Unit 2: The Engineering Design Process Lesson 1: The ... International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design

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  • 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design

    Unit 2: The Engineering Design Process

    Lesson 1: The Engineering Design Process

    Lesson Snapshot Big Idea: The Engineering Design process is a systematic, iterative problem solving method which produces solutions to meet human wants and desires. Teachers Note: Big ideas should be made explicit to students by writing them on the board and/or reading them aloud. For deeper understanding, have students write the Big Idea in their own Engineering Design Journal (EDJ), using their own words if they choose. Purpose of Lesson: Unit 2, Lesson 1 introduces students to the engineering design process and requires that they apply it. Lesson Duration: Eight (8) hours. Activity Highlights Engagement: Students will watch a view entitled, How I Harnessed the Wind, from www.ted.com. Students will record notes on the process used in the video to harness the wind. The teacher will lead a discussion on the process that was used by William Kamkwamba to harness the wind. Exploration: Given the steps of the engineering design process on note cards (one step per card) (File 2.1.1 or File 2.1.2), students will attempt to place the steps in the correct order. Students will use prior knowledge and the sequence demonstrated in the engagement example to determine the order. The teacher will give feedback and prompt students to justify their order. Explanation: The teacher presents the students with the correct sequence and delivers a presentation on the Engineering Design Process (Presentation 2.1.1). Students will record notes in their engineering design journals (EDJ). A graphic organizer can be used to help students transition to the expanded Engineering Design Process (File 2.1.3). The teacher will deliver a presentation on the Pythagorean Theorem (Presentation 2.1.2), and use the Pythagorean Theorem Review (File 2.1.4) to work with students. Additional instructional resources are available in (Video 2.1.3). Extension: Students will apply the steps of the engineering design process to a simple design problem (File 2.1.5). Students will document the Engineering Design process in their EDJ. Student will apply mathematical concepts related to the design challenge (File 2.1.5 and File 2.1.6). Teacher Note: The data collected during the testing/evaluation of the design challenge will be used in Unit 2, Lesson 2. The teacher should make sure all data is recorded. Evaluation: Student knowledge, skills, and attitudes are assessed using selected response items, brief constructed response items, and performance rubrics for class participation, discussion, and design briefs.

  • 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design

    Unit 2: The Engineering Design Process

    Lesson 1: The Engineering Design Process

    Lesson Overview Lesson Duration

    Eight (8) hours.

    Standards/Benchmarks Technology: Standards for Technological Literacy (STL) (ITEA/ITEEA, 2000/2002/2007)

    STL 8 Understanding the attributes of design

    H The design process includes defining a problem, brainstorming, researching and generating ideas, identifying criteria and specifying constraints, exploring possibilities, selecting an approach, developing a design proposal, making a model or prototype, testing and evaluating the design using specifications, refining the design, creating or making it, and communicating processes and results.

    Mathematics: Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (NCTM, 2000)2 Algebra Standard Represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures using algebraic symbols

    use symbolic algebra to represent and explain mathematical relationships (NCTM-5L)

    Geometry Standard Use visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling to solve problems

    visualize three-dimensional objects and spaces from different perspectives and analyze their cross sections; (NCTM-11X)

    Learning Objectives Students will learn to:

    1. Apply the steps of the design process including defining a problem, brainstorming, researching and generating ideas, identifying criteria and specifying constraints, exploring possibilities, selecting an approach, developing a design proposal, making a model or prototype, testing, and communicating results.

    2. Use symbolic algebra to represent and explain mathematical relationships Contribute to a group endeavor by offering useful ideas, supporting the efforts of others, and focusing on the task.

    3. Visualize three-dimensional objects and spaces from different perspectives and analyze their cross sections.

    4. Contribute to a group endeavor by offering useful ideas, supporting the efforts of others, and focusing on the task.

    5. Work safely and accurately with a variety of tools, machines, and materials. 6. Actively participate in group discussions, ideation exercises, and debates.

  • 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design

    Resource Materials Audiovisual Materials

    Teacher Domain. (n.d.). What is the design process? Retrieved from http://www.teachersdomain.org/resource/phy03.sci.engin.design.desprocess/

    NASASciFiles. (n.d.). Engineering design process. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6PJTlzY0Aak

    Design Squad. (n.d.). Paper table challenge (2:15). Retrieved from http://pbskids.org/designsquad/video/index.html

    How I Harnessed the Wind. (2012). How I Harnessed the Wind. Retrieved from: www.ted.com

    Internet Search Terms and Suggested Sites

    Engineering design process

    Teachenginering. (n.d.). Engineering design process. Retrieved from http://www.teachengineering.org/engrdesignprocess.php

    NASA. (n.d.). Engineering design process. Retrieved from http://www.nasa.gov/audience/foreducators/plantgrowth/reference/Eng_Design_5-12.html

    Required Knowledge and/or Skills Students should be able to search for information on the Internet and know how to use word-processing and presentation software. Students should know how to safely use hot glue guns and basic prototyping materials and equipment (rulers, knives, etc.). Student Assessment Tools and/or Methods Assessment Instrument - Quiz (Pre-/Post-Content Knowledge Questions). 1. The Scientific Method is a/an:

    a. undefined linear procedure b. defined circular procedure c. undefined circular procedure d. defined linear procedure

    2. The Engineering Design Process follows:

    a. a defined circular path b. a defined linear path c. an undefined circular path d. an undefined linear path

    3. In science, you form a hypothesis; in engineering, you:

    a. identify criteria b. define a problem c. brainstorm d. build a prototype

    4. In science, you report your results; in engineering, you:

    a. communicate results b. define a problem c. brainstorm d. build a prototype

  • 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design

    5. A systematic application of mathematical, scientific and technical principles is:

    a. sociological design b. scientific design c. engineering design d. psychological design

    6. By defining the problem, the designer clearly identifies what humans:

    a. like or want b. like and want c. like and dont like d. need or want

    7. The process of checking to see if a solution to a problem already exists is called:

    a. research b. brainstorming c. testing d. optimizing

    8. A prototype is a model that:

    a. looks exactly as the final solution would but does not function b. performs exactly as the final solution would c. does not meet the stated criteria d. does not meet the stated constraints

    9. Design portfolios, design journals, drawings and schematics are all used to:

    a. evaluate b. communicate c. test d. optimize

    Assessment Instrument - Brief Constructed Response (BCR) Students are expected to respond to one of the questions described below. Students should provide examples to clarify their response.

