04060101 soil fertility improvement
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- 1. SOIL FERTILITY IMPROVEMENT Department of Agriculture In Service Training 30th May 2012 Valentine Michelo
- 2. CONTENT 1. TYPICAL SOIL PROFILE 2. WHAT IS SOIL FERTILITY? 3. QUALITIES OF A GOOD SOIL 4. SOIL DEGRADATION 5. FACTORS LIMITING GROWTH IN PLANTS 6. METHODS OF IMPROVING SOIL FERTILITY
- 3. Typical Soil Profile A Horizon (Top Soil) B Horizon (Sub Soil) C Horizon (Parent Material) Bed Rock 25 cm 75 cm 100 cm Litter
- 4. What is Soil Fertility? Capacity of soils to supply essential plant nutrients (plant food)in amounts and forms that a plant can easily take them up. A physically, chemically and biologically good soil medium is required for easy nutrient uptake by plants from the soil.
- 5. Qualities of a Fertile Soil Deep Enough for easy Root Penetration. Good structure for aeration, drainage. Favourable soil reaction (pH). For most crops a pH range of 5.5 6.5 is acceptable).
- 6. Qualities of a Fertile Soil Have good supply of available & reserve plant nutrients Able to store Soluble Nutrients Contain Sufficient Organic Matter(SOM)
- 7. What is meant by Soil Degradation? A situation where productivity of the soil declines.
- 8. Results of Soil Degradation
- 9. Causes of Soil Degradation.. Permanent Flooding Prolonged Heat (Kills the soil) Physical disturbance
- 10. Causes of Soil Degradation(Cont..) Leaching Nutrient removal through Harvests Soil Erosion
- 11. HEALTHY SOILS Fertile soils contain small living Plants & Animals ( Bacteria, Fungi, Worms etc). Earth worms
- 12. Factors Limiting Growth in Plants 1 pH (Soil Reaction). 2 Light 3 Atmosphere(Oxygen, Carbon dioxide & Humidity)
- 13. Factors Limiting Growth in Plants(Contd..) 4 Temperature 5 Nutrients/Plant Food
- 14. Methods of Improving Soil Fertility 1. Agro forestry 2. Biological Nitrogen Fixation(BNF) 3. Use of Artificial (Inorganic) Fertilizers
- 15. Drawbacks of Artificial Fertilizers Excess easily leached out of the soil Require Adequate knowhow: What to apply, Amounts to apply, How to apply, Timing of application. Expensive & May Not be Available Contain No Organic Matter
- 16. Methods of Improving Soil Fertility(Contd..) 4. Use of Organic Fertilizers/Manures (Plant & Animal Material)
- 17. Organic Fertilizers/Manures 1 Farm Yard Manure(FYM) 2 Green Manures/Improved Fallows 3 Crop Residues 4 Mulching
- 18. CONCLUSIONS Use of Soil Fertility Improvement techniques will NOT IN ITSELF raise yields. Other Practices also need to be applied: Improved Seed Good Farm Preparation Recommended Spacing Early Planting Pest & Weed Control Availability of Adequate Rains & Water for Irrigation
- 19. The End. Thank You..
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