Air And Water Pollution Meisam Hamzehlooy. Page  2 Pollution  Pollution definition Pollution can be defined as a process of making air, water,soil etc.

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  • Air And Water PollutionMeisam Hamzehlooy

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    Pollution Pollution definition Pollution can be defined as a process of making air, water ,soil etc dangerously dirty and not suitable to use. Any substance introduced into the environment that adversely affects the usefulness of a resource.Why does pollution happen? Pollution happens because no process is 100% efficient. No natural or human process, such as manufacturing or fuel burning, is100% efficient. Each process produces pollution or waste and waste energy. Carelessness or poor technology aggravates the amount of pollution produced, as do poorly designed processes.

    Understanding Environmental Pollution(2004)

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    Pollutant sourcesMotor vehicles including cars, buses, airplanes, ships, and off-road vehicles.Chemical and petroleum refineries. Manufacturing facilities.Commercial operations such as bakeries, and garages. Plants that generate electric power by burning coal, oil, or natural gases.Agricultural operations. Mining operations. Military operations. Forestry operations.Construction and road building.OthersUnderstanding Environmental Pollution(2004)

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    Types Of PollutionFreshwater pollution and scarcityAir pollution (especially ozone, fine particles)Global warmingAcid depositionMunicipal-solid-waste generationHazardous-waste generationIncreasing energy useNew threats: nitrogen-fertilizer and heavy-metal pollution

    Compiled from: United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) report

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    High-risk threats to human healthDrinking-water pollutionHeavy air pollution, outdoors and indoorslack of basic sanitation

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO).

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    IntroductionModern urban development in the 20th century has focused on the use of motor vehicles and migration of people from rural areas to cities and suburbs.During the last decade, the travel demand on the road infrastructure has increased more than its capacity.This will lead to accelerated consumption of petroleum and degradation of air quality.

    Article: The Influence of Road Infrastructure and Traffic on Soil, Water, and Air Quality(2003)

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    Criteria air pollutantsCarbon monoxideOzoneSulfur dioxideNitrogen oxidesParticulate matter(PM)Lead

    Combustion, especially fossil fuel combustion produces all six criteria pollutants.Understanding Environmental Pollution(2004)

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    Carbon monoxideit is a product of incomplete combustion of carbon-containing material. Produced by combustion of fossil fuel and biomass.The US ambient air standard for CO is 9 ppm averaged over 8 hours;

    Sources of carbon monoxideIn urban areas, up to 80 or 90% of CO is emitted by motor vehicles. Cigarette smoke Facilities burning coal , natural gas are CO sources. Atmospheric oxidation of methane gas and other hydrocarbons

    Understanding Environmental Pollution(2004)

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    Why carbon monoxide is of concernEven levels of CO found in city traffic can aggravate heart problems.CO can cause headache, dizziness, fatigue, and drowsiness . At higher doses, such as found in enclosed spaces with improperly operating combustion appliances CO may lead to coma and death.

    Reducing carbon monoxide emissionsOxygen-containing fuel additives are added to gasoline in some US cities to enhance burning in winter, when engines run less efficiently.Facilities burning fossil fuels or wood are required to maintain high burning efficiencies to reduce emissions.Many places prohibit open burning of trash and garbage.

    Understanding Environmental Pollution(2004)

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    summer sunlight stagnant air OzoneOzone (O3) has three oxygen atoms.Ground-level O3 is the same O3 that is found in the stratosphere. O3 is much more reactive than O2.

    Sources of ozone

    summer temperature

    Understanding Environmental Pollution(2004)

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    Why care about ozone?O3 is much more reactive than O2. The EPA considers O3 the most serious and persistent air quality problem in the United States. Effects on people Effects on plants and trees

    Reducing ground-level ozone we cannot reduce ground-level O3 unless we reduce NOx and VOCs emissions. In the early twenty-first century the United States has a new O3 standard Reducing other NOx and VOC sources .

    Understanding Environmental Pollution(2004)

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    Sulfur dioxide Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a colorless gas with a sharp irritating odor.

    Sources of sulfur dioxide

    Chart1

    0.67

    0.03

    0.15

    0.08

    0.07

    67%

    15%

    7%

    8%

    3%

    Sources of solfur dioxide

    Sheet1

    Sources of solfur dioxide

    Electric power plants67%

    Fuel burning3%

    Indusrial sources15%

    Other8%

    Transportation7%

    To resize chart data range, drag lower right corner of range.

