Water pollution biology
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<ul><li> Water Pollution Biology </li> <li> Water Pollution Biology Second Edition P.D.ABEL The Northumbrian Water Ecology Centre, University of Sunderland,Sunderland, UK </li> <li> UK Taylor & Francis Ltd, 11 New Fetter Lane, London, EC4P 4EE USA Taylor & Francis Inc., 325 Chestnut Street, 8th Floor, Philadelphia, DA 19106 Taylor & Francis is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2002. Copyright Taylor & Francis Ltd 1996 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, electrostatic, magnetic tape, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. ISBN 0-203-48374-X Master e-book ISBN ISBN 0-203-79198-3 (Adobe eReader Format) ISBN 0-7484-0661-1 (cased) ISBN 0-7484-0619-0 (paperback) Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data are available Cover design by Youngs Design in Production </li> <li> Contents Preface to Second Edition ix 1 Water Pollution Problems and Solutions 1 1.1 The scale of water pollution 2 1.2 Metalliferous rivers 4 1.2.1 The Rivers East and West Allen 8 1.2.2 Physical and Chemical Survey 10 1.2.3 Biological Survey 12 1.2.4 Zinc Toxicity 14 1.2.5 Some Further Questions 17 1.3 Toxicity and the status of fisheries 20 2 Sources and Effects of Water Pollutants 29 2.1 The nature of effluents 29 2.2 The environmental requirements of aquatic organisms 32 2.3 Organic pollution 35 2.4 Nutrient pollution 41 2.5 Eutrophication 42 2.6 Thermal pollution 45 2.7 Toxic pollution 52 2.7.1 Heavy Metals 53 2.7.2 Ammonia, Cyanides and Phenols 55 2.7.3 Pesticides 56 2.8 Suspended solids 57 2.9 Extreme pH and acidification 58 2.10 Detergents 63 2.11 Oil and petroleum products 65 v </li> <li> 3 Biological Monitoring of Water Quality 67 3.1 The conceptual basis of biological monitoring 67 3.2 Indicator organisms 71 3.3 Sampling methods 73 3.3.1 Evaluating Sampling Techniques 80 3.4 Data analysis and interpretation 83 3.4.1 Pollution Indices 85 3.4.2 Diversity Indices 87 3.4.3 Biotic Indices 90 3.4.4 Similarity Indices 95 3.4.5 Other Multivariate Techniques 104 3.4.6 RIVPACS 105 3.4.7 Some General Comments about Data Analysis and Interpretation 109 4 The Toxicity of Pollutants to Aquatic Organisms 113 4.1 Lethal toxicity and its measurement 115 4.1.1 The Experimental Conditions 115 4.1.2 Data Collection and Analysis 116 4.1.3 Probit Lines 119 4.1.4 Toxicity Curves 122 4.1.5 Alternative Methods for Measuring Lethal Toxicity 127 4.2 Factors influencing toxicity 128 4.2.1 The Toxic Properties of the Pollutant 128 4.2.2 The Effects of Environmental Conditions 130 4.2.3 Combinations of Poisons 134 4.2.4 Fluctuating Concentrations 138 4.2.5 Biotic Factors Influencing Toxicity 139 4.2.6 Intraspecific Variation 141 4.3 Applications of lethal toxicity measurements 142 4.4 Sublethal toxicity 145 4.4.1 Single-species Toxicity Tests 146 4.4.2 Experimental Ecosystems 153 4.4.3 Bioaccumulation 156 4.5 Evaluating toxicological data 159 4.6 Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) 161 5 Water Pollution and Public Health 165 5.1 Water pollution and pathogens 166 5.1.1 Bacterial Pathogens 166 5.1.2 Viral Pathogens 170 5.1.3 Parasitic Infections 172 5.1.4 Pathogens in the Aquatic Environment and in Waste Water Treatment Processes 175 5.2 Monitoring pathogens in water 176 Contents vi </li> <li> 5.2.1 Monitoring for Coliforms 177 5.2.2 Monitoring for Viruses 181 5.2.3 Monitoring for Parisites 181 5.3 Water pollution and water supply 182 5.3.1 Potable Water Supply 182 5.3.2 Agricultural Water Supply 183 5.3.3 Industrial Water Supply 184 6 Water Pollution Control 187 6.1 Biological treatment of waste water 188 6.1.1 Primary Treatment 189 6.1.2 Secondary Treatment 190 6.1.3 Tertiary Treatment 195 6.1.4 Sludge Disposal 196 6.1.5 Biological Treatment of Industrial Waste Water 198 6.2 The legislative and administrative framework of water pollution control 199 6.2.1 The Polluter Pays Principle 201 6.2.2 Receiving Water Quality Standards 202 6.2.3 Emission Standards 207 6.2.4 Water Quality Objectives 209 6.3 Water pollution law in practice 214 6.3.1 Water Pollution Law in Britain 216 6.3.2 European Water Pollution Law 218 6.3.3 Water Pollution Law in the USA 221 7 Estuarine and Marine Pollution 225 7.1 Pollution of estuaries 226 7.2 Pollution of the seas 230 7.2.1 Oil Pollution 231 7.2.2 Sewage and Domestic Wastes 234 7.2.3 Toxic Pollutants 236 7.3 Marine biological monitoring 241 7.3.1 Indicator Organisms 241 7.3.2 Sampling Methodology 245 7.3.3 Data Analysis 247 7.4 International co-operation on marine pollution 248 References 255 Index 279 Contents vii </li> <li> Preface to Second Edition The first edition of this book having been on the whole well received, I have tried to retain as far