soil health management through carbon sequestration under changing climate

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WELCOMEMUNISH SHARMA Dept. Of Soil Science College of Agriculture C.S.K.H.P.K.V Palampur (H.P.)Soil Health Management Through Carbon Sequestration Under Changing Climate

2OUTLINEIntroductionClimate changeImpact of climate change on agricultureCarbon sequestrationAgricultural management strategies for carbon sequestrationConclusions.3INTRODUCTION

Carbon dioxide is one of the main greenhouse gases that is causing global warming and forcing climate change .4

GREENHOUSE GASESMETHANEHYDROFLUOROCARBONNITROUS OXIDEPERFLUOROCARBONSULPHUR HEXAFLUORIDE5

Increasing greenhouse gases trap heat energy6Outgoing Short waveChange in concentration of greenhouse gases since the industrial revolutionGASPre 1750 concentrationPresent concentrationPercent increase since 1750Carbon dioxide (ppm)280390.539.5Methane (ppb)7001871167.2Nitrous oxide (ppb)27032319.6CFC-11 (ppt)zero241 -CFC-12 (ppt)zero534 - 7Blassing (2012)Sources of carbon dioxide emissionMan made sourcesIndustries TransportationLand use changeBiomass burningSoil cultivation

831.6 GtSources of carbon dioxide emissionNatural sourcesVolcanoesWild firesDecompositionRespiration

9Carbon dioxide emission in top five countriesMillion tonnes per annum10Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, 2012 reportJULY 2012 391.07ppmJULY 2011 389.03ppm11National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2012

Trend in CO emission in India 12Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, 2012 report1.061.97OUTLINEIntroductionClimate changeImpact of climate change on agricultureCarbon sequestrationAgricultural management strategies for carbon sequestrationConclusions.13 CLIMATE CHANGE

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OUTLINEIntroductionClimate changeImpact of climate change on agricultureCarbon sequestrationAgricultural management strategies for carbon sequestrationConclusions.15 Impact on agriculture

16http://www.fao.org/NEWS/FACTFILE/FF9721-E.HTM

Climate change in India

Sharma and Sharma (2011)17The change in drought status 18

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2012Impact on apple plantation in Himachal Pradesh

Apple plantation at higher altitude due to climate change19

Impact of potential climate change on soil health

Climate change affects :Soil moisture regimesSoil temperature regimes SOC poolSoil vegetation20

Functions of the SOC pool:

On site functionsSource and sink of essential plant nutrientssubstrate for energy for soil biotaincrease cation exchange capacityabsorbent of water at low moisture potentialspromoter of soil aggregationhigh water infiltration capacity high Buffering capacitymoderator of soil temperature.

21Off site functionsReduces sediment load in streams and riversfilters pollutants of agricultural chemicalsreactors for biodegradation of contaminants andbuffers the emissions of GHGs from soil to the atmosphere.

22OUTLINEIntroductionClimate changeImpact of climate change on agricultureCarbon sequestrationAgricultural management strategies for carbon sequestrationConclusions.23CARBON SEQUESTRATION The term carbon sequestration is used to describe both natural and deliberate processes by which CO is either removed from the atmosphere or diverted from emission sources and stored in different sinks. 24CARBON SEQUESTRATION SINKSIn plants and soil terrestrial sequestrationUnderground geological sequestration Deep in ocean ocean sequestrationAs a solid material (still in development)

25SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATIONSoil can be a major source or sink of atmospheric CO.Soil carbon sequestration refers to the storage of carbon in soil.It is considered to be a strategy for mitigating climate change.

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SOIL :THE LARGEST TERRESTRIAL CARBON POOLThe global soil carbon pool amounts to 2500 GtThe total soil carbon pool is four times the biotic pool and three times the atmospheric poolLal (2004)Soil organic C stocks in soils of India have been estimated to be 21 Pg (upper 30 cm) and 63 Pg (upper 150 cm) Velayutham et al. (2000)271 tonne of carbon lost from soil 3.7 tonnes of CO to the atmosphere Climate change and agriculture (2012)Soil : as a sink of carbon sequestration

CarbonOutputCarbonInputSoilCarbonSequestration28OUTLINEIntroductionClimate changeImpact of climate change on agricultureCarbon sequestrationAgricultural management strategies for carbon sequestrationConclusions.29

Agricultural Management Strategies for Carbon SequestrationNutrient managementMulching Residue managementConservation tillageCrop rotationTree planting or agro- forestry30 NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT

31Long term effect of manure and fertilizers on total organic carbon (g kg-1) Manna et al. (2006)Barrackpore (West Bengal)32Long term effect of chemical fertilizers and amendments on SOC33 Kaushal (2006)Palampur

Soil organic carbon ( % ) as affected by the long term application of fertilizers and organics

