Swimming Pool Design & Build

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<p>Swimming Pools</p> <p>Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins</p> <p>Swimming Pools</p> <p>Fourth edition</p> <p>Philip H Perkins</p> <p>London and New York</p> <p>Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins</p> <p>This edition published in 2000 by E &amp; FN Spon 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001 This edition published in the Taylor &amp; Francis e-Library, 2003.</p> <p>E &amp; FN Spon is an imprint of the Taylor &amp; Francis GroupFirst edition 1971 Second edition 1978 Third edition 1988 (Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd) 2000 Philip H Perkins All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions that may be made.</p> <p>British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication DataA catalog record for this book has been requested ISBN 0-203-47788-X Master e-book ISBN</p> <p>ISBN 0-203-78612-2 (Adobe eReader Format) ISBN 0-419-23590-6 (Print Edition)</p> <p>Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins</p> <p>Contents</p> <p>Preface 1 The planning and layout of swimming pools General considerations 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 Introduction Basic requirements for all swimming pools Pools for private houses, clubs, hotels and schools Covered pools for private houses, hotels, clubs and schools Teaching/learner pools Public swimming pools Floor gradients The drainage of walkways and wet areas Hydrotherapy pools Pools used for sub-aqua activities Facilities for the disabled Swimming pools with movable floors Wave-making machines</p> <p>Recommended procedure for getting a pool built: contracts and dealing with disputes 1.14 Introduction 1.15 Contracts: how to proceed 1.16 Dealing with disputes Further reading 2 Basic characteristics of the materials used in the construction of swimming pools 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Portland cements 2.3 Aggregates from natural sources for concrete and mortar 2.4 Admixtures</p> <p>Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins</p> <p>2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17</p> <p>Additions Water for mixing concrete, mortar and grout Steel reinforcement Spacers Non-ferrous metals Bimetallic corrosion Curing compounds for concrete and mortar Polymers Reactive resins Joint fillers Joint sealants Ceramic tiles British standards and euro codes</p> <p>References Further reading 3 Factors affecting the durability of reinforced concrete and cement-based materials used in the construction of swimming pools 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Introduction Corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete Carbonation of concrete Chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcement Deterioration of the concrete Chemical attack on cement-based mortar Swimming pool water and chemicals used in water treatment Moorland water and the Langelier Index Alkali-silica reaction</p> <p>Further reading 4 Construction of swimming pool shells in insitu reinforced concrete 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 Introduction Site investigations Under-drainage of site Flotation (uplift) of the pool shell General comments on design and construction Concrete construction in cold weather Concrete construction in hot weather Plastic cracking Thermal contraction cracking Swimming pools with floor slabs supported on the ground Construction of the walls of the pool</p> <p>Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins</p> <p>4.12 Construction of walkway slabs and floors of wet changing areas 4.13 Curing the concrete floor and walls of the pool 4.14 Construction of suspended pool shells 4.15 Thermal insulation of swimming pool shells 4.16 Under-water lighting and under-water windows Further reading 5 Construction of swimming pool shells in reinforced sprayed concrete and other materials Reinforced sprayed concrete (shotcrete) 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 Introduction Design and specification Methods of application Execution of the work Thermal insulation Pipework Testing for watertightness Under-water lighting</p> <p>Swimming pools constructed with reinforced hollow concrete block walls and insitu reinforced concrete floor 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 Introduction Construction of the floor Construction of the walls Pipework Under-water lighting Curing the concrete and protecting the blockwork Testing for watertightness Back-filling around the walls Thermal insulation</p> <p>Sandwich type construction with insitu reinforced concrete core wall and concrete blocks as permanent form work 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 5.25 Introduction Construction of the floor Pipework Construction of the walls Under-water lighting Finishes to floor and walls Testing for watertightness Back-filling around the walls</p> <p>Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins</p> <p>5.26 Thermal insulation Other methods of construction 