Unit 2: The Engineering Design Process Lesson 1: The ... International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design

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2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design Unit 2: The Engineering Design Process Lesson 1: The Engineering Design Process Lesson Snapshot Big Idea: The Engineering Design process is a systematic, iterative problem solving method which produces solutions to meet human wants and desires. Teachers Note: Big ideas should be made explicit to students by writing them on the board and/or reading them aloud. For deeper understanding, have students write the Big Idea in their own Engineering Design Journal (EDJ), using their own words if they choose. Purpose of Lesson: Unit 2, Lesson 1 introduces students to the engineering design process and requires that they apply it. Lesson Duration: Eight (8) hours. Activity Highlights Engagement: Students will watch a view entitled, How I Harnessed the Wind, from www.ted.com. Students will record notes on the process used in the video to harness the wind. The teacher will lead a discussion on the process that was used by William Kamkwamba to harness the wind. Exploration: Given the steps of the engineering design process on note cards (one step per card) (File 2.1.1 or File 2.1.2), students will attempt to place the steps in the correct order. Students will use prior knowledge and the sequence demonstrated in the engagement example to determine the order. The teacher will give feedback and prompt students to justify their order. Explanation: The teacher presents the students with the correct sequence and delivers a presentation on the Engineering Design Process (Presentation 2.1.1). Students will record notes in their engineering design journals (EDJ). A graphic organizer can be used to help students transition to the expanded Engineering Design Process (File 2.1.3). The teacher will deliver a presentation on the Pythagorean Theorem (Presentation 2.1.2), and use the Pythagorean Theorem Review (File 2.1.4) to work with students. Additional instructional resources are available in (Video 2.1.3). Extension: Students will apply the steps of the engineering design process to a simple design problem (File 2.1.5). Students will document the Engineering Design process in their EDJ. Student will apply mathematical concepts related to the design challenge (File 2.1.5 and File 2.1.6). Teacher Note: The data collected during the testing/evaluation of the design challenge will be used in Unit 2, Lesson 2. The teacher should make sure all data is recorded. Evaluation: Student knowledge, skills, and attitudes are assessed using selected response items, brief constructed response items, and performance rubrics for class participation, discussion, and design briefs. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design Unit 2: The Engineering Design Process Lesson 1: The Engineering Design Process Lesson Overview Lesson Duration Eight (8) hours. Standards/Benchmarks Technology: Standards for Technological Literacy (STL) (ITEA/ITEEA, 2000/2002/2007) STL 8 Understanding the attributes of design H The design process includes defining a problem, brainstorming, researching and generating ideas, identifying criteria and specifying constraints, exploring possibilities, selecting an approach, developing a design proposal, making a model or prototype, testing and evaluating the design using specifications, refining the design, creating or making it, and communicating processes and results. Mathematics: Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (NCTM, 2000)2 Algebra Standard Represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures using algebraic symbols use symbolic algebra to represent and explain mathematical relationships (NCTM-5L) Geometry Standard Use visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling to solve problems visualize three-dimensional objects and spaces from different perspectives and analyze their cross sections; (NCTM-11X) Learning Objectives Students will learn to: 1. Apply the steps of the design process including defining a problem, brainstorming, researching and generating ideas, identifying criteria and specifying constraints, exploring possibilities, selecting an approach, developing a design proposal, making a model or prototype, testing, and communicating results. 2. Use symbolic algebra to represent and explain mathematical relationships Contribute to a group endeavor by offering useful ideas, supporting the efforts of others, and focusing on the task. 3. Visualize three-dimensional objects and spaces from different perspectives and analyze their cross sections. 4. Contribute to a group endeavor by offering useful ideas, supporting the efforts of others, and focusing on the task. 5. Work safely and accurately with a variety of tools, machines, and materials. 6. Actively participate in group discussions, ideation exercises, and debates. