Foundations of Technology, Third Edition / Technology, Engineering, and Design © 2011 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association, STEM

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul> <p>Foundations of Technology, Third Edition / Technology, Engineering, and Design 2011 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association, STEM Center for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology, Third Edition / Technology, Engineering, and Design Presentation 3.2.1 Slide 2 2011 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association, STEM Center for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology 2011 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association, STEM Center for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology What is a System? Open Systems Closed Systems Universal Systems Model Proper Operation Of Systems Slide 3 2011 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association, STEM Center for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology What is a system? A system is a group of interrelated components designed collectively to achieve a desired goal. Systems are used in a number of ways in technology and appear in many aspects of daily life, such as solar systems, political systems and technological systems. Slide 4 2011 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association, STEM Center for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology Information Email Message Tools/Machi nes Modem Computer People Sender of message Materials Data Plastic for computer Wiring for CPU/Monitor Production Typing of message Sending of data Management Server/modem access Privacy Issues Expected Desired Person receives email Unexpected Undesired Email is sent to wrong person INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT Email answered Email not answered Return email stating undeliverable FEEDBACK Example of Email System Slide 5 2011 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association, STEM Center for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology Open Systems An open-loop system has no feedback path and requires human intervention. An example of an open loop system is a microwave oven that requires the person to put in a time to cook the food. There is no feedback to say the food is actually cooked thoroughly when the microwave turns off, the person may have to put in more time or the food may be overcooked. INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT Slide 6 2011 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association, STEM Center for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology Closed Systems A system that uses feedback from the output to control the input. An example of a closed-loop system is the heating system in a home, which has a thermostat to provide feedback when the heat needs to be turned on and off. INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT FEEDBACK Slide 7 2011 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association, STEM Center for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology Universal Systems Model Every system that exists can be broken down using the universal systems model. INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT FEEDBACK Slide 8 2011 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association, STEM Center for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology Input Inputs consist of the resources that flow into a technological system. Inputs include: People Materials Tools and/or Machines Energy Information Capital Time INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT FEEDBACK Slide 9 2011 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association, STEM Center for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology Inputs People: determine the need, solutions to the problems and how the inputs will be used to obtain the output Information: The people must have background knowledge of math and science to appropriately design solutions to problems and carry out the solutions. Materials: Natural or man made materials go into the creation of the output Machines and/or Tools: are needed to turn raw materials or industrial materials into final solutions Energy: allows work to be carried out throughout the system Capital: the money and land needed to create the output Time: needed to design, create and assess the solution INPUT PEOPLE INFORMATION MATERIALS MACHINES/ TOOLS ENERGY CAPITAL TIME INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT FEEDBACK Slide 10 2011 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association, STEM Center for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology Process The process is the systematic sequence of actions that combines resources to produce an output. Processes can be categorized into: Problem Solving: process which works through problem identification to selecting a final solution Production: process which involves the creation of the product or structure Management: controlling and managing the inputs and other process involved in the system. INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT FEEDBACK PROCESS PROBLEM SOLVING PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT Slide 11 2011 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association, STEM Center for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology Output The output is the end result, which can have either a positive or negative impact. Outputs can take the following forms: Unexpected Desired Expected Desired Unexpected Undesired Expected Undesired INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT FEEDBACK OUTPUT UNEXPECTED DESIRED EXPECTED DESIRED UNEXPECTED UNDESIRED EXPECTED UNDESIRED Slide 12 2011 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association, STEM Center for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology Feedback Feedback is information used to monitor or control a system. The feedback loop allows the system to make necessary adjustments during operation New and frequent users need to execute systems so that they function in the way they were designed to avoid malfunctions or safety issues. INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT FEEDBACK Slide 13 2011 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association, STEM Center for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology The stability of a technological system is influenced by all of the components in the system, especially those in the feedback loop. Equally important, is the proper use of systems. INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT FEEDBACK Slide 14 2011 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association, STEM Center for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology New and frequent users need to operate systems so that they function in the way they were designed to avoid malfunctions or safety issues. Consider the cell phone example from the engagement, have you witnessed or have you improperly operated a cell phone? What happened? How could a user error produce an unexpected output? Slide 15 References Text Needed 2011 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association, STEM Center for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology, Third Edition / Technology, Engineering, and Design </p>