TREATMENTS 0 30 (cm)T1 : (control)0.37T2 :100% NPK (fertilizers)0.46T3 :50% N (FYM )+ 50% through NPK (fertilizers)0.54T4 :50% N (wheat straw ) + 50% NPK (fertilizers)0.51T5 : 50% N green manure (sesbania aculeata) + 50% NPK (fertilizers)0.52Kumar et al. (2012)Hisar (Sandy loam )34Change in TOC (Mg ha-1) w.r.t. INM35BCKV, West Bengal(Sandy loam, pH- 7.2)Ghosh et al. (2012)Soil organic carbon (%) as influenced by organic nutrition Meena and Singh (2012)(Sandy clay loam, pH- 7.12) 36Varanasi ,UPEffects of amendments on soil organic carbon (%) of cocoa cultivated soilsTREATMENTS NON COCOA CULTIVATED SOILS5 - YEARS COCOA CULTIVATED SOILS7- YEARS COCOA CULTIVATED SOILST1: soil alone0.45 0.830.92T2: soil alone0.440.830.92T3: lime 0.410.770.87T4: fly ash0.460.860.94T5 : biochar0.771.121.21T6: FYM0.580.911.03T7: VM0.480.890.96 Vignesh et al. (2012)Moorje , Dakshinakannada (Karnataka)37MULCHING AND RESIDUE MANAGEMENT

38Soil organic carbon (0-30cm) as influenced by crop residues and FYM Aggarwal et al. (1997)Jodhpur (Loamy sand, pH- 8.0)39mg g-1 Change in soil organic carbon under lantana application Raina (2007)Palampur40Effect of straw management and tillage system on carbon sequestrationTreatment Organic carbon (%)C sequestered (% of added carbon)Straw burned- CT 0.35 - Straw burned- ZT 0.36 - Straw incorporated- CT 0.44 16.6Straw mulched- ZT 0.48 25.2Ludhiana (Sandy loam, pH- 7.85) Singh et al. (2009)41

Changes in soil carbon due to mulch additions in a shade coffee agro ecosystems

YEARNO MULCHMULCHNO MULCHMULCH Carbon (g kg-1 ) Carbon (Mg ha-1 )200628.328.353.953.9200829.239.049.164.7CHANGE0.910.7-4.810.8 Youkhana and Idol (2009)Hawaii (Vertic Haplustolls, pH- 6.0- 6.5)42CONSERVATION TILLAGE AND CROP ROTATION

43Tillage effects on soil organic carbon content (0 5cm) Yang and Kay (2001)44Canada Effect of tillage on Soil organic carbon (%) of 0- 15 cm soil TREATMENT2004- 20052005- 2006Conventional tillage1.221.22Reduced tillage1.221.2945Sudha and George (2011)Vellayani (Kerala) Clay loam, pH- 5.8Effect of tillage and crop rotation on soil organic carbon (Mg ha-1)Sainju et al. (2006)Clay loam4646Change in soil organic carbon under different cropping sequencesSequencesOrganic carbon (%)Rice(100) wheat(100)- 0.004Rice(100) lentil(100) 0.006Rice(75) lentil(100) 0.004Pigeon pea(100) wheat(100) 0.006Pigeon pea(100) wheat(75) 0.003Rice(100) wheat(100) - GM 0.010Rice(75) wheat(75) - GM 0.007Rice(50) wheat(50) - GM 0.001Singh et al. (1996)Pantnagar 47(over a period of 5 years)Soil organic carbon (Mg C ha-1) in a spring wheat- fallow and annual crop rotationHalvorson et al. (2002)Silt loam48(after 12yr)48Soil organic carbon (%) under different cropping systemsCROPPING SYSTEMS2004- 20052005- 2006Coconut + banana1.231.25Coconut + maize1.181.21Coconut + pineapple1.251.3049Sudha and George (2011)Vellayani (Kerala)Clay loam, pH- 5.8TREE PLANTING

50Changes of soil organic carbon as affected by land use practicesLand use system Initial OC (%)After 5 years OC (%)Sole crops 0.220.29Eucalyptus based system0.250.37Acacia based system0.280.48Poplar based system0.260.43 Singh et al. (1997)alkali soil (Karnal )51

Soil organic carbon under different tree species

TREE SPECIES Organic carbon (g kg-1 soil)Fallow 4.6Acacia ferugenia 9.6Albizzia lebbek 9.3Casuarina equisetifolia 12.6Dalbergia sissoo 14.4Inga dulse 10.5Eucalyptus hybrid10.8Pongamia pinnata10.5Glyricidia maculata11.4 Manjunatha et al. (2002)Saline waterlogged soil (Karnataka)52

Soil organic carbon for shelterbelt and cultivated fields

SOIL PROPERTY0 7.5 cm7.5 15 cmSHELTER BELTFIELDSSHELTER BELT FIELDSSOC (%)3.041.961.991.77Sauer et al. (2007)Silt loam53

Soil organic carbon (%) as influenced by poplar- based agro - forestry system

Gupta et al. (2009)Loamy sand54

Soil organic carbon (%) as influenced by poplar- based agro - forestry system

Sandy clayGupta et al. (2009)55

Accumulation of soil organic carbon under different tree species

Tree speciesOrganic C (%)Dek (S1)39.72Control (S1)29.17Shisham (S2)32.50Eucalyptus (S2)36.40Control (S2)27.22 Singh et al. (2011)PAU, Ludhiana56(0-120 cm)

Soil organic carbon (%) in adjacent, fringe, deep forest area

Thakare et al. (2012)Gadchiroli district (Maharashtra)57Soil organic carbon under different land use Negi and Gupta (2012) Chamoli district (Uttarakhand) 58Total organic carbon under different land use

Udawatta et al. (2009)59Missouri (USA) ed-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Carbon sequestration after new agricultura

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