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design Resource Materials Audiovisual Materials Teacher Domain. (n.d.). What is the design process? Retrieved from http://www.teachersdomain.org/resource/phy03.sci.engin.design.desprocess/ NASASciFiles. (n.d.). Engineering design process. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6PJTlzY0Aak Design Squad. (n.d.). Paper table challenge (2:15). Retrieved from http://pbskids.org/designsquad/video/index.html How I Harnessed the Wind. (2012). How I Harnessed the Wind. Retrieved from: www.ted.com Internet Search Terms and Suggested Sites Engineering design process Teachenginering. (n.d.). Engineering design process. Retrieved from http://www.teachengineering.org/engrdesignprocess.php NASA. (n.d.). Engineering design process. Retrieved from http://www.nasa.gov/audience/foreducators/plantgrowth/reference/Eng_Design_5-12.html Required Knowledge and/or Skills Students should be able to search for information on the Internet and know how to use word-processing and presentation software. Students should know how to safely use hot glue guns and basic prototyping materials and equipment (rulers, knives, etc.). Student Assessment Tools and/or Methods Assessment Instrument - Quiz (Pre-/Post-Content Knowledge Questions). 1. The Scientific Method is a/an: a. undefined linear procedure b. defined circular procedure c. undefined circular procedure d. defined linear procedure 2. The Engineering Design Process follows: a. a defined circular path b. a defined linear path c. an undefined circular path d. an undefined linear path 3. In science, you form a hypothesis; in engineering, you: a. identify criteria b. define a problem c. brainstorm d. build a prototype 4. In science, you report your results; in engineering, you: a. communicate results b. define a problem c. brainstorm d. build a prototype 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design 5. A systematic application of mathematical, scientific and technical principles is: a. sociological design b. scientific design c. engineering design d. psychological design 6. By defining the problem, the designer clearly identifies what humans: a. like or want b. like and want c. like and dont like d. need or want 7. The process of checking to see if a solution to a problem already exists is called: a. research b. brainstorming c. testing d. optimizing 8. A prototype is a model that: a. looks exactly as the final solution would but does not function b. performs exactly as the final solution would c. does not meet the stated criteria d. does not meet the stated constraints 9. Design portfolios, design journals, drawings and schematics are all used to: a. evaluate b. communicate c. test d. optimize Assessment Instrument - Brief Constructed Response (BCR) Students are expected to respond to one of the questions described below. Students should provide examples to clarify their response. 1. Compare and contrast the Scientific Method to the Engineering Design Process. 2. Briefly review the steps of the Engineering Design Process and how the process itself is iterative. BCR Rubric Category Below Average Average Excellent Understanding Response demonstrates an implied, partial, or superficial under-standing of the question. Response is written technically and precisely. The answer demonstrates understanding of the topic. Response is written technically and precisely. The answer demonstrates understanding of the topic and sites specific examples. Focus Response lacks transitional Response addresses the question, Response addresses the question, sites 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design information to show the relationship between the content and the support to the question. includes pertinent information and remains focused on the topic. specific examples, includes pertinent information and remains focused on the topic. Details are clearly stated and do not detract from the response. Use of Related Information Response uses minimal supporting information to clarify or extend meaning. Response uses expressed and/or implied supporting information that clarifies or extends meaning. Response uses clear and concise examples as well as supporting information that clarifies or extends meaning. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design Unit 2: The Engineering Design Process Lesson 1: The Engineering Design Process 5-E Lesson Plan Engagement The teacher will show students the video: How I Harnessed the Wind found at http://www.ted.com/. The teacher will ask the students to record what steps William Kamkwamba used to solve a problem. Students may refer to the 5-step design process as an organizational tool (EbD Engineering Design Process). The class will discuss how the problem was solved using the design process. The teacher will explain that as we face more complex problems, we need to follow a more detailed design process. Teacher Note: It is recommended that the teacher downloads the video prior to teaching the lesson. If this video is not available, choose another design challenge clip. The emphasis is on students watching engineers and/or students working on a