as possible its general style and character in the second. Nevertheless some sections have needed extensive revision and updating, and I have taken the opportunity to expand or develop some topics, often in response to the many constructive suggestions I have received from readers and reviewers, and from my own students. Inevitably, I have had to delete some material for reasons of space. The main changes are to revise, update and extend those areas in which there have been significant technical advances, or which were perhaps inadequately covered in the first edition. To keep the book within manageable proportions, I have omitted some material which was included in the first edition; in most cases, this material is by now readily accessible elsewhere and has been appropriately referenced. I have rewritten and/or restructured some sections of the book, to take account of the comments I have received regarding the readers impression of the most appropriate order in which the material should be presented. Readers of the first edition may detect some greater reliance on secondary sources than was shown in the first. This reflects the increased availability of high-quality monographs and reviews since the first edition. It also, sadly, reflects the experience which I and colleagues at other universities have had over the last few years that students simply no longer have ready access to primary sources, and increasingly do not have the opportunity to develop the skills required to assess and evaluate them. This may be a trend which many deplore, but we have little choice other than, as authors and teachers, to modify our approach to suit the changing circumstances. Nevertheless I still believe that the main purpose of this second edition is the same as the first: To impart not only factual information, but also some idea of the areas of uncertainty which must remain; to impart to the reader some sense of how he/she may evaluate for him/herself the quality and reliability of the vast amount of material he/she may encounter; and to concentrate on the elucidation of principles rather than the promulgation of data. In relation to this aim, I have not been inhibited in preferring sometimes to cite older, original material over more recently-dated sources. The rate of increase in knowledge and understanding, even in science, is often slower than the rate of increase in the number of published works. Also, the ix </li> <li> understanding of basic principles and methodology is often more easily achieved through the study of clear and accessible examples, which are sometimes rare in material published under the constraints of space and jargon which are characteristic of many modern journals. One of the fascinations of studying water pollution is that it demands some familiarity with a wide range of specialisms. In the following pages, I have been foolhardy enough to attempt to touch upon subjects ranging from molecular biology to international law, all of which are relevant to my chosen topic. I cannot write with equal authority and fluency upon all of these subjects, so in many cases I have had to rely heavily upon the assistance and advice of colleagues. I am obstinate enough sometimes to have followed my own path, so must accept responsibility for any errors of fact or interpretation which remain. Many of my colleagues may not even be aware of the extent of their assistance, perhaps because in conversation they have set off a train of thought or drawn my attention to a source of information. Their contributions are no less valued for that, but some have offered me very specific and extensive support or assistance, including Dr A.Abbott, Mr A. Milne, Ms K.Shepherd and Dr D.Reid. I am particularly grateful to Ms L.Kiakides, who has afforded me every form of help, both in the preparation of the book itself and in shouldering many responsibilities which were properly mine in order to allow me to finish it. P.D.Abel Sunderland, UK x Preface to the second edition </li> <li> 1 Water Pollution Problems and Solutions Water is one of our most important natural resources, and there are many conflicting demands upon it. Skilful management of our water bodies is required if they are to be used for such diverse purposes as domestic and industrial supply, crop irrigation, transport, recreation, sport and commercial fisheries, power generation, land drainage and flood protection, and waste disposal. An important objective of most water management programmes is the preservation of aquatic life, partly as an end in itself and partly because water which sustains a rich and diverse fauna and flora is more likely to be useful to us, and less likely to be a hazard to our health, than one which is not so endowed. To