soil management, site selection. soil fertility

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Warren Roberts/George Kuepper Oklahoma Beginning Farmer & Rancher Program 2013 Horticulture #1: March 9


  • 1. Warren RobertsGeorge Kuepper

2. Soil Texture and Drainage Site Selection Soil Fertility & pH Fertilizers & Nutrients Soil Biology & Micro-Organisms Compost, Cover Crops and Green Manures Organic Farming 3. Sandy, Sandy Loam, Loam Light Soil (Not Really) Clay Heavy Soil (Not Really) Sandy Soils are Actually Heavy Clay Soils are Actually Light 4. Acre furrow slice Top plow layer over one acre Usually 6-7 inches deep Averages about 2 million lbs 5. Clay (0.001 0.002 mm) Silt (0.002 - 0.050 mm) Sand (0.050 - 2.00 mm) Gravel (>2.00 mm) 6. The portion of the soil volume occupied by airand water Ideally half air and half water Very Important for Plant Growth 7. Macro Pore (Large Spaces) Sands Micro Pore (Small Spaces) Clay 8. Gravity Primary force in sandy soils (large pores) Capillary Forces, Osmotic (Suction) Primary force in clay soils (small pores) 9. Saturation All pores filled Can become Anaerobic Field Capacity Drainage has ceased Capillary action holds remaining water Micro-pores may be full 10. 11. Most Desirable Loam Sandy Loam Loamy Sand Sandy Clay Loam Least Desirable Sand Wont hold water Clay Difficult to work 12. Well Drained Area Not in a flood plain Not in a low-lying area where water can accumulate Good air drainage Not subject to late spring frosts or early fall frosts Deep Soil Not overlying a rocky base Not overlying a clay base 13. Not Contaminated from Previous Years Not Contaminated by Neighbors Not Contaminated by Highways, Power LineRight-of-Ways 14. Easy to Access Easy to Irrigate Easy to Control Predators Deer, Raccoons, Feral Hogs, Coyotes, Humans 15. Organic Matter 16. Organic Matter 17. Holds Water Prevents ExcessDrying ImprovesDrainage Prevents Saturation Keeps Soil Aerobic Prevents Runoff Like a Sponge 18. Holds Nutrients Prevents Nutrient Loss Prevents Environmental Contamination 19. Improves Tilth Provides LargerPore Spaces forRoot Growth Allows for Air-WaterMovement 20. Wonderful 21. 50% Solid Matter 45% Mineral 5% Organic 50% Pore Space 25% Water 25% Air 22. 20 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 0 1 0220 0220 0220 0220 02Before20 02Aver ag e20 07 OM (%)20 0720 0720 0720After 0720 07Aver ag e 23. Supplies Nutrients to the Plant for Growth andDevelopment 24. Essential Plant Nutrients 16 (18) required for plantgrowth, development, and reproduction Macronutrients: (large quantities used by the plant) Micronutrients: (small quantities used by the plant ) 25. Carbon ( C ) Hydrogen ( H ) Oxygen ( O ) Primary Nitrogen ( N ) Phosphorus ( P ) Potassium ( K )Kalium Secondary Calcium (Ca) Magnesium ( Mg) Sulfur (S ) 26. Micro Iron ( Fe )Boron ( B )Copper ( Cu)Chlorine ( Cl )Manganese ( Mn )Molybdenum ( Mo)Zinc ( Zn )Cobalt ( Co )Nickel ( Ni ) 27. See Hopkins Cafe. Managed by My Cousin, Colonel Mo Cleaver 28. See Hopkins Cafe. Managed by My Cousin,Colonel Mo Cleaver. CHOPKNS Ca Fe Mg Bo Mn Cu Zn Co Mo Cl Ni 29. Definition: Inverse Concentration of Hydrogen IonConcentration, Expressed in Moles per Liter Practical Definition: Amount of Acid in the Soil pH goes up as H+ concentration goes down VERY Important, but Often Overlooked 30. Lane Agricultural Center - OSU 31. 5-10-15 13-13-13 34-0-0 18-46-0 0-0-62 0-46-0 32. N-P-K (Not Really) Actually N-P2O5-K2O 33. Soil Sampling and Soil Testing


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