the age of realism the literature of the late nineteenth century

Download The Age of Realism The Literature of the Late Nineteenth Century

Post on 16-Dec-2015

214 views

Category:

Documents

1 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Slide 1
  • The Age of Realism The Literature of the Late Nineteenth Century
  • Slide 2
  • The Age of Realism: Marked by the End of the Civil War: 1861-1865 Cost of the Civil WarCost of the Civil War The Human CostThe Human Cost 1,094,543 Casualties1,094,543 Casualties The North lost one out of tenThe North lost one out of ten 110,100 in battle110,100 in battle 224,580 to disease224,580 to disease The South lost one out of fourThe South lost one out of four 94,000 in battle94,000 in battle 64,000 to disease64,000 to disease Two percent of US population died in the Civil War, with only WWII claiming more lives;Two percent of US population died in the Civil War, with only WWII claiming more lives; Economic CostEconomic Cost Estimated at 6.6 billion, which would be 165 billion todayEstimated at 6.6 billion, which would be 165 billion today
  • Slide 3
  • Slide 4
  • Slide 5
  • Slide 6
  • Slide 7
  • By the end of the Civil War The Emancipation Proclamation and 13 th Amendment had abolished slaveryThe Emancipation Proclamation and 13 th Amendment had abolished slavery The industrial North had defeated the agrarian SouthThe industrial North had defeated the agrarian South Social order grew based on mass labor and mass consumption;Social order grew based on mass labor and mass consumption; Steam power replaced water powerSteam power replaced water power Machines replaced hand laborMachines replaced hand labor The Industrial Revolution had begunThe Industrial Revolution had begun
  • Slide 8
  • The Effects of The Industrial Revolution Migration from rural to urban areasMigration from rural to urban areas Independent, skilled workers replaced by semi-skilled laborers;Independent, skilled workers replaced by semi-skilled laborers; Large corporations were established, devaluing the personal relationship between management and workers or company and customers.Large corporations were established, devaluing the personal relationship between management and workers or company and customers.
  • Slide 9
  • Political Upheaval Political power shifted to the laboring classes;Political power shifted to the laboring classes; Political patronage and graft caused civic corruption;Political patronage and graft caused civic corruption; The power of the federal government expanded during the Civil War;The power of the federal government expanded during the Civil War; National conscription laws;National conscription laws; Federal income taxes levied;Federal income taxes levied; Paper money backed by federal government rather than individual states issued.Paper money backed by federal government rather than individual states issued.
  • Slide 10
  • Mass Communication and Migration Coast-to-coast communicationCoast-to-coast communication Pony Express (1860)10 daysPony Express (1860)10 days Telegraph (1861)just seconds to communicate across country Transatlantic telegraph cable (1866) allowed instant communicate with Europe Telephone patented (1867) By 1900, 1.3 million telephones in U.S. Coast-to-coast travel Transcontinental Railroad (1869) By 1889, coast-to-coast travel4 days
  • Slide 11
  • Transcontinental Railroad Samuel Morse: Inventor of the Telegraph Alexander Graham Bell
  • Slide 12
  • Effects of Transcontinental Mobility Increased commercial developmentIncreased commercial development Farm and ranching products available nation wideFarm and ranching products available nation wide National retail organizations undersold local shop keepersNational retail organizations undersold local shop keepers Richard Sears and Montgomery WardsRichard Sears and Montgomery Wards Ready-made goods and clothes less expensive than local, hand-produced waresReady-made goods and clothes less expensive than local, hand-produced wares Time zones reduced from 56 to 4 in 1883Time zones reduced from 56 to 4 in 1883
  • Slide 13
  • Other Social Changes Migration westward expanded the U.S. from the Atlantic to the PacificMigration westward expanded the U.S. from the Atlantic to the Pacific Native American populations displaced and subjugated;Native American populations displaced and subjugated; Growth of IndustryGrowth of Industry Steelmaking, the nations dominant industrySteelmaking, the nations dominant industry Alternating electrical current (1886)Alternating electrical current (1886) American petroleum industry beginsAmerican petroleum industry begins Growth of populationGrowth of population Total population doubled from 1870 to 1890Total population doubled from 1870 to 1890 National income quadrupledNational income quadrupled Gap between rich and poor widenedGap between rich and poor widened