meet this objective, it is necessary to maintain within certain limits factors such as water depth and flow regimes, temperature, turbidity and substratum characteristics, and the many parameters which contribute to the chemical quality of the water. In waters which receive waste discharges, whether by design or by accident, one or more of these variables may come to lie outside the limits which can be tolerated by one or more of the species which live there, and consequently the biological characteristics of the water are altered. The biologists role in the monitoring and control of water pollution is to detect and accurately to describe these alterations, to elucidate as precisely as possible the mechanisms by which they are brought about, and to seek to understand the qualitative and quantitative relationships between pollution and its biological consequences. He or she may also need to be aware of the application of biological processes in the control or amelioration of pollution, and of the serious consequences for public health which water pollution threatens. Finally, he or she must be able to offer constructive advice to other specialistschemists, engineers, administrators and legislatorswho share the responsibility for managing our water resources. 1 </li> <li> Water pollution biology 2 All of these topics will be discussed in the following chapters, but first it might be useful to gain some idea of the nature and scale of the problems posed by water pollution. 1.1 The Scale of Water Pollution Water pollution, like other environmental concerns, has been the focus of widespread public interest for about three decades now, and this interest seems to be increasing. While this has many obvious benefits, it sometimes can appear that the public perception of water pollution, as manifested for example by political debate and the activities of pressure groups, does not always accord with the scientific reality. This can lead to ill-advised or cost-ineffective actions, including legislation and regulation, in an attempt to deal with perceived or publicised problems which may, in fact, be less serious than others which are less well publicised or less easy for the educated layman to understand. It is therefore important to gain some idea of the real nature and extent of water pollution. Britain may perhaps fairly be taken as a representative example of a developed country, and is one of the few countries, even in the developed world, where adequate information is available to undertake a general survey. In fact, national surveys of water quality have taken place at regular intervals since 1958; they currently take place once every five years, the most recent one for which data are available being in 1990 (NRA, 1991). Of approximately 40000km of main river surveyed in England and Wales, 65.3% was classified in 1990 as good; 23.4% as fair; 9.5% as poor; and 1.6% as bad. (The basis of these classifications, and the applications of the survey data, are described and discussed in more detail in Chapter 6.) Thus approximately 35% of the total length of rivers in England and Wales could be said to be significantly influenced by pollution, and about 12% of the total seriously so. Bad as this may seem, it does in fact represent a considerable improvement of the situation as recorded in earlier surveys 30 or so years ago (see Chapter 6), which perhaps gives some confidence that the application of the principles and techniques outlined later in this book is of some use! The distribution of the more seriously polluted rivers throughout the country is, of course, by no means even; the worst situations tend to be found in and around the larger conurbations and industrial areas. However, the common perception of pollution as being caused primarily by industry is not correct. Although this may once have been true, the most recent survey data clearly indicate that today other sources, particularly agriculture, require much more attention than they sometimes receive. This is most easily seen by referring to a report on water pollution incidents which occurred in England and Wales in 1991 (NRA, 1992).Approximately 28000 incidents were reported to the NRA in 1991, a number which has increased fairly steadily since records began in 1981, when about 12000 incidents were reported. This increase is probably misleading. An incident may arise through accidental, </li> <li> Water pollution problems and solutions 3 negligent or illegal discharge of wastes to water; or through failure, for whatever reason, of waste treatment processes causing them to exceed their discharge limits. The apparent increase in incidents is probably largely accounte...</li></ul>
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