

    institutions ,courts and religious places.

  • THERMAL POLLUTION

    Thermal pollution is the degradation of water quality byany process that changes ambient water temperature.

    A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of wateras a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers.

    Energy is the basic necessity for the economicdevelopment of a country.

    The electrical energy is produced in power plants orgenerating stations. The conventional power plants are:

    - Steam or Thermal Power station,

    - Hydro-electric Power station,

    - Nuclear Power station

  • Steam or Thermal Power station

    In the thermal power station, the steam is

    produced in the boiler, using the heat released

    by the combustion of coal, oil or natural gas.

    The steam is used to rotate the steam turbine

    (impulse/ reaction).

    The steam turbine drives the alternator, which

    converts mechanical energy into electrical

    energy.10-16oC higher than initial temp.

  • Hydro-electric Power station

    Hydroelectricity is the term referring to

    electricity generated by hydropower.

    The production of electrical power through the

    use of the gravitational force of falling or

    flowing water.

    It is the most widely used form of renewable

    energy.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydropowerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renewable_energy

  • Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, theproject produces no direct waste, and has a considerablylower output level of the greenhouse gas & carbondioxide (CO2).

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse_gashttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_dioxide

  • Nuclear Power station

    Nuclear power is produced by controlled

    (i.e., non-explosive) nuclear reactions.

    Commercial and utility plants currently

    use nuclear fission reactions to heat water to

    produce steam, which is then used to generate

    electricity.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_reactionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_fissionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steamhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricity

  • Effects of thermal pollution

    Elevated temperature typically decreases the levelof dissolved oxygen (DO) in water.

    Thermal pollution may also increase themetabolic rate of aquatic animals.

    Fish migration is affected due to formation ofvarious thermal zones.

    Discharge of hot water near the shores coulddisturb and even kill young fishes.

    Toxicity of pesticides ,detergents and chemicalsinto the effluent increases with increase in temp.

    The composition of flora and fauna changes.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dissolved_oxygenhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metabolic

  • Control of thermal pollution

    Thermal pollution from industrial sources is generated

    mostly by power plants, petroleum refineries, pulp and

    paper mills, chemical plants, steel mills and smelters.

    Cooling ponds, man-made bodies of water designed for

    cooling by evaporation, convection, and radiation.

    Cooling towers, which transfer waste heat to the

    atmosphere through evaporation and/or heat transfer.

    Cogeneration, a process where waste heat is recycled

    for domestic and/or industrial heating purposes.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petroleum_refininghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulp_and_paper_millhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_planthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steel_millhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smelterhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooling_pondhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evaporationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convectionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooling_towerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmospherehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_transferhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cogeneration

  • RADIO ACTIVE OR NUCLEAR POLLUTION

    The uncontrolled distribution of radioactivematerial in a given environment.

    Radioactive contamination is typically theresult of a spill or accident during theproduction or use of radionuclide(radioisotopes), an unstable nucleus which hasexcessive energy.

    Contamination may occur from radioactivegases, liquids or particles

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radioactive_decay

  • Effects

    Radioactive contamination can enter the bodythrough ingestion, inhalation, absorption, orinjection that causes discomfort, diarrhea,nausea or vomiting, and burns skin and hairloss.

    The cumulative damage can cause serioushealth problems long term, such as cancer,especially leukemia and Thyroid Cancer.

    For this reason, it is important to use personalprotective equipment when working withradioactive materials.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ingestionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inhalationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absorption_(skin)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Injection_(medicine)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_protective_equipment

  • Control methods:

    It includes the stoppage of leakage from the

    radioactive materials including the nuclear

    reactors, industries and laboratories.

    The disposal of radioactive material must be

    safe and secure.

    The protective garments must be worn by the

    workers who work in the nuclear plants.

    The natural radiation must be at the permissible

    limits and they must not cross it.

  • SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT:

    Each household generates garbage or wasteday in and day out. There are different types ofsolid waste depending on their source

    Types of solid waste: Solid waste can beclassified into different types depending ontheir source: Household waste is generallyclassified as,

    Municipal waste

    Industrial waste as hazardous waste

    Biomedical waste or hospital waste

    E waste-Electronic waste

  • SOURCES OF URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL

    WASTE:

    Waste from homes: polyethylene bags, cans,

    glass bottles, waste paper, cloth, food waste,

    empty metal.

    Waste from shops: Cans, bottles, waste paper,

    tea leaves, packaging material.