    1. Compare and contrast the Scientific Method to the Engineering Design Process. 2. Briefly review the steps of the Engineering Design Process and how the process itself

    is iterative.

    BCR Rubric Category Below Average Average Excellent

    Understanding Response demonstrates an implied, partial, or superficial under-standing of the question.

    Response is written technically and precisely. The answer demonstrates understanding of the topic.

    Response is written technically and precisely. The answer demonstrates understanding of the topic and sites specific examples.

    Focus Response lacks transitional

    Response addresses the question,

    Response addresses the question, sites

  • 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design

    information to show the relationship between the content and the support to the question.

    includes pertinent information and remains focused on the topic.

    specific examples, includes pertinent information and remains focused on the topic. Details are clearly stated and do not detract from the response.

    Use of Related Information

    Response uses minimal supporting information to clarify or extend meaning.

    Response uses expressed and/or implied supporting information that clarifies or extends meaning.

    Response uses clear and concise examples as well as supporting information that clarifies or extends meaning.

  • 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design

    Unit 2: The Engineering Design Process

    Lesson 1: The Engineering Design Process

    5-E Lesson Plan

    Engagement The teacher will show students the video: How I Harnessed the Wind found at http://www.ted.com/. The teacher will ask the students to record what steps William Kamkwamba used to solve a problem. Students may refer to the 5-step design process as an organizational tool (EbD Engineering Design Process). The class will discuss how the problem was solved using the design process. The teacher will explain that as we face more complex problems, we need to follow a more detailed design process. Teacher Note: It is recommended that the teacher downloads the video prior to teaching the lesson. If this video is not available, choose another design challenge clip. The emphasis is on students watching engineers and/or students working on a design challenge so that they can reflect on the process. Regardless of the video, the teacher should provide guidance when sequencing the steps in the Engineering Design Process. Exploration Option #1: Students research the Engineering Design Process and place the steps in the proper order (File 2.1.1). The teacher will circulate around the room and provide feedback to students as needed. The teacher should prompt students to justify the placement of a particular step. Option #2: The teacher supplies the students with a set of index cards with each step of the design process written on one card (total of 12 cards in each set File 2.1.2). Students, working in groups of two, will attempt to correctly sequence the steps in the engineering design process. The teacher will circulate around the room and provide feedback to students as needed. The teacher should prompt students to justify the placement of a particular step. Explanation The student takes notes in their EDJs on the content delivered by the teacher and actively participates throughout the presentation. The teacher, involving students in the following discussions as they contribute their experiences from the Engagement and Exploration activities along with any prior knowledge they may have about the subject, will deliver a presentation on the Engineering Design process as a systematic, iterative problem solving method which produces solutions to meet human wants and desires (Presentation 2.1.1): The teacher may present or ask students to present the correct sequence of the

    Engineering Design Process, while other students self check their index cards. Defines Science as the study of the natural world and how the natural world works,

    based on observable physical evidence. Defines Technology as the application of knowledge to solve practical problems or to

    change/manipulate the human environment. Explains that the Scientific Method is the process of discovery and demonstration, which

    generally involves the observation of phenomena, the formulation of a hypothesis concerning the phenomena, experimentation to demonstrate the truth or falseness of the hypothesis, and a conclusion that validates or modifies the hypothesis.

  • 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design

    Explains what Engineering Design is a systematic, iterative problem solving method which produces solutions to meet human wants and desires. Further it, systematically applies mathematical, scientific and technical principles, to yield tangible end products that meet our needs and desires. The process of engineering design takes into account a number of factors. Explains that as problems become more complex, so do the processes used to solve them.

    Reminds students that each step in the Engineering Design Process should be recorded in their Engineering Design Journal.

    Explains the steps of the Engineering Design Process a. Defining the Problem b. Brainstorm Solutions c. Research Ideas/Explore Possibilities d. Specify Constraints and Identifying Criteria e. Consider Alternative Solutions f. Selecting an Approach g. Developing a Written Design Proposal h. Making a Model/Prototype i. Testing and Evaluating j. Refine/Improve k. Create/Make Product l. Communicate the Results

    At the conclusion of the Explanation, the teacher will share the expanded design process graphic organizer (File 2.1.3). This information graphically showcases the transition to the expanded engineering design process. Have students copy or paste this information in their EDJ. The teacher will deliver a presentation on the Pythagorean Theorem (Presentation 2.1.2). Students will record notes and answer practice problems in their EDJ. The teacher will have students complete the Crane Strain - Pythagorean Theorem Review (File 2.1.4) in class or for homework. The teacher can use the video based instruction/support entitled Pythagorean Theorem Video (Video 2.1.3). Extension The teacher will present the crane strain design brief (File 2.1.5). Students, working in small groups, will design and build a crane that supports the greatest weight. Students will apply the steps of the Engineering Design Process to solve the pro...

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