  • Slide 14
  • Civil Rights Changed Reconstruction in the South ends by 1877Reconstruction in the South ends by 1877 Poll taxes and literacy tests disqualified black votersPoll taxes and literacy tests disqualified black voters Separate and unequal schools createdSeparate and unequal schools created White supremacy re-establishedWhite supremacy re-established Womens rights increaseWomens rights increase More women entered the workforceMore women entered the workforce All female colleges were formed: Vassar, Wellesley and SmithAll female colleges were formed: Vassar, Wellesley and Smith Women gained the right to vote in 1922Women gained the right to vote in 1922 Foreign immigration increasesForeign immigration increases By 1910, one-third of largest cities foreign-bornBy 1910, one-third of largest cities foreign-born Need for public education increasesNeed for public education increases The Morrill Acct of 1862land given to states for establishment of land-grant universitiesThe Morrill Acct of 1862land given to states for establishment of land-grant universities
  • Slide 15
  • Intellectual Revolution: Changes in Thinking brought about by Changes in Society Changes in scienceChanges in science Changes in psychologyChanges in psychology Changes in philosophyChanges in philosophy
  • Slide 16
  • Science: Charles Darwin Published The Origin of Species,Published The Origin of Species, Hypothesized that man is the product of evolution,Hypothesized that man is the product of evolution, Man is special not because God created him in His image,Man is special not because God created him in His image, but because man had successfully adapted to changing environmental conditionsbut because man had successfully adapted to changing environmental conditions and had passed on his survival-making characteristics to his progeny.and had passed on his survival-making characteristics to his progeny.
  • Slide 17
  • Psychology: Sigmund Freud Believed that the mind could be understood in terms of repressed urges, usually sexual; Theorized an unconscious system of ideas that governs human reactions and response; Id, Ego, and Super-ego
  • Slide 18
  • Philosophy: Karl Marx Explained human history as the result of class struggles;Explained human history as the result of class struggles; Human identity is defined by social context;Human identity is defined by social context; It is human nature to transform nature.It is human nature to transform nature.
  • Slide 19
  • Philosophy: American Pragmatism Truth is tested by its usefulness or practical consequences; Truth is a commodity accessible on the surface of things; Its perceptible to the senses and verifiable through experience; Permanent truths exist apart from the material worldthe mind of God, Platos ideal forms William James
  • Slide 20
  • From these social changes come two literary movements Realism,Realism, first begun as the local color movementfirst begun as the local color movement NaturalismNaturalism
  • Slide 21
  • Realism Begins in France, as realisme, a literary doctrine calling for reality and truth in the depiction of ordinary life.Begins in France, as realisme, a literary doctrine calling for reality and truth in the depiction of ordinary life. Grounded in the belief that there is an objective reality which can be portrayed with truth and accuracy as the goal;Grounded in the belief that there is an objective reality which can be portrayed with truth and accuracy as the goal; The writer does not select facts in accord with preconceived ideals, but rather sets down observations impartially and objectively.The writer does not select facts in accord with preconceived ideals, but rather sets down observations impartially and objectively.
  • Slide 22
  • A Reaction against Romanticism These authors sought to portray life as they saw it, insisting that the ordinary and local were just as suitable for art as the sublime. Nothing more and nothing less than the truthful treatment of material. William Dean Howells
  • Slide 23
  • Realism began in America as Local Color A synthesis of romantic plots and realistic descriptions of things;A synthesis of romantic plots and realistic descriptions of things; Definition of Local Color:Definition of Local Color: Literature that focuses on the characters, dialect, customs, topography, and other features particular to a specific region that exploits the speech, dress, mannerisms, and habits of that specific region.Literature that focuses on the characters, dialect, customs, topography, and other features particular to a specific region that exploits the speech, dress, mannerisms, and habits of that specific region.
  • Slide 24
  • Characteristics of Local Color

Recommended

View more >