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South Sudan and Sudan:. Potential T ransboundary W ater I ssues Caused by the Forming of the World’s Youngest Country. Johnny Sullivan and Dave Christiansen. Overview. July 9, 2011: South Sudan secedes from Sudan Culmination of decades of fighting Can new nation succeed? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


South Sudan

South Sudan and Sudan:Potential Transboundary Water Issues Caused by the Forming of the Worlds Youngest CountryJohnny Sullivan and Dave ChristiansenOverviewJuly 9, 2011: South Sudan secedes from SudanCulmination of decades of fightingCan new nation succeed?What water issues does it face?

+Geographical Overview

EthiopiaEritreaEgyptChadCentral African Republic

CongoLibyaDR CongoUgandaKenya+Geographical Overview

PopulationArea (sq. mi)North Sudan30,894,000728,215 South Sudan8,260,490239,285+Ethnic Group Distribution


Religion Distribution+Language Distribution

+Infant Mortality Rate


Primary School Completion+

Poor Food Consumption+ConflictCivil war between Northern and Southern regions of SudanSudan granted independenceChristian/Traditional African southerners feared religious oppression from the Muslim north1972: Addis Ababa Agreement ended fighting, created Southern Sudan Autonomous Region

First Sudanese Civil War (1955-1972)+ConflictSecond Sudanese Civil War (1955-1972)Civil war between the Government of Sudan and rebel groups in southGovernment abolished the Addis Ababa Agreement, attempting to declare all of Sudan an Islamic stateFighting ended in 2005 with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement

+2005 Comprehensive Peace AgreementDocument designed to end Second Sudanese Civil War6 years of autonomy for South SudanReferendum in 201198% of South Sudanese approvedindependenceOfficially seceded on July 9, 2011

+2005 Comprehensive Peace AgreementExact location of border never decidedFrequent land allocation disputes80% of regions oil reserves located in South Sudan, but established administration in North SudanTalks to share oil 50/50, but never codifiedEither way, Sudan loses at least 1/3 of its oil revenueSouth Sudan considering circumventing Sudans oil infrastructure, working with Kenya

+Current State of Both CountriesWater Resources In terms of climate, South Sudan is in much better shape than Sudan

Main Sources of WaterSudan: Nile RiverSouth Sudan: Rainwater harvesting

SudanSouth SudanAverage Annual Rainfall (cm)10120+Current State of Both CountriesWater Resources In terms of infrastructure, Sudan is much more developed than South SudanSince the CPA in 2005, South Sudan has been working to build infrastructureThe Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation Not-for-profit OrganizationsWater for South Sudan

+Current State of Both CountriesEconomy The global financial crisis greatly affected the progress of South Sudan, bringing a halt to many infrastructure improvement programsConflictContinued conflict in the Darfur region and elsewhere in Sudan have created a great deal of uncertainty in the future of both countries

+Potential Future IssuesWater ResourcesSudan relies heavily on the White Nile River for water, which flows through South SudanSouth Sudan could exert influence over Sudan if dams were to be constructedCurrently, South Sudan is far too poor to accomplish thisHowever, if they are able to establish themselves, this could create potential for transboundary water issues+Potential Future IssuesWater ResourcesIf South Sudan decides to join the Nile Basin Initiative, more countries could be impacted than just SudanIf South Sudan sides with Sudan and Egypt, the status quo, which involves Egypt receiving a large percentage of the Niles water, will be continuedIf South Sudan sides with other upstream countries like Ethiopia, may tip the scales towards a more even distribution of the water.+Discussion QuestionsDo you think it likely that South Sudan will remain a sovereign nation, or will it dissolve due to a lack of resource infrastructure? How does the likelihood of another war affect this?If South Sudan were able to exert influence over Sudan by, for instance, constructing dams along the White Nile or circumventing Sudans oil distribution infrastructure, how do you think this would affect the region?Sudan is much more established in terms of infrastructure compared to South Sudan. Considering question 2, do you think Sudan would ever consider helping South Sudan develop their infrastructure with the hopes of deterring South Sudan from constructing dams, etc.?What role, if any, should the rest of the world play in this dispute?+


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