5.27 5.28 5.29 5.30 5.31 5.32 5.33 General comments Pools constructed with mass (gravity) type walls Curing the concrete Testing for watertightness Pools constructed in very stable ground such as chalk or rock Pools constructed of precast post-tensioned concrete units Pool shells of steel</p> <p>Further reading 6 External works 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 General considerations Paving Surface water drainage Walling</p> <p>Further reading 7 Finishing the pool shell and associated structures; problems with pool hall roofs Finishing the pool shell and associated structures 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 Cement-sand rendering to insitu concrete walls Cement-sand rendering to sprayed concrete walls Cement-sand rendering to concrete block walls Cement-sand screeds on insitu concrete floors Cement-sand screeds on sprayed concrete floors Ceramic tiles and mosaic Walkways and wet changing areas Testing the completed tiling Marbelite Coatings and paints Sheet linings to swimming pools Glass-fibre polyester resin linings Finishes to walls of pool halls</p> <p>The roofs of swimming pool halls 7.14 General considerations 7.15 Pressurised roof voids 7.16 The warm-deck roof Further reading</p> <p>Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins</p> <p>8</p> <p>Water circulation and water treatment Water circulation 8.1 Flow-through pools 8.2 Pools where the pool water is in continuous circulation 8.3 Ducts for pipework Water treatment 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15 Layout of treatment plant Filtration and filters Chemical dosing of the pool water The disinfection of pool water Chlorination Ozone Bromine Chlorine dioxide Metallic ions (silver and copper) Ultra-violet radiation The base-exchange process for softening pool water Sulphates in swimming pool water</p> <p>Further reading 9 Notes on heating swimming pools and energy conservation 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Heating open-air swimming pools Heating the water in indoor swimming pools Heating and ventilation of pool halls and adjoining areas Solar heating of swimming pools</p> <p>Further reading 10 Maintenance and repairs to swimming pools Maintenance of swimming pools 10.1 General considerations 10.2 Routine supervision: smaller pools 10.3 Shut-down periods 10.4 Algal growths: prevention and removal 10.5 Foot infections Repairs to external works: paving 10.6 Remedial work to insitu concrete paving for pedestrians 10.7 Remedial work to insitu concrete paving for light commercial vehicles 10.8 Remedial work for precast concrete flag paving</p> <p>Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins</p> <p>10.9 10.10 10.11 10.12</p> <p>Remedial work to precast concrete block paving Remedial work to clay pavers Remedial work to slippery paving Preventing trips and falls</p> <p>Repairs to external works: walling 10.13 Remedial work to free-standing walls 10.14 Remedial work to earth-retaining walls Remedial work to pools under construction 10.15 10.16 10.17 10.18 10.19 General comments Remedial work to thermal contraction cracks Remedial work to drying shrinkage cracks Remedial work to honeycombed concrete Inadequate concrete cover to the reinforcement</p> <p>Remedial work to existing pools: tracing leaks and investigations 10.20 Introduction 10.21 Tracing leaks 10.22 General investigations Remedial work to existing pools: repairs following leak tracing and investigations 10.23 10.24 10.25 10.26 Remedial work to leakage Improving support to the pool floor Structural lining to the pool shell Remedial work to finishes</p> <p>Further reading Appendix 1 Conversion factors and coefficients Appendix 2 Testing swimming pools shells, walkway slabs and other wet areas for watertightness. Commissioning swimming pools Introduction Testing new pools Testing existing pools The leakage test procedure General comments on testing Watertightness test for walkway slabs and other wet areas Commissioning swimming pools (filling and emptying) Appendix 3 Investigations, sampling and testing General considerations</p> <p>Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins</p> <p>Sampling and laboratory testing Cover-meter survey Appendix 4 The consultant/designer as an expert witness Introduction The form of the Experts Report The expert witness and the Construction Act 1996 Appendix 5 Notes on safety in swimming pools Introduction Water depths for diving Signs for water depths in the pool Other safety signs Outlets for water in the pool floor Water slides and play equipment Slipping and tripping on floors of walkways, changing rooms etc. Chemicals in water treatment Appendix 6 List of organisations relevant to this book</p> <p>Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins</p> <p>Preface</p> <p>Since the third edition of this book was published in 1988 there have been no startling changes in the materials used for the construction of swimming pools. A similar comment can be made about the design of reinforced concrete swimming pool shells. The number of swimming