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    Why care about sulfur dioxide? Direct exposure to the gas, SO2 Aerosol effects Major environmental effects of aerosols.

    Reducing SO2 emissionsWith increasingly strict controlsPower plants can cut SO2 emissions in several ways. 1.One is to burn coal with low sulfur content. 2. effective technologies exist to capture the SO2 formed. 3. uses market incentives.

    Understanding Environmental Pollution(2004)

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    Nitrogen oxidesThe gases, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are the major components of nitrogen oxidesA third gas, nitrous oxide (N2O) is also often grouped into NOx.

    Why care about NOx?NOx has two distinctive and very important effects not shared with sulfate and sulfuric acid. These are: NOx gases are precursors of ground-level O3 whereas SO2 is not. Deposited to Earth or water, the nitrogen in nitrate and nitric acid is a major plant nutrient. It can benefit plant life, but high concentrations have adverse, even devastating, consequences.Understanding Environmental Pollution(2004)

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    NOx sources

    Reducing NOx emmisionNOx is harder to control than SO2, which is formed from sulfur present in the fuelEmissions of NOx peaked at about 25 million tons (22.7 million tonnes) in 1990, and were still 24 million tons (21.8 million tonnes ) in 1998.

    53%Understanding Environmental Pollution(2004)

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    53

    25

    5

    12

    5

    25%

    5%

    12%

    5%

    Sources of nitrogen oxides

    Sheet1

    Sources of nitrogen oxides

    Transportation53

    Electric power plants25

    Others5

    Indusrial sources12

    Fuel burning5

    To resize chart data range, drag lower right corner of range.

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    Particulate matter As the name particulate matter ( PM ) implies, PM is solid , albeit the particles may be very fine aerosols PM accounts for about 10% of US air pollution. PM is a confusing pollutant. Composition varies. Size varies greatly. Other pollutants can become PM.Sources of PM10 and PM2.5 The major source of PM10 is dust from farms, mines, or from roads, unpaved and paved. Conversely, most PM2.5 does originate from combustion, especially diesel motor vehicles, electric power plants, and Industrial operations. Locales with large numbers of wood-burning stoves,which often inefficiently Construction sites release large amounts of dust.

    Understanding Environmental Pollution(2004)

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    Why care about PM?Human effects Absorbed into the bloodstream and exert systemic effects elsewhere Deeply inhaled, they reach and can inflame the lungs alveoli lung cancerEnvironmental effects. PM strongly contributes to the haze or smog seen in many cities.Reducing PM emissions In 1997, the US EPA set new standards for particulates The old PM10 standard was 50 g/m3 of air; this standard is retained. However to this was added a new PM standard specific to PM 2.5 of 15 g/m3. By now it is probably clear that controlling combustion sources producing PM is a major need.

    Understanding Environmental Pollution(2004)

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    Lead In the 1970s, when the EPA designated it a criteria air pollutant, lead was still added to gasoline in the United States, incinerators were less well controlled than today , and lead emissions in general were less well controlled. Today, most lead emissions have been eliminated or are well controlled. Lead emissions from coal-burning power plants are an exception. However, a separate set of lead-related problems exist. Lead mobilized into the environment many years ago, remains a significant pollutant today . It is in the paint of houses built before the late 1970s, in the solder of old water pipes, and in roadside soil contaminated with lead from car exhaust . Leaded gasoline is still used in a number of less-developed countries ; so is leaded tableware. Recycling of lead-acid batteries in impoverished countries remains an occupational exposure even for children .Understanding Environmental Pollution(2004)

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    Volatile organic chemicalsA great many organic chemicals are volatile; that is, they can evaporate. These fall into the category of volatile organic chemicals

    Why care about VOCs?VOCs contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone. many drivers and pedestrians develop headaches and other symptoms if heavily exposed to volatile hydrocarbons in motor vehicle exhausts.

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    VOC sourcesCombustion sources. Non-combustion sources.Natural sources.

    Reducing VOC emissionsBy 1985, VOC emissions had dropped about 30% compared with 1970 in the United States. This was presumably due to regulations enacted in the 1970 Clean Air Act (CAA) and its 1977 amendments. In 1990, CAA amendments mandated further reductions in motor vehicle emissions.

