will kymlicka multiculturalism and welfare

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Multiculturalism and The Welfare State: Recognition and redistribution in contemporarydemocracies

Keith Banljng and

will

Kynlick

OXTORD

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Ilntroduction Multiculturalism and the welfare state: Setting the contextKcith Bantint sn.l Will Kynli(ku

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The pa thirty yea.s hve witnesed a dramatic change in the way nany Western democracies dea with issues of ethnotutural dive6ity- n the past, thnocultural diversibr was often sen as th.eat to political ability, and hen.e s something to be discoulaged by public policies. ImmiSnts, natonal oiDorities, and indiSenous peopes wcrc ll subicct toa rangc of policies intended to either assimiate or marginalize thr. Dring the la decades ofthe twntielh century howevc, many West ern democacier abandoned these earlii policies, and shilted towrds a moe accommodating pp.oach to diversity. Thi5 is reflcted, for exam

pe, in the widespread adoption of multiculturalism policies lor immi' Srant groups, the ccpta.ce of tcrritoril autonomy nd languag rights for natioml minorities, and the recognition ot land claims and self govenment rights for indigenous PeoPles. We wil refer to all su.h policies aJ 'dticulturaljsm policiev or MCls'tris term cove a very wide rarge ofpolides, nd w willdisoss some of the impo ant difences between thcm in Chapter 2. But whai they all have in common is that they go beyond th potection of thc basic cvil nd poltical rights 8uranteed to all individuals in a libel'del.ratic stte, to also extend some leve of public recoSnition and support for cthn(ulturl minorities to maintain and erpress their distnct idcnitiesThe adoption of MCPS has been and erraini contove6ial, for a variety of rcasns. On line of critique has been philosophica. Critics rgue that

i I :MCP5 are

inherc.tI in.oDsist.nt withbasic

tibera democat1c plircipli.

MCl)s are said to cont adct principles ot .divdua iicc.lorr ecase they pnvicge /8roup rights'i over 'ndividua .ighrs) nd/or pri.cilte, o quairy (bc.are hey trcat people dfienfly on rhc basis of ra.c o ethni.ity). Defende6 or MCPS rcspond tlat rhese poticies otten enhan.c lh choicc of individuls, by makinS avaiabe oprions rhar wold not olhetusebe alaihbe, and pronore rhe cquatit,v oi cirize.s, by enrovi.8 trar.6 and con testjng stigmas rhat disadvan taSe Dembcls ol ethnic an.l

'Ihis phiosophical dclrate iboul the mora toundations oI dutticurur alism doninted the acde. te!te in the t980s and eart!'1990s and remains a source of ongong coDfuove$y. However, jt has rec.nrh b.er 'utpl.mer'rco Ir,t r4\omi i.\rFnr \uppt.,rrat bvJrJ f"o Ior. socnnogical concerns abot the unintended effecrs oi Ma_l. l this vol unc, w examlne one sucl ser of conceris: n.rmell,i thar adoprinS Mcp5 makesil dre dilclltto sustain. robu wefare stat.. On lhisvicw, rhere s a trde off nr pra.tice betwcen a connnltment io Mcps rd a confin ment to tbe wefare state. Citics ge.ealy acknowle.lSe that .letende6 oa MCs do not tred to s'cke. tie wetre state. On the contrary, mo5r defended of MCPS are also stong detendes of th we[arc stare, and view both as flowing from the same underyin8 prncille of iusti.e. The coDii.t between MCPS and thc sclfare sralc, th.efor, s not so much ratter oI competing ideals or principcs, but of uninte.ded sociologrcal dl.namics. MCs, critics wor gradualy erode the irrcrynral furst, sGia solidity, and politic oalitions that sustanr the wefare star.r This not o .orrse the only soit of concen thi has bcc. aed abot Lhe effects of MCls. Some have expicse.l @ncern that they stos the rcorporatjon of immisnr minites nlro rhe e.onoric and socat minstream, nd ed to rbeir isoation or segre8aton In recen yea6, teval Eropan states, ncluding the Netirerlands and Brin, havc concuded that older models of multicltuaism did not do e.ough ro cnsure the economic and poiticat inregratio. of nmigrnts, and thr new pro integrtion policies ae reqired. ttowev, thcre h disgreenent Lrout whelher rhese new policies shol.l be reen a s ata./rdrir.s to MCts o

