04060101 soil fertility improvement

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  1. 1. SOIL FERTILITY IMPROVEMENT Department of Agriculture In Service Training 30th May 2012 Valentine Michelo
  2. 2. CONTENT 1. TYPICAL SOIL PROFILE 2. WHAT IS SOIL FERTILITY? 3. QUALITIES OF A GOOD SOIL 4. SOIL DEGRADATION 5. FACTORS LIMITING GROWTH IN PLANTS 6. METHODS OF IMPROVING SOIL FERTILITY
  3. 3. Typical Soil Profile A Horizon (Top Soil) B Horizon (Sub Soil) C Horizon (Parent Material) Bed Rock 25 cm 75 cm 100 cm Litter
  4. 4. What is Soil Fertility? Capacity of soils to supply essential plant nutrients (plant food)in amounts and forms that a plant can easily take them up. A physically, chemically and biologically good soil medium is required for easy nutrient uptake by plants from the soil.
  5. 5. Qualities of a Fertile Soil Deep Enough for easy Root Penetration. Good structure for aeration, drainage. Favourable soil reaction (pH). For most crops a pH range of 5.5 6.5 is acceptable).
  6. 6. Qualities of a Fertile Soil Have good supply of available & reserve plant nutrients Able to store Soluble Nutrients Contain Sufficient Organic Matter(SOM)
  7. 7. What is meant by Soil Degradation? A situation where productivity of the soil declines.
  8. 8. Results of Soil Degradation
  9. 9. Causes of Soil Degradation.. Permanent Flooding Prolonged Heat (Kills the soil) Physical disturbance
  10. 10. Causes of Soil Degradation(Cont..) Leaching Nutrient removal through Harvests Soil Erosion
  11. 11. HEALTHY SOILS Fertile soils contain small living Plants & Animals ( Bacteria, Fungi, Worms etc). Earth worms
  12. 12. Factors Limiting Growth in Plants 1 pH (Soil Reaction). 2 Light 3 Atmosphere(Oxygen, Carbon dioxide & Humidity)
  13. 13. Factors Limiting Growth in Plants(Contd..) 4 Temperature 5 Nutrients/Plant Food
  14. 14. Methods of Improving Soil Fertility 1. Agro forestry 2. Biological Nitrogen Fixation(BNF) 3. Use of Artificial (Inorganic) Fertilizers
  15. 15. Drawbacks of Artificial Fertilizers Excess easily leached out of the soil Require Adequate knowhow: What to apply, Amounts to apply, How to apply, Timing of application. Expensive & May Not be Available Contain No Organic Matter
  16. 16. Methods of Improving Soil Fertility(Contd..) 4. Use of Organic Fertilizers/Manures (Plant & Animal Material)
  17. 17. Organic Fertilizers/Manures 1 Farm Yard Manure(FYM) 2 Green Manures/Improved Fallows 3 Crop Residues 4 Mulching
  18. 18. CONCLUSIONS Use of Soil Fertility Improvement techniques will NOT IN ITSELF raise yields. Other Practices also need to be applied: Improved Seed Good Farm Preparation Recommended Spacing Early Planting Pest & Weed Control Availability of Adequate Rains & Water for Irrigation
  19. 19. The End. Thank You..

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