Soil Testing, Soil Sampling, & Soil Fertility

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Warren Roberts Oklahoma Beginning Farmer & Rancher Program 2013 Horticulture #1: March 9

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  • 1.Warren RobertsGeorge Kuepper

2. Plants Soil 3. Nitrogen (N) Light Green Leaves, Older Leaves Phosphorus (P) Purple Leaves, Stunted Plants Potassium (K) Yellow Margins on Older Leaves 4. Micro Nutrients Stripes Mottling Chlorosis Bleached 5. Nitrogen (N) Dark Green Foliage, Poor Fruit Set Phosphorus (P) Iron, Zinc Deficiencies Potassium (K) Magnesium, Calcium Deficiencies 6. Nutrient Movement Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium 7. Soil Particles are Negatively Charged 8. Nitrogen Exists as NO3 Anion (Negative Charge) Does Not Bond with Soil Particles Moves Rapidly in Water Leaches Readily in Sandy Soils Leaches More Slowly in Clay Can be Lost in One Heavy Rain Sulfur Behaves Similarly to Nitrogen 9. 2010 2030 4050 60700022002200220022002Before20 02Aver age2007 N (lbs / acre)20072007200720After0720 07Aver age 10. 20 1015 2025 0 5 0220 0220 0220 0220 02 Before20 02Aver ag e20 07S (lbs / acre)20Desired Range 0720 0720 0720 After 0720 0Av 7er ag e 11. Phosphorus Bonds with Soil Iron, Aluminum Movement is Very Limited Movement is Very Slow Takes Months or Years to Move 12. 20 2040 6080 100 120 0 0220 0220 0220 0220 02Before20 0Av 2er ag e20 P Index 0720 Desired Range 0720 0720 0720After 0720 07Aver ag e 13. Potassium Has a Positive Charge Bonds to Negatively Charged Soil Moves Slightly Due to Water 14. 20 50100150200250 0 0220 0220 0220 0220 02Before20 0Av 2er ag e20 K Index 0720Desired Range 0720 0720 0720After 0720 07Aver ag e 15. 20 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.2 0 1 0220 0220 0220 0220 02Before20 02Aver ag e20 07 Zn (ppm)20 Desired Range 0720 0720 0720After 0720 07Aver ag e 16. 20 0.050.10.15 0.2 0.250.3 0 0220 0220 0220 0220 02 Before20 0Av 2er ag e20B (ppm) 0720Desired Range 0720 0720 0720 After 0720 07Aver ag e 17. 20 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.2 0 1 0220 0220 0220 0220 02Before20 02Aver ag e20 07 Copper (ppm)20 Desired Range 0720 0720 0720After 0720 07Aver ag e 18. N (pounds per acre)450400350 raw1raw2300 raw3raw4syn1250 syn2Poly. (raw1)200 Poly. (raw2)Poly. (raw3)150 Poly. (raw4)Poly. (syn1)Linear (syn2)1005000 5 1015 Sample Date 20 25 30 19. P (lbs per acre)14001200raw11000raw2raw3raw4800 syn1syn2Poly. (raw1)600 Poly. (raw2)Poly. (raw3)Poly. (raw4)400 Poly. (syn1)Poly. (syn2)2000 0 5 101520 25 30Samples Date 20. K (lbs per acre)900800700raw1raw2600 raw3raw4syn1500syn2Poly. (raw1)400 Poly. (raw2)Poly. (raw3)300 Poly. (raw4)Poly. (syn1)Poly. (syn2)20010000 5 1015 Sample Date 20 25 30 21. Results are Only as Good as the Sample 22. Random Variability 23. Depends on Soil Depends on Soil History Depends on Soil Treatments Usually 20 or more samples per field 24. Root Zone Plow Layer 25. Acid pH in Soil Add Lime 26. Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium phOrganicmatter345 174 5.5 1.14227 147 5.4 0.76213 176 5.2 1.01320 130 5.5 0.98417 171 5.7 1.48915 417 4.8 1.34 27. Dont Guess Soil Test Sample thoroughly 20 or moresamples per field Sample root zone normally 6 7inches 28. Warren Roberts

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