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r,rplcncrrr 1o thein. 'Ihe currcnt Bitsh appfr.h operares primarily on the rtter assumpiion, nd the Netherlands oD rhe forrer (Flanse., fohcoming; Joppke, forhcoming). More aladning, particla sinc 9/r1, is the prospect that ftutic trlism policies my hve unintcnrionaly created spc,es for radica religious and poliiie novmenb to operatc,.reating a threat to rhe saferv oI citizcns a.dthe secuity ol the star.ln the nae of pomorirg n ctu sron and toleftnL, multolturallsm polnje! may hav. .reated insrjtutual sucte$ withir rn inority .ommunitjcs (like schoos, mcdi, {!mmunitf orgniations) rhat have been capred by fLrndamentalisr Sroups con Di1ed to ttacking the iiberil-deocrltc orde ln corrlast, soneexperrs a8ue that mulicuturalism polcies make ir less likely rhat such fund nrtalist glops will tke root, sinc. rbe 5tate is beLt.r abe to moditor aDd nfluene mnorily institutons thar hale been ret up n.lo the.gn of multiculturlist public poli.ics. On thr view, re.orist cells are Dr likcly to a.ise jn counlries whee the stare hkes e hands oiTatritude ro flre eljgious aDd cltul organitions of mnoritygroups (Keelre Z0O5). These debaks about the link berveen MCPS, .ononi. and potical integration, and national sccnry are sometimes moe drmatic than conceors about rhe grdual erosioD of the wefarc srate. However. th. latter is rguaby of wider signiticlnce. -lb date, for example, :curiq concems n tl. West have argell' focsed on Mui idmigrnts. The wellare stte .oDern, bycontrast, ht been raised moe wdelt in rettion to MCls fora broad rante ofethnic .d.adal minorities. lndeed, palt of the reason wh), tbe lint between MCI\ and the wefare statc has become such a lively topc ofdebate s rhar it tt irro broader debate abou( thc inpact of etlni. nd acia diverity rs such on socal solidantyand on the w.ifare state. Conccrns about MCls arc ofren inter woven !th conerns about the etTects of ethn. and aciat divcrsitv on the edist ibutive rol. olthe rtate. These two concerns abot the mpact o rcial nd ethnic dverstv as $ch, and abot the impact of rnulticulturalism poli.iesrc oflcr lumped together, bt it is importaDt to kecp them disrinct. A g.owing chorus of rsearchen and commentato.s argue that .thn ic/racial .livesitl makes it nore diflclt to sustain redisbibutlve poljcies, regrclte$ ofthe rypes of poicies that governrenti adopr ro manage that diveBiry Such arSuents assme that it is inheently diffrcut to generate iein8s of national solda.ity and fuu acrost ethnichacjal lines, and that the verv pesence ol sizcble ethnjc/raciai dlvcBity ercdes the w.lre stae. We wi1 cal this the'hetrogcncity/redistriburion trde-off hypotresis.as necesary

Such lcs are olen reinfor.ed by con.e.ns that the Jnulh.ultraiiD' pol.ies adopted o recogDzeo acconmodate ethnicg.()ups tend to fuF th! unde.nine national rcidaty and trust. Ttt uddcrlyn8 hypotlesis here is rhit there is a ade of betwen re@gnihon rd redistibulnrU the more a.ountry embaces the'loliti.s o (ethnic) re.ogniti{', the hardcr it is to s6t.in the'poiti.s ol (econooio rcdntibution'. W wl.all this lhe 'recognlion/redistibu ton fuad off' h'?othet. In clIc.(, tle list hypothesis irgues llal rhe very pesence of siTeabe cthnic/racial dieersity erodcs tlc wcllic state, eSardless oi what sorrs ol policcs Sovernnenls adopl to D.nage that diverity. he second hypothcsis agles tlal lhe typ.al way n whjch nany westen gov crncnts tody atlclrpt to ma.agr divcdit_v naoelt by altemptD8 to .connodate it through nlti.ltalisn polices, ratc thar iSnoring or suppressg it aorscns tlc probl.. If these hypethcses rc iruc, wc f.c a scrios and grortg problcn/ be.use tbere is no resn to epect either tlt ctl!ic/rci ninoritics will dnDnjsh s a pciccdta$ f th. ovcrll popiation ir ro WcstfuD .ountis,.r tht theserups wU abndo. theirdan.s for titultra accommodations. On the contrary the.e is evey reson nr expe that mnoties wil contine to gow as a percentage of the ovea popula tion.Io example, indignous pcoplcs are the aste Srowins seSmeDt of tbe popularion in coonfuies like canada, the UsA, and Auslralia, wlb a highcr bih ratc than tht non ndigcnous ppula liod. lso, nn!igation nt thc Wcstern dcmodacjes wil codtnue to grow party to ofls.t tlc d{lnrg birth rte nd agint population, add partly be.us there r. limits on the 5tte5 abi9 to stot woud be migrnts from entering the country Simiarly, th

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