    Biomedical waste : discarded medicines,

    chemical wastes, disposable syringes, swabs,

    bandages and body fluids.

    Construction waste :wood, concrete, cement .,

  • Industrial waste :Packaging meterial,organicwaste, acid,alkali and metals.

    Solid waste: Rubber,plastic,paper,glass,wood,oils,paints, dyes,heavy metals, asbestos.

    Effects of solid waste :Physicochemical and chemical characteristics

    affecting productivity of soils.Toxic substance contaminate the ground water.Burning of materials produce dioxins, furans

    causes cancer.

  • TYPES INVOLVED SOLID WASTE

    MANAGEMENT:

    1.REDUCE,REUSE,RECYCLE:

    a.Reduce the usage of raw materials:

    If usage is reduced,generation of waste also

    reduced.

    b.Reuse of waste materials:

    1.Refillable containers can be reused

    2.Discarded cycle tubes can be made into rubber

    rings.

  • c.Recycling of materials:

    1.Old Al cans and bottles are melted and recast

    into new cans and bottles.

    2.Preparation of cellulose insulation from paper

    3.Preparation fuel pellets from kitchen waste.

    Methods of disposal of solid waste:

    a. Landfill :

    The bottom is covered with several layers of

    clay,plastic & sand protects ground water

    contamination.

  • Landfill is covered with clay, sand & gravel.

    Methane gas is collected and used to produceelectricity.

    b. Composting:

    The biodegradable waste is allowed todecomposed into oxygen rich medium andquality rich environment is formed whichimproves soil fertility rate.

    c. Incineration :Burning of waste at hightemp(2800-3200 F) in combustion chamberand used to produce electricity andincinerate100-150tonnes per hour.

  • Role of individual in prevention of

    pollution

    Individuals can, however, play an important role inabatement of air, water, soil or noise pollution in thefollowing simple manners:

    Use low-phosphate, phosphate-free orbiodegradable dishwashing liquid, laundrydetergent, and shampoo.

    Use manure or compost instead of commercial

    inorganic fertilizers to fertilize gardens and yard

    plant.

    Use biological methods or integrated pest

    management to control garden, yard, and household

    pests.

  • Don't pour pesticides, paints, solvents, oils, or otherproducts containing harmful chemicals down drainor on the ground.

    Recycle old motor oil and antifreeze at an autoservice center that has an oil recycling program.Test water for lead, nitrates, trihalomethanes, radon,volatile, organic compounds and pesticides.

    Support ecological land-use planning in yourcommunity.

    Get to know your local water bodies and formwatchdog groups to help monitor and protect.

    THINK GLOBALLY ACT LOCALLY

  • Flood

  • Flood

    Definition: Whenever the magnitude of waterflow exceeds the carrying capacity of thechannel within its bank, the excess of water overflows on the surroundings causes floods.

    Causes of flood

    1.Slow kinds: Runoff from sustained rainfall2.Rapid kinds: snow melt exceeding the capacityof a river's channel.

    3.Fast kinds: sudden release of water from dam,landslide, or glacier.

  • Effects of flood

    1.Primary effects

    2.Secondary effects

    1.Primary effects

    Physical damage Can damage any type of

    structure, including bridges, cars, buildings,

    sewerage systems, roadways, and canals.

  • 2.Secondary effects

    Water supplies Contamination of water. Clean

    drinking water becomes scarce.

    Diseases Unhygienic conditions. Spread of water-

    borne diseases.

    Crops and food supplies Shortage of food crops can

    be caused due to loss of entire harvest.

    Trees Non-tolerant species can die from suffocation.

    Transport - Transport links destroyed.

  • Flood management:

    1.Diverting excess water through channel or canals

    like river ,lake.

    2.Satelite pictures of pre-flood, flood and post

    flood with other information.

    3.River networking .

    4.Flood warning given by central water

    commission.

  • Cyclone

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1e/Polar_low.jpghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1e/Polar_low.jpg

  • Definition:

    A cyclone is an area of closed, circular

    fluid motion rotating in the same direction as the

    Earth

    Most large-scale cyclonic circulations are centered on

    areas of low atmospheric pressure.

    Cyclones are powerful destructive and active from days

    to weak and speed varies 180-500km/hr.

    A broad area of low pressure rotating "counter-

    clockwise" (cyclonically) is also a cyclone.

