aim: how did nationalist movements affect developing nations in the 20 th century? independence and...
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- Aim: How did nationalist movements affect developing nations in the 20 th century? INDEPENDENCE AND NATIONALIST MOVEMENTS
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- The Post War Era While the Superpowers engaged in the Cold War, colonies of Imperialistic nations wanted independence.
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- India 1885 The goal of the Indian National Congress was to increase rights for Indians under colonial rule. 1906- The creation of the Muslim League to protect Muslim (minority) rights
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- The Amritsar Massacre--1919 319 Indians (Hindu and Muslim) were killed during a protest- ordered by General Dyer British didnt allow freedom of press and assembly Millions joined the self rule campaign
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- Mohandas Gandhi Was a British educated lawyer who dressed as a commoner, fasted and attracted large crowds. Used passive resistance and civil disobedience Demonstrations, work stoppages (i.e. refused to work in salt factories), and boycotts Walk to the Sea collected salt which was prohibited by British law. Martin Luther King used civil disobedience in the US civil rights movement. Gandhi wanted Indian unity but could not overcome religious differences between Hindus and Muslims (he was assassinated by a Hindu)
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- Muhammad Ali Jinnah Main goal was to create a separate Muslim state. When India was freed by Britain in 1947 it was divided into thirds. India in the south Pakistan in the northwest East Pakistan, now Bangladesh, in the east Partitioned because of violence between Hindus and Muslims Millions migrated as Hindus went to India and Muslims to Pakistan, nearly half a million people were killed from violence Still tensions between India and Pakistan (especially Kashmir)
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- AFRICAN NATIONALIST MOVEMENTS
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- African movements began north of the Sahara where nations had long standing Islamic ties.
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- Egyptian Independence 1922 Egypt independent but still under British influence 1952- Gamal Nasser, general, led a revolution and overthrew King Farouk He nationalized industries Seized the Suez Canal (1956)
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- Africa -- South of the Sahara Most nations had few trained professionals (doctors, diplomats, businessmen, scientists). They had no trained people to run or rule a new nation In most colonies there were multiple languages since colonies were made along imperialist lines not African traditions. Most colonies had differing histories, customs and loyalties.
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- Ghana was the first African nation to achieve independence (1957) this was led by Kwame Nkrumah. Became the countrys Prime Minister. Kenya had a large European population that hindered independence but it was achieved by Jomo Kenyatta after an armed rebellion in 1963. He became the countrys Prime Minister and then President.
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- After WW2 France wanted to retain her colonies of Algeria and Vietnam. 1954- bloody revolt in Algeria Algeria gained independence in 1962 but bitterness caused many pro- French sympathizers to flee to France (many Muslims in France today)
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- Rwanda This area faced ethnic upheaval based on genocide, human rights violations and tribal strife between two tribes, the Tutsi (15% of pop.) Hutu (85% of pop.)
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- 1962 brought independence and revolt Hutu revolted against Tutsi leadership 10,000 plus people were murdered. Fighting continued until 1972 when a military coup by Juvenal Habyarimana (Hutu) created a one party republic in 1981. When Habyarimana died in plane crash in 1994 civil war broke out again.
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- 3 months of fighting resulted in genocide which left 800,000 Tutsi dead. The following year 2,000,000 Tutsi fled to nearby Zaire This is largest incident of genocide in recent history resulting in lost of 1/3 of entire national population.
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- SOUTH AFRICA In 1910 the Union of South Africa was established. British and Dutch colonists were given power, land and rights while blacks were entire excluded from the political arena
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- 1923 saw the introduction and enforcement of complete residential segregation. 1926 saw blacks legally banned from work in many skilled occupations. 1948 saw the establishment of APARTHEID (separation of races). This removed 80% of the population from the political process. In the 1950s the homelands were established. 15% of land (the nations worst) were allocated for blacks.
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- Nelson Mandela In the mid 1950s Nelson Mandela became the leader of the African National Congress, an organization whose goal was to abolish Apartheid.