design challenge so that they can reflect on the process. Regardless of the video, the teacher should provide guidance when sequencing the steps in the Engineering Design Process. Exploration Option #1: Students research the Engineering Design Process and place the steps in the proper order (File 2.1.1). The teacher will circulate around the room and provide feedback to students as needed. The teacher should prompt students to justify the placement of a particular step. Option #2: The teacher supplies the students with a set of index cards with each step of the design process written on one card (total of 12 cards in each set File 2.1.2). Students, working in groups of two, will attempt to correctly sequence the steps in the engineering design process. The teacher will circulate around the room and provide feedback to students as needed. The teacher should prompt students to justify the placement of a particular step. Explanation The student takes notes in their EDJs on the content delivered by the teacher and actively participates throughout the presentation. The teacher, involving students in the following discussions as they contribute their experiences from the Engagement and Exploration activities along with any prior knowledge they may have about the subject, will deliver a presentation on the Engineering Design process as a systematic, iterative problem solving method which produces solutions to meet human wants and desires (Presentation 2.1.1): The teacher may present or ask students to present the correct sequence of the Engineering Design Process, while other students self check their index cards. Defines Science as the study of the natural world and how the natural world works, based on observable physical evidence. Defines Technology as the application of knowledge to solve practical problems or to change/manipulate the human environment. Explains that the Scientific Method is the process of discovery and demonstration, which generally involves the observation of phenomena, the formulation of a hypothesis concerning the phenomena, experimentation to demonstrate the truth or falseness of the hypothesis, and a conclusion that validates or modifies the hypothesis. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design Explains what Engineering Design is a systematic, iterative problem solving method which produces solutions to meet human wants and desires. Further it, systematically applies mathematical, scientific and technical principles, to yield tangible end products that meet our needs and desires. The process of engineering design takes into account a number of factors. Explains that as problems become more complex, so do the processes used to solve them. Reminds students that each step in the Engineering Design Process should be recorded in their Engineering Design Journal. Explains the steps of the Engineering Design Process a. Defining the Problem b. Brainstorm Solutions c. Research Ideas/Explore Possibilities d. Specify Constraints and Identifying Criteria e. Consider Alternative Solutions f. Selecting an Approach g. Developing a Written Design Proposal h. Making a Model/Prototype i. Testing and Evaluating j. Refine/Improve k. Create/Make Product l. Communicate the Results At the conclusion of the Explanation, the teacher will share the expanded design process graphic organizer (File 2.1.3). This information graphically showcases the transition to the expanded engineering design process. Have students copy or paste this information in their EDJ. The teacher will deliver a presentation on the Pythagorean Theorem (Presentation 2.1.2). Students will record notes and answer practice problems in their EDJ. The teacher will have students complete the Crane Strain - Pythagorean Theorem Review (File 2.1.4) in class or for homework. The teacher can use the video based instruction/support entitled Pythagorean Theorem Video (Video 2.1.3). Extension The teacher will present the crane strain design brief (File 2.1.5). Students, working in small groups, will design and build a crane that supports the greatest weight. Students will apply the steps of the Engineering Design Process to solve the problem. Students can use the Design folio to work through the Engineering Design Process or use the folio as a graphic organizer to frame their work in their EDJ. All notes should be recorded in the students EDJ or on the design folio. Prior to constructing the crane, students should be able to calculate the amount of materials they need to construct their design. The amount should be within the allowable constraints. The students will collect data during testing. The data and their efficiency calculations should be recorded in their EDJ or on the crane strain efficiency worksheet (File 2.1.6). Teacher Note: To ensure that students have the necessary data in Unit 2, lesson 2, it is suggested that the teacher collect (File 2.1.6) immediately after testing, or uses an online shared spreadsheet (e.g., Google Doc) for students to record data. Evaluation 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design Student knowledge, skills, and attitudes are assessed using the multiple choice or brief constructed response items and performance rubrics for class participation, discussion, and design briefs. The rubrics are presented in advance of the activities to familiarize students with the expectations and performance criteria. They are also reviewed during the activities to guide students in the completion of assignments. The teacher may wish to develop a collection of annotated exemplars of student work based on the rubrics. The exemplars will serve as benchmarks for future assessments and may be used to familiarize students with the criteria for assessment. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design Unit 2: The Engineering Design Process Lesson 1: The Engineering Design Process Laboratory-Classroom Preparation Teacher Planning Review the materials to determine the appropriate times to allocate to the viewing or reading of the materials. Instructors should ensure that the students have access to the appropriate Internet resources, particularly if print-based materials are not available for students to read. Prepare the room for multimedia presentations, including showing DVDs. It may be advantageous to read several reviews of the resources used to gain additional perspectives on the authors messages. In addition, instructors should collaborate with the English language arts, social studies, and literature instructors to integrate these literary resources into this course. The laboratory should provide for a flexible, resource-rich learning environment that allows presentations, demonstrations, small-group discussions, design work, computer work, research, prototyping, and testing. The room should include individual work areas as well as areas for small groups to meet and work. Students should have access to research resources including the library and the Internet. The room should be set up for multimedia presentations including digital projectors, document cameras, sound systems, and DVD and videotape players. Computers in the classroom should be Internet-ready and have word-processing, spreadsheet, and presentation software. Although not required, CAD software for design work is recommended. Tools/Materials/Equipment Below is a list of supplies and equipment that are needed to teach this course, assuming a class of 25 students. Optional/additional supplies required for Enrichment Activities are indicated. Where possible and appropriate, merchants are listed that support ITEEA; however, materials may often be obtained from alternative and/or local sources. Additionally, these materials are based upon the lessons in the course and make no assumptions for classrooms with access to specialized equipment (e.g., fabrication equipment). If the student has access to specialized equipment, the teacher may wish to incorporate the use of it into the lessons, and additional supplies may be necessary (as well as safety procedures). Computer w/Internet access Crane Tower (teacher built) Supplies per teams of students Weights and weight holder Scrap wood 1/8 x1/4 x 24 Design Folios 7 mason string 15 craft sticks One piece of wood (3 x 3 x ) Hand & power tools typical to a Technology Education lab 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design Laboratory-Classroom Safety and Conduct Note: Safety is of paramount importance to every classroom. While this Guide contains some general safety guidelines, it does not address the specific tools, equipment, and working spaces found in any specific classroom. Teachers must provide comprehensive safety guidelines to students based upon individual classrooms. 1. Students use tools and equipment safely, maintaining a safety level for themselves and others in the laboratory-classroom. 2. Students demonstrate respect and courtesy for the ideas expressed by others in the class. 3. Students show respect and appreciation for the efforts of others. Student Resources File 2.1.1 Engineering Design Process File 2.1.2 Engineering Design Process Note Cards File 2.1.3 Expanded Engineering Design Process Graphic Organizer File 2.1.4 Pythagorean Theorem Review File 2.1.5 Crane Strain Design Brief File 2.1.6 Crain Strain, Crane Efficiency Calculations Teacher Resource Presentation 2.1.1 Engineering Design Process Presentation 2.1.2 Pythagorean Theorem Video 2.1.3 Pythagorean Theorem Video Vocabulary Engineering Design Process: is a systematic, iterative problem solving method which produces solutions to meet human wants and desires. Science: the study of the natural world, focuses on how and why things happen. Technology: the study of the design world. Used to solve practical problems and extend human capabilities. Developments in technology are evolutionary, and are often the result of a series of refinements to an idea or basic invention, focuses on making things happen. Scientific Method: is a linear method for conducting an investigation, which involves making an observation and performing an experiment to test a hypothesis. Define the Problem: includes developing a problem statement that identifies the what, who, when and how the problem should be addressed. Brainstorming Solutions: includes working as a group to develop ideas for possible solutions, record your ideas and employ the rules of brainstorming. Research Ideas/Explore Possibilities: includes identifying how the problem or a similar problem was addressed in the past and determining what mathematical and/or scientific knowledge is essential to solve the problem. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design Criteria: guidelines to help develop a solution. Constraints: limitations of the design when developing a solution. Alternative Solutions: are necessary so that ideas remain unique and are not traditional. Select the Approach: determining how to proceed in the engineering design process is based on a schedule or some type of matrix that outlines all ideas based on the criteria and constraints. Design Proposal: a way to manage simple projects, which includes the who, what, when, where and how to deliver the work, how the solution will be evaluated and often includes descriptions, sketches and technical drawings. Make a Model/Prototype: models and prototypes can be conceptual (are abstract models that use language and graphic-based representations to convey meaning), mathematical (are abstract models that use the language of mathematics to describe the behavior of the solution) or physical (are three-dimensional models, which represent the solution). Test and Evaluate: this step in the engineering design process is used to evaluate the model/prototype against the given criteria and constraints, all tests should be developed during the design proposal phase. Refine/Improve: this is an essential step in the engineering design process, and is what makes this process unique. The design is constantly reviewed and revised throughout the process so that an ideal solution is developed. Create/Make Product: the product produced should clearly match the design and show refinement throughout the engineering design process. Communicate the Results: the engineering design journal and/or an electronic version of the engineering design journal should be kept to record daily interaction with the design problem. This represents your ideas and thoughts throughout the process. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design Name: Period: Date: Foundations of Technology Unit 2 Lesson 1: The Engineering Design Process File 2.1.1: Engineering Design Process Directions: Use the terms in the word bank to determine the correct sequence for the Engineering Design Process. Place the terms in the correct sequence. The Engineering Design Process: Word Bank Select an Approach Communicate Processes and Results Define the Problem Refine and Improve Make a Model or Prototype Brainstorm Possible Solutions Research Ideas/Explore Possibilities Test and Evaluate Consider Alternative Solutions Specify Constraints & Identify Criteria Develop a Written Design Proposal Create/Make It Product 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design Name: Period: Date: Foundations of Technology Unit 2 Lesson 1: The Engineering Design Process File 2.1.2: Engineering Design Process Note Cards Directions: Cut out the following note cards. Use the note cards to determine the correct sequence for the Engineering Design Process. Place the note cards in the correct sequence. Select an Approach Communicate Processes and Results Define the Problem Refine and Improve Make a Model or Prototype Brainstorm Possible Solutions Research Ideas/Explore Possibilities Test and Evaluate Consider Alternative Solutions Specify Constraints & Identify Criteria Develop a Written Design Proposal Create/Make It Product 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design Name: Period: Date: Foundations of Technology Unit 2 Lesson 1: The Engineering Design Process File 2.1.3: Engineering Design Process Graphic Organizer Define Problem Test and Evaluate Generate A Solution Explore Solutions Brainstorm Ideas Research Ideas/ Explore Possibilities Consider Alternative Solutions Select An Approach Develop A Written Design Proposal Make A Model / Prototype Define Problem Communicate Results Brainstorm Possible Solutions Specify Constraints &Identify Criteria Create/ Make Product Refine & Improve Test & Evaluate 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design Name: Period: Date: Foundations of Technology Unit 2 Lesson 1: The Engineering Design Process File 2.1.4: Pythagorean Theorem Review Pythagorean Theorem Review Directions: Use the appropriate equation to answer the following questions. All answers should be recorded below or in your engineering design journal. Remember to show all work. 1. Solve for the unknown variable: 2. Solve for the unknown variable: 3. Solve for the unknown variables: 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design 4. Calculate the materials needed to build the sample crane boom: Material Type Quantity Length (total) Total: a = 18cm b1 = 25cm b2 = 40cm b3 = 55cm b4 = 75cm c1 = _____cm c2 = _____cm c3 = _____cm 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design Name: Period: Date: Foundations of Technology Unit 2 Lesson 1: The Engineering Design Process File 2.1.4: Pythagorean Theorem Review - ANSWERS Pythagorean Theorem Review Directions: Use the appropriate equation to answer the following questions. All answers should be recorded below or in your engineering design journal. Remember to show all work. 1. Solve for the unknown variable: a + b = c c = (5in) + (4in) c = 25in + 16in c = 41in c = 41in c = 6.4in 2. Solve for the unknown variable: a = c - b a = (16in) - (12in) a = 256in - 144in a = 400in a = 400in c = 20in 3. Solve for the unknown variables: c = a + ({b}) c = (15in) + (10in) c = 225in + 100in c = 325in c = 325in c = 18.0in 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design 4. Calculate the materials needed to build the sample crane boom: Material Type Quantity Length (total) a 4 4 x 18cm = 72cm b3 1 1 x 55cm = 55cm b4 1 1 x 75cm = 75cm c1 2 2 x 30.8cm = 61.6cm c2 2 2 x 23.4cm = 46.8cm c3 1 1 x 26.9cm = 26.9cm Total: 337.3cm c1 a + b = c c = (18cm) + (25cm) c = 324cm + 625cm c = 949cm c = 949cm c = 30.8cm c2 a + b = c c = (18cm) + (15cm) c = 324cm + 225cm c = 549cm c = 549cm c = 23.4cm c3 a + b = c c = (18cm) + (20cm) c = 324cm + 400cm c = 724cm c = 724cm c = 26.9cm a = 18cm b1 = 25cm b2 = 40cm b3 = 55cm b4 = 75cm c1 = _____cm c2 = _____cm c3 = _____cm 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design Name: Period: Date: Foundations of Technology Unit 2 Lesson 1: The Engineering Design Process File 2.1.5: Crane Stain Design Brief Crane Stain Design Brief Background Cranes are used in construction to assist in lifting heavy objects by suspending them in the air while they are positioned and lowered into place. The loading capacity of a crane relates to how the crane was designed and built, in addition to how often it is used. The thickness and weight of the materials used to build the crane contribute to the load capacity. The number of times a crane can operate before failure is based on the type of load, the materials used during construction, the cranes design, and the overall condition of the crane. Design Problem You have been hired by FoT Construction to design and build a new crane for a new commercial construction project. Your team must design and construct a crane that will hold the greatest amount of weight before failing. Specifications 1. The crane boom must attach to the provided tower. 2. A one-quarter inch (1/4) hole will be used to mount the crane to the tower. 3. All joints must be glued (no mechanical fasteners). 4. The crane may not touch the tower during testing. 5. Counterweights are allowed, but they may not be adjusted during testing. 6. The boom must hold the weight fourteen inches (14) from the tower center. 7. The maximum length of the boom is twenty inches (20). 8. A mechanism/member must be provided at the end of the crane to attach a hook which will be used to hold the test weight. 9. The crane must be the structure which holds the weight. Materials Four (4) wood strips ( x1/4 x 24) Seven (7) feet of mason string Fifteen (15) craft sticks One piece of wood (3 x 3 x ) Glue Deliverables 1. Each student must document the engineering design process using the Engineering Design Folio or their Engineering Design Journal. 2. Each team must create a conceptual model of their crane and apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine the amount of material they will need. 3. Each team will create a prototype of their crane and test for failure of the prototype. 4. Each team must determine the efficiency of their design by completing the Crane Strain Efficiency Worksheet. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design The following rubric will be used to evaluate your Extension activity: Category Below Average Average Excellent Defining Problem Rephrases the problem with limited clarity. Develops a problem statement, that includes the who, what, when and how the problem will be addressed. Recorded in the Engineering Folio or EDJ. Develops a problem statement that is clearly and precisely stated. The problem statement includes the who, what, when and how the problem will be addressed. Recorded in the Engineering Folio or EDJ. Brainstorming Possible Solutions Contributes few or implausible ideas. Contributes a series of plausible idea, which are recorded in the Engineering Folio or EDJ. Contributes multiple plausible ideas, which are expanded upon to show understanding of the concept. All notes are recorded in the Engineering Folio or EDJ. Research Ideas / Explore Possibilities Contributes ideas, but without documented research. Produces incomplete sketches. Contributes several plausible ideas and includes documented research. Produces accurate conceptual models to show the design concepts. All notes are recorded in the Engineering Folio or EDJ. Contributes several plausible ideas and with clearly documented research. Produces accurate conceptual models to show the design concepts with annotated sketches. All notes are recorded in the Engineering Folio or EDJ. Specify Constraints and Identify Criteria Does not identify the criteria and/or fails to specify constraints. Clearly identifies the criteria and specifies the constraints. All notes are recorded in the Engineering Folio or EDJ. Clearly identifies the criteria and specifies the constraints as they pertain to the project and their suggested designs. All notes are recorded in the Engineering Folio or EDJ. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design Consider Alternative Solutions Inadequately analysis of a variety of possible solutions. Satisfactorily analyzes a variety of possible solutions, based on research and the relationship of those designs to the criteria and constraints. All notes are recorded in the Engineering Folio or EDJ. Did not enter the research phase with a preconceived idea of the final design. Satisfactorily analyzes a variety of possible solutions, based on research and the relationship of those designs to the criteria and constraints. All notes are recorded in the Engineering Folio or EDJ. Select an Approach Selection of solution is not based on consideration of criteria and constraints. Selects a promising solution based on the problem statement as well as the criteria and constraints. Uses some type of evaluation method to determine the final design. All notes are recorded in the Engineering Folio or EDJ. Selects a promising solution based on the problem statement, criteria and constraints as well as evidence collected through research. Uses some type of evaluation method to determine the final design. All notes are recorded in the Engineering Folio or EDJ. Developing a Written Design Proposal Design proposal is inadequate and lacking pertinent information. Design proposal contains the who, what , when, where and how the solution will be developed as well as how the solution will be evaluated and what tests will be conducted to determine success. Includes annotated sketches, notes and technical drawings. Recorded in the Engineering Folio or EDJ. Design proposal is written technically and precisely and contains the who, what , when, where and how the solution will be developed as well as how the solution will be evaluated and what tests will be conducted to determine success. Includes annotated sketches, notes and technical drawings. Recorded in the Engineering Folio or EDJ. Making a Model or Prototype The model or prototype meets the task criteria to a limited extent. The model or prototype is neatly and precisely developed to meet the problem statement and the given criteria and constraints. A record of the construction process can be found in the Engineering Folio or EDJ. The model or prototype is neatly and precisely developed to meet the problem statement and the given criteria and constraints. A record of the construction process as well as how the design was improved during construction can be found in the Engineering Folio or EDJ. Test and Evaluate Testing and evaluation processes are inadequate. Testing and evaluation processes are clearly defined in the Design Proposal and align to the problem statement. The data collected during evaluation can be used to improve the design. All notes are Testing and evaluation processes are clearly defined in the Design Proposal and align to the problem statement. The data collected during evaluation is clearly documented and used to improve the design. All 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design recorded in the Engineering Folio or EDJ. notes are recorded in the Engineering Folio or EDJ. Refine / Improve Refinement based on testing and evaluation is not evident. Refinements were made from data collected during testing and evaluation. Data-driven decision making is clearly evident, and the solution has improved based on testing. All notes are recorded in the Engineering Folio or EDJ. Refinements were made from data collected during testing and evaluation. Data-driven decision making is clearly evident and documented. Refinements to the solution are documented and the solution has improved based on testing. All notes are recorded in the Engineering Folio or EDJ. Create / Make Product Finished solution (product) fails to meet specifications. Finished solution (product) aligns to the design proposal and reflects the Engineering Design Process and includes evidence of refinement based on testing and evaluation of the design. The process(es) used to create the product are recorded in the Engineering Folio or EDJ. Finished solution (product) aligns to the design proposal and reflects the Engineering Design Process and includes evidence of refinement based on testing and evaluation of the design. The solution (product) is well constructed and easily meets the problem statement. The process(es) used to create the product are recorded in the Engineering Folio or EDJ. Communicate Results Solution presented with limited accuracy. Limited supporting evidence on how the solution meets the task criteria. Solution is presented accurately and precisely using the Engineering Folio or the EDJ. The Engineering Design Process is well documented, with supporting evidence. All information aligns to how the solution meets the problem statement as well as the criteria and constraints. Solution is presented accurately and precisely using the Engineering Folio or the EDJ. The Engineering Design Process is well documented, with supporting evidence. All information aligns to how the solution meets the problem statement as well as the criteria and constraints. A more formal presentation/showcase was developed to support the solution. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design Name: Period: Date: Date Started: Due Date: Group Members: Foundations of Technology Unit 2 Lesson 1: The Engineering Design Process File 2.1.5: Crane Stain Design Brief Design Folio 1. Define the Problem What need or want must be met by the solution? 2. Brainstorming List/sketch possible solutions that might be used in your final design. Clearly identify and describe how each of these ideas relates to the problem statement. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design 3. Research and Generating Ideas In the space below, document your research. Be sure to include proper citations at the end of your notes. Notes Citations/References 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design 4. Identifying criteria and specifying constraints What are the criteria and constraints of the design problem? Criteria Constraints 5. Exploring possibilities Reflect on your brainstormed ideas and research notes and describe the plusses and minuses of each design approach you have considered. Brainstorming Idea Pluses Minuses 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design 6. Selecting an Approach a. Enter the constraints and criteria of the project in the first column. b. Score your brainstorming ideas against each constraint or criterion and indicate how well the idea meets the criteria and constraints. 3 pts = easily meets, 2 pts = somewhat meets, 1 pt. = does not meet c. Total the columns and circle the highest score to indicate your best design idea. Constraint/Criterion Total 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design 7. Developing a Design Proposal Based on the evaluation of your ideas, develop a design proposal for the highest scoring idea. Include working drawings (sketches with dimensions, so that you could build your project). Attach your working drawings to this sheet. Determine the materials you plan to use based on your design. List the material and quantity below. Material to be Used Qty 8. Making a model or prototype In the space below, document the construction of the model/prototype. Be sure to include sketches/pictures as appropriate. Construction in-process Construction in-process Construction in-process Final Product 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design 9. Testing and Evaluating the Design, using specifications As you create your solution, you will perform tests to make sure that the solution is meeting the needs of the given problem. If your solution does not work, you may need to repeat the previous steps of the Engineering Design Process, until you find a functional design. In the space below, document the type of tests you conducted and the results. Test Performed Test Results 10. Refining the Design Based on your tests, what design refinements should be made to the prototype to ensure that it can satisfy all of the criteria and constraints of the design problem. Refinements 11. Creating or Making It Modify your model/prototype to incorporate the design refinements you identified in section 10. What additional steps would be necessary to produce the final product for the customer? 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design 12. Communicating processes and results a) Demonstrate the operation of your Crane Strain device to the class. As part of your demonstration, describe the steps involved in creating your device. b) Complete the Crane Strain Efficiency calculations and present your data to the teacher. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design Name: Period: Date: Foundations of Technology Unit 2 Lesson 1: The Engineering Design Process File 2.1.6: Crane Stain Efficiency Calculations Directions: Prior to destructive testing, record the cranes mass, length and type. After destructive testing record the mass held. Make sure all units of measurement are parallel. Based on the recorded data, calculate the efficiency of the crane. Crane Data Prior to Testing: Mass of Boom: Length of Boom: Boom Type: Crane Data After Testing: Mass Held: Engineering Efficiency Make sure the Mass Held and Mass of the Boom are in parallel units. Divide the Mass Held by the Mass of the Boom. The units will cancel out and you will be left with a percentage. Show all work and results below. _ Mass Held___ x 100% _____________ x 100% Efficiency = E = Mass of Boom = = Engineering Efficiency:

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