chapter 29 the rise of modernism the late nineteenth century
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- Chapter 29 The Rise of Modernism The Late Nineteenth Century
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- Industrialization First industrial revolution c. 1750-1825 Mechanization of textiles with steam power Production of iron and its use in new building technologies Second industrial revolution c. 1875-1900 Mechanization of other industries using electricity Steel used in building created possibility of the high-rise structure.
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- Industrialization: Human Factors Migration of population to urban centres. Increase in size and number of cities. Decrease in the number of farms. Increase in size of remaining farms. More work in cities, especially in factories Urban working poor faced abysmal living and working conditions. No health care, weekends, job security, retirement
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- The City Increasing size of cities creates completely different landscape Decreasing amounts of vegetation, greenspacewithin city changes health of individuals Rise of air pollution City becomes map for peoples lives Working poor are born, live, and die within an area of a few city blocks The city determines ones loyalties, work, language, social network, etc.
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- The Communist Manifesto Published by Marx and Engels in 1848. Called for the urban working class to overthrow the capitalist system. Stated that economic forces determine historical change. Control of economy based on control of the means of production. Bourgeoisie controlled the means of productionthe rich get richer, the poor are exploited. Creation of theory of class conflict. The avante garde is a communist idea the vanguard of the revolution.
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- Imperialism Establishment of colonial empires all over the world by England, France, Spain, Holland, Germany. Economic Imperialism includes United States in China and Japan. Racial and National hierarchies determined the superiority of Europe and America over Africa and Asia. France controlled North Africa and Indochina; British were in India, Australia, much of Africa; the Dutch control Indonesia; Portugese and Spanish in Africa and South America; the Germans and Italians have colonies in Africa. Aboriginal art from these colonies is brought back to 19th century Europe and has a strong impact on artists there.
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- Modernity: The State of Being Modern The transient state of world contributes to peoples unease with present conditions. A sense of history becomes essentiala distinct past gives hope for a future. Art embraces modernity by becoming self- critical. Artists begin to embrace the idea of art as a process. Illusionism is rejected for social realism.
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- Modernism As an art movement, modernism seeks to capture the images and sensibility of the age. Involves the artist with the production and process of art. The artist becomes more important than the patron. It calls attention to the artwork as artworkthe fact that all painting is paint on a flat surface, before it is a person, bowl of fruit, etc. Modernism used art to call attention to art Clement Greenberg.
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- Artistic Style: Realism An attempt by artists to present what is real in their art. Overt rejection of all traditional subject matter. No history painting, religious works, heroic battles, ancient subjects. Show me an angel and Ill paint one Courbet. No allegories, angels, gods, goddesses, Socrates, Homer, Caesar. Attention given to non-classical, non-historic subjects.
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- Realism -How to use this word When discussing a painting, NEVER use the word realistic to describe how closely it imitates the natural world. Use illusionistic to describe a painting that seems to look much what one would see in real life or in a photograph.
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- 29-1 Courbet, The Stonebreakers, 1849
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- 29-2 Courbet, Burial at Ornans, 1849
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- 29-3 Millet The Gleaners,1857
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- 29-6 Daumier, Third Class Carriage,1862
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- The Salon An art exhibit held annually in Paris Judged by members of the Academie Francaise Source of lucrative commissions. Paintings purchased by bougeois patrons. Rejected paintings were marked refus on back of canvas Artists careers were made or broken by acceptance/rejection. Manet did have his work accepted, may have reflected his social class. Rules seemed arbitrary.
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- The Salon des Refuss In 1863, works of artists not accepted by the Salon jury were given their own (separate) showing. The Salon des Refuss included such works by Manet as the Djeuner sur lHerbe (Luncheon on the Grass) and Olympia. People were so shocked by these works, and later by the Impressionists, that people were warned to stay away from the exhibit.
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- 29-7 Manet, Luncheon on the Grass, 1863
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- 29-7 Manet, Olympe, 1865 Refus!
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- 29-10 Rosa Bonheur The Horse Fair, 1853-55
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- 29-14 John Everett Millais, Ophelia,1852
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- Impressionism In 1874 the Independent Society of Painters and Sculptors mounted their own exhibition in opposition to the Salon (165 works, 33 artists). Eight Impressionist exhibits were held until 1886. Berthe Morisot was the only artist to have work in every Impressionist exhibit. Impressionism was a derogatory term applied to the work of these artists.
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- 29-17 Monet, Impression: Sunrise, 1872
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- 29-18 Monet Saint LazareTrain Station, 1877
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- 29-19 Caillebotte, Paris: A Rainy Day
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- 29-20 Edgar Degas Viscount Lepic and His Daughters, 1873
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- 29-25 Edgar Degas The Dance Class
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- 29-27 Berthe Morisot Villa at the Seaside, 1874
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- 29-28 Claude Monet Rouen Cathedral, 1892-1894z
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- 29-29 Edgar Degas, The Tub
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- 29-30 Mary Cassatt, The Bath, 1892
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- Two Bathers
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- 29-31 Henri de Toulouse Lautrec At the Moulin Rouge 1892-5
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- Post-Impressionism Catch-all term for the art of Van Gogh, Gaugin, Seurat, Czanne, etc. Systematic study of line, colour, pattern, and form. Initial acceptance of Impressionism by these artists. Eventual rejection of Impressionism as too transitory, a dead endno ability to draw.
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- 29-33 Van Gogh, The Night Caf,1888
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- 29-34 Van Gogh, Starry Night,1889
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- 29-35 Gaugin The Vision after the Sermon, 1888
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- 29-37 Georges Seurat Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, 1897
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- 29-39 Czanne Monte Sainte Victoire, 1902-1904
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- The Avant-Garde Originally used to denote artistic works that were ahead of their time (borrowed from military, political usage). Artistic conventionsthe academicconsistently rejected in each successive art movement of the late 19th century. Awareness of the medium Self awareness of artist Search for the next thingthe present is already past Increasing disengagement from the publicthus rejecting the modernist as part of social world of the present.
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- The Symbolists Interpretation of what the artist sees; not a re- presentation of what he/she sees. The fact must be transformed into a symbol of the inner idea or experience of the fact. To see beyond the real, to see the deeper significance of events, ideas, things. Art as experience of the interior life, wholly alternate, wholly other than reality. 1899 Sigmund Freud publishes The Interpretation of Dreams. "I believe only in what I do not see." Gustave Moreau. Antithetical to Courbet and the Realists.
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- 29-45 Edvard Munch The Scream (The Cry), 1893
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- Georges Braque, Harbour, 1904
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- Georges Braque, Harbour in Normandy
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- Matisse, The Bathers
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- Matisse, The Dance
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- Kandinsky, Composition IV
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- Picasso, Les Demoiselles dAvignon
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- Picasso, Ma Jolie
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