Carbon Sequestration in crops and soil organic carbon
Post on 03-Jan-2016
DESCRIPTIONCarbon Sequestration in crops and soil organic carbon. Xavier Driver. Drylands in the northern Great Plains have lost 30 to 50% of their original soil organic carbon levels during the last 50 to 100 years due to continuous cultivation and summer fallowing (Upendra M. Sainju et al., 2005). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Carbon Sequestration in crops and soil organic carbonXavier Driver
Drylands in the northern Great Plains have lost 30 to 50% of their original soil organic carbon levels during the last 50 to 100 years due to continuous cultivation and summer fallowing (Upendra M. Sainju et al., 2005).
North America alone gives off 6,613Tg of CO2 each year, which is second in regions of the world to China, while the total world gives off 23,900Tg per year (Lemus, R. R., & Lal, R. R. (2005).
Bioenergy crops have the potential to sequester approximately 318 Tg C yr in the United States and1631 Tg C yr worldwide. (Lemus, R. et al 2005)
Switchgrass Panicam virgatum
Continuous TillingNo TillingFallowingNitrogen FixationCRP LandCrop rotationCultural PracticeSoil
Cultural practiceTwo cultural practices Regular-conventional seed rates and plant spacing, conventional planting date, broadcast N fertilization, and reduced stubble height Ecological-variable seed rates and plant spacing, delayed planting, banded N fertilization, and increased stubble height.
CRP programParticipants enroll in CRP contracts for 10 to 15 years.CRP protects millions of acres of American topsoil from erosion and is designed to safeguard the Nation's natural resources. By reducing water runoff and sedimentation, CRP protects groundwater and helps improve the condition of lakes, rivers, ponds, and streams. Acreage enrolled in the CRP is planted to resource-conserving vegetative covers, making the program a major contributor to increased wildlife populations in many parts of the country.
Crop RotationsContinuous spring wheat (CW), spring wheat-fallow (W-F), spring wheat-lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.) (W-L), spring wheat-spring wheat-fallow (W-W-F), and spring wheat-pea (Pisum sativum L.)-fallow (W-P-F) in Havre, MT.
Continuous Tilling to No Tilling, on land that was recently used as Conservation Reserve Program land, can sequester an average of 570140 kg C ha1 yr1 (Upendra M. Sainju et al., 2005).
Although no-tillage and ecological cultural practice increased surface residue amount and C and N contents compared with conventional tillage and regular cultural practice, they did not influence soil C and N (Upendra M. Sainju et al 2007)
Switchgrass Panicam virgatum
Switch grass grown on Conservation Reserve Program land with less than 112 kg ammonium nitrate showed increased carbon sequestration at the 0-5 cm level and also at 30-90 cm levels(Lee, D. K., et al., 2007).
Soil C was sequestered at a rate of 2.4 0.9 and 4.0 1.0 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 at the 0- to 90-cm depth with NH4NO3-N and manure-N, respectively(Lee, D. K., et al., 2007).
Despite the differences in soil and climate among sites, the NT had a higher concentration and total mass of C and N in the surface 5 cm relative to the tilled system (Fabrizzi, K. P. et al 2009).
Microbial biomass was greater under NT than T in the Oxisol and Mollisol, but was similar among treatments in the Vertisol (Fabrizzi, K. P. et al 2009).
Lemus, R. R., & Lal, R. R. (2005). Bioenergy Crops and Carbon Sequestration. Critical Reviews In Plant Sciences, 24(1), 1-21. doi:10.1080/07352680590910393Sainju, U. M., Lenssen, A., & Caesar-Thonthat, T. (2006). Carbon Sequestration in Dryland Soils and Plant Residue as Influenced by Tillage and Crop Rotation. Journal Of Environmental Quality, 35(4), 1341-1347Song, Y., Ding, X. X., Zheng, D. D., & Li, Q. Q. (2007). Depiction of the Variations of Great Plains Precipitation and Its Relationship with Tropical Central-Eastern Pacific SST. Journal Of Applied Meteorology & Climatology, 46(2), 136-153. doi:10.1175/JAM2455.1Fuhlendorf, S., Zhang, H., Tunnell, T., Engle, D., & Cross, A. (2002). Effects of Grazing on Restoration of Southern Mixed Prairie Soils. Restoration Ecology, 10(2), 401-407. doi:10.1046/j.1526-100X.2002.00013.xLee, D. K., Owens, V. N., & Doolittle, J. J. (2007). Switchgrass and Soil Carbon Sequestration Response to Ammonium Nitrate, Manure, and Harvest Frequency on Conservation Reserve Program Land. Agronomy Journal, 99(2), 462-468Fabrizzi, K. P., Rice, C. W., Amado, T. C., Fiorin, J., Barbagelata, P., & Melchiori, R. (2009). Protection of soil organic C and N in temperate and tropical soils: effect of native and agroecosystems. Biogeochemistry, 92(1/2), 129-143. doi:10.1007/swww.fsa.usda.govSainju, U. M., Lenssen, A. W., Caesar-TonThat, T., Jabro, J. D., Lartey, R. T., Evans, R. G., & Allen, B. L. (2011). Dryland residue and soil organic matter as influenced by tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice. Plant & Soil, 338(1/2), 27-41. doi:10.1007/s11104-010-0403-5