  • Different names of cyclone

    Hurricanes - Atlantic, USA

    Typhoons western pacific, Japan

    Cyclones Bangladesh, India

    Willy willies - Australia

  • Occurrence:

    1.Tropical cyclone in the warm oceans are formed,

    because of heat and moisture.

    2. Sea surface temperature must below 25Oc .

    3.It move like spinning top at the speed of 10-

    30km/hr.

    4.Indian cyclone occurs during oct-dec or April

    may.

  • Effects:

    Tropical cyclones are responsible for large

    amounts of damage to human life, crop, roads,

    transport, tanks wherever they strike.

    Slow down the developmental activities.

    Control:

    Boarding up homes and businesses, strategically

    placing sand bags, and building more wind

    resistant structures.

  • Cyclone management:

    Satellite images are used by meteorological

    department.

    Radar system is used to detect the cyclone and

    for cyclone warning.

    For observing exact location of cyclone ,every

    half an hour satellite picture are analyzed.

    Its difficult to stop the formation of cyclone,

    but the effect could be minimized by planting

    more trees.

  • Earthquake

  • An earthquake is a sudden vibration caused on

    the earths surface due to the sudden release of

    tremendous amount of energy stored in the rocks

    under the earths crust.

  • Causes

    Volcanic eruptions, rock falls, landslides, and

    explosions ,hydrostatic pressure of manmade water

    bodies.

    Under ground nuclear testing.

    Decrease under ground water level.

    Its measures by Richter scale.

    less than 4 insignificant,4-4.9 minor,5-5.9-

    damaging,6-6.9 destructive,7-7.9 major, more

    than 8 severe damage.

  • Effects

    Earthquakes produce deformation of ground

    space.

    This includes damage to buildings and in worst

    cases the loss of human life.

    The effects of the rumbling produced by

    earthquakes usually leads to the destruction of

    structures such as buildings, bridges, and dams.

    They can also trigger landslides.

  • Control:

    To prevent an earthquake hazard the building

    should be properly designed.

    Do not construct houses on high risk prone areas.

    In case of an earthquake move out of the

    building and came in the open but not panic.

    Do not use lifts in case of an earthquake.

  • Tsunami

    Tsunami is a series of water waves caused bythe displacement of a large volume of a body ofwater, usually an ocean.

  • Causes :

    Earth quake ,landslide

    Deformatiaon of the sea floor due to themovement of plates.

    Ordinary wave 100,tsunami 500km.

    It travels across the deep sea at very high velocity of at around 800-900km/hr.

    Velocity decreases ,the height and energy of wave increases.

    Its height near the sea shore ranges from 15-65m

  • Effects:

    The effects of the tsunami on the country during

    this period range from destruction damage, death,

    injury, millions of dollars in financial loss, and long

    lasting psychological problems for the inhabitants of the

    region.

    Tsunami management :

    Under the water, the bottom of sea is monitored by sensors.

    If any changes, sensor send information.

    The information will be passed through earth stations.

    Warning system are warned of the danger approaching.

  • Land slidesLand slides are the process of large

    differential movement of two land portion.

    OR

    A landslide or landslip is a geological

    phenomenon which includes a wide range of

    ground movement.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_geological_phenomena

  • Causes:

    Down hill movement of earth caused by rain,

    forces either increasing top materials.

    Movement of heavy vehicles.

    Earthquake ,shocks, vibrations, cyclone creates

    landslides.

    Erosion in the hilly tract due to runoff water.

    Underground caves, underground mining

    operation.

  • Effects

    Property damage,

    Injury,

    Death,

    adversely affect a variety of water supplies,

    fisheries,

    sewage disposal systems,

    forests, dams, and roadways

  • Control measures

    Soil Conservation: Ways to reduce soil erosion:

    Terracing: Terracing reduces soil erosion on steep slopesby concerting the land into a series of broad, levelterraces. This retains water for crops at each level andreduces soil erosion by water run off.

    Contour Farming: This method is adopted for gentlysloped land. This involves planting crops in rows acrossthe contour of gently sloped land.

  • Agro forestry: In this method crops are planted togetherin strips or alleys between trees and shrubs that canprovide fruits and fuel wood. The trees and shrubsprovide shade which reduce water loss by evaporationand preserve soil moisture.

    Wind Breaks : Wind breaks and shelter belts or trees areestablished to reduce wind erosion and also for retainingsoil moisture

    Unloading the upper parts of the slope.

    Concrete support.

    Draining the surface and subsurface water fromsloppy region.

    Soil stabilization by using quick lime in weakareas.

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