pools has continued to increase both in the public and private sectors. This is particularly so with private club leisure centres which offer a wide range of activities. There has been significant developments in the field of National Specifications and Code of Practice relating to construction due to the intensive work on the preparation of Euro Standards and Codes and the issue of Directives from the EEC. The latter set out minimum quality standards for a wide range of constructional materials, and establish the responsibility of suppliers and designers. Of particular importance are The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994 which became completely effective in December 1995. These Regulations make people assess risks and take precautions rather than waiting to deal with problems when they occur. They target the health and safety of those who build, maintain, install and demolish buildings and plant. The Construction Products Regulations came into force at the end of 1991 to implement the Construction Products Directive. The potential scope of the Regulations is very wide indeed as they are applicable to all types of product which are intended for permanent incorporation in buildings and civil engineering works. The Regulations provide for the application of the European Community regulatory markthe CE markto construction products. The Building Research Establishment Information Paper IP. 11/93 gives information on Ecolabelling of building materials and building products. The British Standards Institution emphasise that the Kite Mark will continue to ensure that the level of quality is above the minimum legal requirements. Health and Safety Regulations have been extended and tightened up and there is increasing awareness of the need for a more enlightened and professional approach to treatment of swimming pool water. The Committee which produced the publications for the Department of the Environment on the purification of swimming pool water is no longer in existence. It has virtually been replaced by the independent Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group.</p> <p>Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins</p> <p>It is important to observe recognised safety precautions when using certain materials, and also all types of plant and equipment. Concrete itself is not a hazardous material; however, Portland cement when mixed with water is highly alkaline (it has a pH of about 13.5) and is considered a caustic alkali. It can cause burns to the skin, particularly to people who are vulnerable to dermatitis. A safety warning is included as an Appendix in all British Standards for Portland cement. It recommends that precautions be taken to prevent dry cement entering the eyes, nose or mouth, and prevent skin contact with wet cement. Polymer resins are now widely used in construction and there are hazards associated with the use of some of these compounds. Users should obtain information from the manufacturers and be aware of the requirements of the publications of the Health and Safety Executive relating to the use of substances hazardous to health. The corrosion of steel reinforcement continues to be the number one cause of deterioration in reinforced concrete structures. Research Focus, No. 37, May 1999, states that: Corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete structuresis estimated to be costing the UK 550 million a year. Many of these structures continue to require maintenance or replacement It is therefore surprising that the protection of rebars by properly formulated and applied epoxy resin coatings (see BS 7293 and ASTM Specification A775) is still only used on a comparatively small scale in the UK. The author acknowledges with gratitude the encouragement, and many useful comments, he has received from his wife. He also records the help he has been given by numerous people, organisations and firms, and in particular, David Butler of the Sports Council, Andrew Alphick of the Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group, Ralph Riley of the Institute of Baths and Recreation Management, Geoffrey Roberts and Jim Gordon of Buckingham Swimming Pools Ltd.</p> <p>Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins</p> <p>Chapter 1</p> <p>The planning and layout of swimming pools</p> <p>GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS</p> <p>1.1 IntroductionIn the United Kingdom, the construction of the shell of a swimming pool (without ancillary buildings such as plant house, changing rooms etc.) is unlikely to require a Building Permit under the Building Regulations, but planning permission may be required. It is therefore advisable for any one wishing to build a swimming pool to consult their Local Authority, and also the water supply company as there may be special requirements, such as metering of the supply, restriction on the amount of water used etc. While there are regulations relating to swimming pools open to the public, the legal control over the purity of water in pools for private houses, clubs an...</p>