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- Mandela followed Gandhis plan of passive resistance in the beginning 1960 Sharpeville Massacre saw the murder of 67 protesters. (protest was against requirement to carry passes to travel in cities) Mandela now supported guerrilla warfare Mandela was arrested in 1964 and sentenced to life in prison. He was released in 1990 After the government failed, Mandela was elected president in the first free election in 1994.
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- THE MIDDLE EAST At end of WWI the region was controlled by the British and French (Mandate System). France managed Syria and Lebanon Britain oversaw Palestine, Jordan, Iraq and Persia (Iran) Arabia became the kingdom of Saudi Arabia
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- Israel in the 20 th-21st Centuries
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- Balfour Declaration (1917) Independence from Britain (1948) When David Ben-Gurion announced the creation of Israel. Arab nations immediately attacked; Israel won 1956- Suez Canal Crisis- When Egypt nationalized Suez Canal they refused entry to Israeli shipping Israel seized Gaza Strip and the Sinai from Egypt 1967- Six Day War; Israel won the West Bank from Jordan and Golan Heights from Syria 1973- Yom Kippur War, oil embargo (price of oil was increased four-fold) 1977 Camp David Accords- peace between Egypt and Israel; President Sadat of Egypt assassinated
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- Since 1977 Israel and Palestinians have fought over the land The PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization) wanted to reclaim land and establish a Palestinian state. Intifada (uprisings) were used along with terrorism against Israeli citizens (First Intifada 1987-1993; Second Intifada 1993- 2005) Feb 2005- Sharm El Sheikh Conference Mahmoud Abbas and PM Ariel Sharon announce an end to violence August 2005- Israel withdraws from Gaza Strip January 2006- Hamas elected in Gaza; article 19 of their charter calls for the destruction of Israel
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- Iranian Revolution
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- Reza Shah Pahlavi After WWII and the departure of the allies the Shah began a program of Westernization. Land reform in the form of ownership increased Education improved Womens received the rights of voting, higher education, professionalism, and western dress.
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- The reforms upset Islamic fundamentalists who thought that the Quran should be the law of the kingdom (theocracy). After President Carter visited to congratulate the Shah on his progress revolution ensued. The Shah was deposed in 1979 and Iran became a theocracy led by the Ayatollah Khomeini. Iran Hostage Crisis (60 Americans were held for 444 days) Westernization ended---women wore traditional clothing and national law was based on the Quran
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- Iran was invaded by Iraq in1980 Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein was supported by the US The war between the two nations lasted nearly 8 years with neither side gaining anything. The Ayatollahs death in 1989 led to reformists Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (2005-2013)- conservative, against the U.S. and Israel, denied the Holocaust Current president is Hassan Rouhani Current Supreme Leader- Ali Khamenei
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- OPEC ORGANIZATION OF PETROLEUM EXPORTING COUNTRIES By 1960 the Middle Eastern states realized the power their oil gave them on the global market and they formed OPEC (Venezuela also joined). OPEC set the world price for oil and controlled the amount available. In 1970s they cut supply and prices skyrocketed. Some OPEC nations have used oil revenue to build national infrastructure while others have let the money go into the hands of a small minority.
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- The Gulf War In 1990 Iraq, lead by Hussein, invaded Kuwait to gain control of the oil fields. Success would have given Iraq control of nearly 20% of the world oil reserves. The United Nations sent forces to drive Iraq out of Kuwait. The UN then placed restrictions of Iraq Hussein remained in power for 10 more years while ignoring the clauses of the peace treaty. In 2003 a coalition (US and GB) invaded Iraq to remove Hussein Prime Minister Nuri al-MALIKI (since 2006)
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- More Unrest in Arab States In the 1980s the USSR sent troops to Afghanistan at the request of the Afgan Marxist leader Nur Muhammad Taraki Most Afghanis opposed the plan Resistors called holy warriors attacked Soviet forces. As Soviet problems at home grew the troops withdrew.
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- Islamic Fundamentalism After 14 years of fighting and 2 million deaths the victorious power was the Taliban an Islamic fundamentalist group. The regime imposed strict Islamic law and restrictions of women. It also
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