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    Hazardous air pollutants Commonly called toxic air pollutants, HAPs include 188 chemicals specified as hazardous in the 1990 US Clean Air Act Amendments ; About 70% of HAPs are also VOCs; that is, volatile organic chemicals , whereas many others are metals.

    Types And Sources of HAPsBenzene :Gasoline, cigarette smoke Toluene :Gasoline, vehicle exhaust, smoking, paints Ethylene glycol : Automobile antifreeze, brake fluid Methanol :Windshield antifreeze, solvent

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    Other pollutants from road trafficThe main processes by which vehicles disseminate pollutants into the environment are combustion processes , the wear of cars (engine, tires, brakes) leaking of oil and coolants, and corrosion. Lead and PAHs are released in combustion processes, zinc is derived from tire dust (zinc is a catalyst used in the manufacture of tires), and copper is derived from the corrosion of radiators and brakes; the other heavy metals have mixed origins.

    Article: The Influence of Road Infrastructure and Traffic on Soil, Water, and Air Quality(2003)

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    Reducing Air PollutionUsing legislationInspection and maintenanceLow-emission and zero-emission vehiclesGovernment actionUse internet and other electronic devicesModifying vehicles for better fuel economyAlternative fuelsTraffic management

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    Requirements on the fuel of tomorrowAny new fuel must be just as safe, reliable and easy to obtain and handleIt must be possible to produce it in adequate quantitiesLow carbon contentAnd finally it must be possible to produce it at commercially acceptable costs and be available throughout the world.

    In Germany the Transport Energy Strategy (TES) project group has looked at 10 potential alternative fuel types and over 70 ways of producing them. The TES found that hydrogen met these criteria to the best possible effect.

    En route to a hydrogen infrastructure for road traffic(2006)

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    AdvantagesAir pollutants emissions can be reduced.much lower price fluctuations can be expected.The result of its combustion is water.Hydrogen is non-toxic (like methanol)highly flammable and therefore eminently suitable for thermal processes

    En route to a hydrogen infrastructure for road traffic(2006)

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    Traffic managementTraffic management refers primarily to measures that address traffic congestion . These range from installing traffic signals , introducing one-way roads and improving parking facilities , to coordinating different transportation modes , such as introducing separate bus lanes.Conversely , the removal of bottlenecks also leads to increased traffic flow, greater kilometers traveled and hence , increase emissions. In order to prevent such an outcome , a restricted-access policy might be implemented: curbing parking in specific zones , road-pricing systems or levying toll at the entry of specific zones .Urban Air Quality Management Strategy(1997)

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    IntroductionWater is one of the most important commodities which Man has exploited than any other resources for sustenance of his life . Most of the water on this planet is stored in oceans and ice caps which is difficult to recovered for our diverse needs . Most of our demand is fulfilled by rain water which get deposited in surface and ground water resources. Pollution of water has emerged as one of the most significant environmental problems of the recent times . Not only there is an increasing concern for rapidly deteriorating supply of water but the quantity of utilizable water is also fast diminishing. The causes of such a situation may be many, but gross pollution of water has its origin mainly in urbanization , industrialization , agriculture and increase in human population observed in past one and a half century .water pollution , causes , effects and control(2006)

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    What is pure water? It can be said that no water is pure or clean owing to the presence of some quantities of gases , minerals and life . However , for all practical purposes , a pure water is considered to be that which has low dissolved and suspended solids and obnoxious gases as well as low in biological life . such a high quality of water may be required only for the drinking purposes , while for other uses like agriculture and industry , the quality of water can be quite flexible and water polluted up to certain extent , in general sense can be regarded as pure.water pollution , causes , effects and control(2006)

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    What is polluted water?Water can be regarded polluted when it gets changed in its quality or composition either naturally or as a result of human activities so as to become less suitable for drinking , domestic , agricultural , industrial , recreational , wildlife and other uses for which it would have been otherwise suitable in its natural or unmodified state.water pollution , causes , effects and control(2006)

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    Pollution ResourcesA point source is any single identifiable source . . . from which pollutants are discharged, e.g., a pipe, ditch, ship, or factory smokestack.Outlet pipes of industrial facilities wastewater-treatment plants are examples of point sources. Developed countries such as the United States initially worked to control point sources of water pollution. water pollution , causes , effects and control(2006)

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    Pollution Resources A non-point-source pollutant is one whose source...

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